Inter-caste marriages in India

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The inter-caste marriages in India have been gradually gaining acceptance due to increasing education, employment, middle-class economic background, and urbanisation[citation needed]. As of the 2011 census, 5.8% of the marriages in India were inter-caste marriages.[1][2]

In India, inter-caste marriages were publicly encouraged and supported by the incumbent government under Narendra Modi by the offering of financial encouragement to those who marry people from lower castes,[3] C. N. Annadurai, the former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu,[4] and social activists such as Periyar E. V. Ramasamy,[5][need quotation to verify] Raghupathi Venkataratnam Naidu[citation needed] and Manthena Venkata Raju.[citation needed] In the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, the Government offers a cash award for inter-caste couples.[6] The Supreme Court of India has also declared that inter-caste marriages are in the national interest and a unifying factor for the nation[7] and there has never been a bar on inter-caste or inter-religion marriages in independent India.[8]

In 2017, the Prime minister Narendra Modi started a scheme in which 2.5 lakh, that is 250,000 rupees will be given to inter-caste couples if one of them is a Dalit.[3]

Statistics and surveys[edit]

According to the 2017 Study conducted by the Indian Statistical Institute, inter-caste marriages are more frequent in Rural areas (5.2%) than Urban areas (4.9%). The Survey also found that the inter-caste marriages are more common among poor people (5.9%) than rich people (4.0%).[1]

According to the Studies conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic Research in 2016, about 5% of the marriages in India are inter-caste marriages. Mizoram had the highest number of inter-caste marriages, where about 55% of the marriages were inter-caste marriages and Madhya Pradesh had the lowest number of inter-caste marriages, where only 1% of the marriages were inter-caste marriage.[9]

According to a survey, the education of the husband's mother has a significant effect on inter-caste marriages. The probability of inter-caste marriages was found to increase by 36% with a 10-year increase in education of the husband's mother.[10][dubious ]

In a 2010 report, the National Commission for Women (NCW) documented 326 cases of honour crime in the past year, the majority of which were due to inter-caste marriages.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Tish Sanghera (22 October 2020). "Inter-caste marriages depend on education level, but not that of the couple". Business Standard. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  2. ^ 'Caste no bar', in words if not in action
  3. ^ a b "Modi government push for inter-caste marriages; offers Rs 2.5 lakh for marrying Dalit". Financial Express. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Love in the time of caste". The Hindu. 27 July 2013. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  5. ^ Anita Diehl. (1977). E. V. Ramaswami Periyar. A study of the influence of a personality in contemporary South India, Scandinavian University Books: Sweden. ISBN 91-24-27645-6.
  6. ^ India: Cash reward offered for inter-caste marriages
  7. ^ "Lawyer's Collective". Archived from the original on 10 September 2015.
  8. ^ "Infochange India". Archived from the original on 2 October 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  9. ^ Prachi Salve and Saumya Tewari (11 May 2016). "Mizoram Has Highest Number of Inter-Caste Marriages in India With 55%". The Wire. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  10. ^ ARKA ROY CHAUDHURI, TRIDIP RAY and KOMAL SAHAI (20 October 2020). "Chances of an inter-caste marriage go up if groom's mother is educated, study". Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  11. ^ Tandon, Aditi (5 July 2010). "Inter-caste ties behind most honour crimes. Just 3% cases due to same gotra marriages, says new survey". The Tribune (India). Retrieved 14 February 2015.

External links[edit]