Interactive video

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term interactive video usually refers to a technique used to blend interaction and linear film or video.


In 1962, Steve Russell, a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), created Spacewar!, the world's first interactive computer game.[1]

In 1967, the first interactive film, The Cinema Machine, was released.[2] While watching this film, the audience in the cinema theatre would choose one of two scenes during the plot fork. Switching between scenes was done manually by the projectionist.

In 1972, Philips introduced the first laser disc (LD).[3] Laser disc technology allowed for playback of any video chapter, making interactive video possible.[4]

In 1983, Sega released Astron Belt, the first interactive arcade game on LD.[5] Also released in 1983 was Cinematronics's LD animated Dragon's Lair.

During the 1990s, several interactive Video CD formats were available such as CD-i (Compact Disc-Interactive) and Digital Video Interactive (DVI).

Since 2000, the LD format has been superseded by the DVD format.

In 2008, YouTube added an interactive annotation feature to videos. This feature was disabled in 2019.[6]

Netflix started releasing interactive animations in 2016.[7]

TikTok announces support for interactive effects in 2021.[8]

Interactive video[edit]

Interactive video (also known as "IV") is a form of digital video that supports user interaction.[9] Interactive videos provide the viewer the ability to click, on a desktop, or touch on mobile devices within the video for an action to occur. These clickable areas, or "hotspots," can perform an action when clicked or touched. For example, the video may display additional information, jump to a different part of the video or another video,[10] or may change the storyline.[11]

"Hotspots" In Video[edit]

One popular use of interactive video technology is to add clickable points or 'hotspots' to the video. These hotspots allow the viewer to learn more about a particular object, product, or person in the video. A hotspot can trigger content to appear within the video such as text, images, videos or additional web content can be set within an iframe.

"Customizable" online interactive videos[edit]

Customizable videos allow the user to adjust some variables and then play a video customised to the user's particular preferences. However the user does not actually interact with the video while it is playing. Recent examples of this form of video include:

"Conversational" online interactive videos[edit]

Conversational videos allow the user to interact with a video in a turn-based manner, almost as though the user was having a simple conversation with the characters in the video. Recent examples include:

"Exploratory" online interactive videos[edit]

Exploratory videos allow the user to move through a space or look at an object such as an artwork from multiple angles, almost as though the user was looking at the object in real life. The object or space is depicted using video loops, not still, creating a more "live" feel. Recent examples include:

  • The BT Series - Interactive video exploration of the works of Tracey Emin, Anthony Gormley and Rachel Whiteread. Created for the Tate Gallery by Martin Percy. Webby Nominee 2006[16] and Honoree 2007.[17]
  • Tate Tracks - Interactive video exploration of various works, allowing the user to listen to music while looking at art. Created for the Tate Gallery by Martin Percy. Part of integrated campaign winning Cannes Gold Lion 2007.[18]

Interactive video in early computer games[edit]

The term interactive video or interactive movie sometimes refers to a nowadays uncommon technique used to create computer games or interactive narratives. Instead of 3D computer graphics an interactive image flow is created using premade video clips, often produced by overlaying computer-generated material with 12-inch videodisc images (where the setup is known as "level III" interactive video, to distinguish it from "level I" or videodisc-only, and "level II" requiring specially made videodisc players that support handheld-remote-based interactivity without using an external computer setup). The clips can be animation like in the video game Dragon's Lair or live action video like in the video game Night Trap. Compared to other computer graphics techniques interactive video tends to emphasize the looks and movement of interactive characters instead of interactivity.

Interactive video in YouTube[edit]

In 2008 YouTube added Video Annotations as an interactive layer of clickable speech-bubble, text-boxes and spotlights. Users may add interactive annotations to their videos and by that a new trend of interactive videos arose, including choose-your-own-adventure video series, online video games using YouTube videos, spot-the-difference-game videos, animal-dubbing and more. In 2009 YouTube added a community aspect to its Video Annotations feature by allowing video owners to invite their friends and community to add annotations to their movies.

Around 2010 YouTube released the interactive takeovers, certain channels had the opportunity to integrate an iFrame experience enabling them to include interactive videos. Some of the most successful takeovers were done by brands such as Samsung, Tipp-Ex or Chrome.[19]

YouTube discontinued the use of annotations on January 15, 2019.[20]

Interactive video in advertising[edit]

In 2014, video marketing platform Innovid was awarded a U.S. patent for interactive video technology.[21]

In 2017, the interactive video agency Adways created a specific format called InContent that enables to add interactive ads on a live stream for Roland-Garros.[22]

Interactive video art[edit]

Contemporary interactive video artists like Miroslaw Rogala, Greyworld, Raymond Salvatore Harmon, Lee Wells, Camille Utterback, Scott Snibbe, and Alex Horn have extended the form of interactive video through the dialog of gesture and the participatory involvement of both active and passive viewers. Perpetual art machine is a video art portal and interactive video installation that integrates over 1000 international video artists into a single interactive large scale video experience.

Interactive video in VJing[edit]

Technically VJing is also about creating a stream of video interactively. this involves the user/operator to mix video clips, runtime plugins, and FX to the music's mood, bpm, and vibe.

Interactive video in research[edit]

The human-computer interaction (HCI) research community as well as the multimedia research community have published several works on video interaction tools. A survey is provided in [23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "STEVE RUSSELL". Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  2. ^ "Interactive content developers guide for entertainment & film industry". Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  3. ^ "1972: OPTICAL LASER DISC PLAYER IS DEMONSTRATED". Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  4. ^ "A video game that presents its gameplay in a cinematic, scripted manner, often through the use of a full-motion video of either animated or live-action footage". 7 July 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  5. ^ "Astron Belt". 22 February 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  6. ^ "Hello, YouTube Cards. Goodbye, YouTube Annotations!". 18 October 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  7. ^ "10 best interactive Netflix specials that let you be a part of the action". 22 April 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  8. ^ "As competition heats up, TikTok announces six new interactive music effects for creators". 7 April 2021. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  9. ^ "Interactive Video Definition".
  10. ^ "Interactive Video Definition".
  11. ^ "Interactive Video: The Next Big Thing in Mobile". 28 October 2013.
  12. ^ "固原恼藕物联网科技有限公司" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2007.
  13. ^ BAFTA nominations 2007
  14. ^ "Want to chat with Shimon Peres? | The Times of Israel". The Times of Israel.
  15. ^ "Interactive Web Video On Featuring Jon Hamm - Peter Kafka - Media - AllThingsD".
  16. ^ "Webby Awards". Archived from the original on 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2008-11-04. Webby nomination 2006 for The BT Series with Tracey Emin
  17. ^ Webby honoree 2007 for The BT Series
  18. ^ "Canneslions Live 2007". Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 2007 Cannes Gold Lion for Integrated Campaigns
  19. ^ Fisher, Lauren (2011-04-04). "The 6 Best YouTube Brand Takeovers". The Next Web. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
  20. ^ "YouTube annotations will disappear for good in January - The Verge". 27 November 2018.
  21. ^ Sullivan, Laurie (April 3, 2015). "Innovid's Video Patent Helps Leverage Online Ad Options". MediaPost. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  22. ^ "Innovation Roland-Garros : " le live In-content"". May 28, 2017.
  23. ^ Klaus Schoeffmann, Marco A. Hudelist, and Jochen Huber. 2015. Video Interaction Tools: A Survey of Recent Work. ACM Comput. Surv. 48, 1, Article 14 (September 2015), 34 pages.