Interfaith marriage

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Interfaith marriage, sometimes called a "mixed marriage", is marriage between spouses professing different religions. Although interfaith marriages are most often established as civil marriages, in some instances they may be established as a religious marriage. This depends on religious doctrine of each of the two parties' religions; some prohibit interfaith marriage, and among others there are varying degrees of permissibility.

Several major religions are mute on the issue, and still others allow it with requirements for ceremony and custom. For ethno-religious groups, resistance to interfaith marriage may be a form of self-segregation.

In an interfaith marriage, each partner typically adheres to their own religion. One issue which can arise in such unions is the choice of faith in which to raise the children.

Legal status[edit]

Human right[edit]

According to Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, men and women who have attained the age of majority have the right to marry "without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion".[1] Although most of Article 16 is incorporated verbatim in Article 23 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the references to religious and racial limitations is omitted.[2] Article 17, clause two of the American Convention on Human Rights says that all men and women have the right to marry, subject to the conditions of domestic law "insofar as such conditions do not affect the principle of nondiscrimination established in this Convention."[3]

United States[edit]

According to the Pew Research Center Religious Landscape Study, interfaith marriage is increasingly common in the United States, accounting for 39% of marriages since 2010.[4]

Joan Boocock Lee, an Episcopalian British-American actress married to a Jewish husband, stated that in the mid-twentieth-century United States the couple faced difficulty adopting a child.[5]

India[edit]

Interfaith marriage is controversial in some areas, especially disapproval of relationships between Hindus and Muslims (where in some cases non-Muslims are required to convert to complete the marriage) by conservative Muslims. Advertisements and films depicting Hindu-Muslim relationships have attracted condemnation and legal action.[6] Hindu-Muslim couples have experienced harassment, including posting personal details on social media.[7] In 2020 and 2021, several Indian states with BJP governments passed laws prohibiting forced conversions, and requiring notification of intent to marry and a waiting period, and allowing anyone to object to the union. Interfaith marriages have been taken as an inherent indication of a forced conversion, despite some individuals stating they will not be converting in order to marry.[8] The laws have been used to arrest and in some cases torture Muslim men who have married Hindu women.[9] Fearing vigilante violence and after facing long delays and uncooperative lawyers and government officials, some couples have fled to other states to get married, often losing their jobs.[10][11] In August 2021, the Gujarat High Court limited the scope of that state's law on the grounds of freedom of religion.[8]

The laws, associated with Hindu nationalism, affect couples who avoid arranged marriages, which are still most common and where families typically choose partners from the same Hindu caste.[12] It also follows the growth of the Islamophobic Love Jihad conspiracy theory among Hindu nationals. The theory posits (despite lack of evidence) an international conspiracy for Muslim men to seduce Hindu women into conversion to increase the Muslim population and replace Hindus.[12]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Religion in Saudi Arabia is severely restricted, with the Wahhabi Islam as the state religion. Public celebration or advocacy of any other religion is generally prohibited. Atheism and blasphemy against Islam are punishable by death, but private celebration of other religions is allowed despite occasional harassment. All immigrants seeking Saudi citizenship must convert to Islam.

Israel[edit]

In Israel, marriages are performed by delegated religious authorities and people must marry people with the same religion. Interfaith marriages are not allowed domestically[13] but interfaith marriages performed in other countries are recognized.[14]

By religion[edit]

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

According to the Baháʼí Faith, all religions are inspired by God and interfaith marriage is permitted. A Baháʼí ceremony should be performed with the non-Baháʼí rite (or ceremony). If both ceremonies are performed, the non-Baháʼí ceremony should not invalidate the Baháʼí ceremony; the Baháʼí partner remains a Baháʼí, and is not adopting the religion of the other partner in the ceremony. The Baháʼí partner should also abstain from vows (or statements) committing them to a declaration of faith in another religion or that are contrary to the principles of the Baháʼí Faith. The two ceremonies should be performed on the same day; their order is not important. The Baháʼí ceremony may be performed in the place of worship of the other religion if it is afforded respect equal to the non-Baháʼí ceremony and is clearly distinct from the non-Baháʼí ceremony.

Christianity[edit]

A Lutheran priest in Germany marries a young couple in a church.

In Christianity, an interfaith marriage is a marriage between a baptized Christian and a non-baptized person (e.g. a wedding between a Christian man and Jewish woman); it is to be distinguished between an interdenominational marriage in which two baptized Christians belonging to two different Christian denominations marry, e.g. a wedding between a Lutheran Christian and a Catholic Christian. Almost all Christian denominations permit interdenominational marriages, though with respect to interfaith marriage, many Christian denominations caution against it, citing verses of the Christian Bible that prohibit it such as 2 Corinthians 6:14–15, while certain Christian denominations have made allowances for interfaith marriage, which is referenced in 1 Corinthians 7:14–15, verses where Saint Paul addresses originally non-Christian couples in which one of the spouses became a Christian after the marriage had taken place.[15][16][17][18] The consensus of the early Church Fathers was that "interreligious marriage undermined the ecclesiological integrity of the Christian community" though as Christianity rapidly spread, cases would arise among non-Christian couples in which one person converted to Christianity; Apostolic Tradition, an early Christian Church Order, references an interfaith couple in its instructions on Christian prayer at the seven fixed prayer times and the ablutions preceding them, stating:[19][20]

Around midnight rise and wash your hands with water and pray. If you are married, pray together. But if your spouse is not yet baptized, go into another room to pray, and then return to bed. Do not hesitate to pray, for one who has been joined in marital relations is not impure.[20]

In early Christianity, the Church of the East, in the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon in AD 410, ruled that "Christian women should not marry across religious boundaries" though it allowed for Christian men to marry "women of all nations" (neshē men kul 'ammin) in order that Christian men would "instruct them in the ways of Christianity."[19] The cultural context at the time was that a couple's children would follow the religion of the father.[21]

In the Presbyterian Church (USA), the local church congregation is tasked with supporting and including the interfaith couple in the life of the Church, "help[ing] parents make and live by commitments about the spiritual nurture of their children", and being inclusive of the children of the interfaith couple.[22] The pastor is to be available to help and counsel the interfaith couple in their life journey.[22]

The Catholic Church recognizes as sacramental, (1) the marriages between two baptized Protestants or between two baptized Orthodox Christians, as well as (2) marriages between baptized non-Catholic Christians and Catholic Christians,[23] although in the latter case, consent from the diocesan bishop must be obtained, with this termed "permission to enter into a mixed marriage".[24] To illustrate (1), for example, "if two Lutherans marry in the Lutheran Church in the presence of a Lutheran minister, the Catholic Church recognizes this as a valid sacrament of marriage."[23] On the other hand, although the Catholic Church recognizes marriages between two non-Christians or those between a Catholic Christian and a non-Christian, these are not considered to be sacramental, and in the latter case, the Catholic Christian must seek permission from his/her bishop for the marriage to occur; this permission is known as "dispensation from disparity of cult".[25]

In Methodist Christianity, the 2014 Book of Discipline of the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection discourages interfaith marriages, stating "Many Christians have married unconverted persons. This has produced bad effects; they have either been hindered for life, or have turned back to perdition."[26] Though the United Methodist Church authorizes its clergy to preside at interfaith marriages, it notes that 2 Corinthians 6:14 has been interpreted "as at least an ideal if not an absolute ban on such [interfaith] marriages as an issue of scriptural faithfulness, if not as an issue of Christian survival."[27] At the same time, for those already in an interfaith marriage (including cases in which there is a non-Christian couple and one party converts to Christianity after marriage), the Church notes that Saint Paul "addresses persons married to unbelievers and encourages them to stay married (see 1 Corinthians 7:12–16)."[27] The Wesleyan Holiness Association of Churches teaches that "For a Christian to marry an unbeliever is unscriptural. If one does marry an unconverted party and trouble follows, he/she cannot blame God for his/her wrongdoing but must expect to pay the penalty, for the marriage covenant is morally binding so long as both live and, therefore, may not be dissolved at will (1 Corinthians 7:39)."[28]

Hinduism[edit]

In Hinduism, spiritual texts like Vedas do not have any views on interfaith marriages by differentiating between people of different religions .[29] This is because there was no known religion in old times when Vedas were written .[30] Law books like Manusmriti, Yajnavalkya Smriti, and Parashara speak of marriage rules among various kulas and gotras i.e. marriage outside varna(nowadays:caste). Manusmriti versions are numerous as the original is not preserved but it represents one of the oldest attempts to formally regulate the secular society of India. It is not a religious text. According to the varna system, marriage is normally between two individuals of the same varna but marrying outside varna is also feasible. Ancient Hindu literature identified four varnas: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. In ancient India, this varna system was strictly professional division based on one's profession but nowadays people have made this system according to hereditary.

Islam[edit]

In Sunni Islam, a primary legal concern is that the offspring of an interfaith marriage between a Muslim and a non-Muslim are to be Muslim offspring, and raised as such. Sharia, thus, has differing regulations on interfaith marriage, depending on, firstly, what is the gender of the prospective intermarrying Muslim, and secondly, what non-Muslim religion is adhered to by the person that a Muslim is seeking to intermarry with. Islamic Law permits a Muslim man to marry non-Muslim women provided that they are from among the People of the Book (i.e. female Christians or female Jews). Additionally, they must have been chaste, and orthodox Islam mandates that all children be brought up Muslim. Beyond this exemption, a Muslim man may not intermarry with females who are not from among the People of the Book unless they convert to Islam (which is not required of Christian females and Jewish females). Thus, Muslim men are prohibited from intermarrying, for instance, Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, etc., as well as pagans or atheists, unless the man/woman converts to Islam. Sikhs are monotheist, but are not people of the book (Jews or Christians). If any non-Muslim converts, it would no longer be considered intermarriage, but a marriage between Muslims, and thus not prohibited. In the case of a Muslim-Christian marriage, which is to be contracted only after permission from the Christian party, the Christian spouse is not to be prevented from attending church for prayer and worship, according to the Ashtiname of Muhammad, a treaty between Muslims and Christians recorded between Muhammad and Saint Catherine's Monastery.[31][32]

The tradition of progressive Islam permits marriage between Muslim women and non-Muslim men; Islamic scholars opining this view include Khaleel Mohammed, Daayiee Abdullah, Hassan Al-Turabi, among others.[33]

On the other hand, according to the orthodox understanding of interfaith marriage in Islam, Muslim women are forbidden from intermarrying based on Islamic law.[34][35][36][37] This is understood to be irrespective of whether or not she wishes to marry a male from among the People of the Book (i.e. a male Christian or Jew) or a male of any other religion. Based on this interpretation, this would not apply if the non-Muslim man converted to Islam, as the Muslim woman would no longer be considered to be intermarrying, but marrying a Muslim man. Additionally, she may only be married to one Muslim man at any one time (i.e. she may not have multiple husbands at the same time). The Quran states, “And do not marry Al-Mushrikaat (idolatresses) till they believe (worship Allah Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al‑Mushrikoon till they believe (in Allaah Alone) and verily, a believing slave is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolater), even though he pleases you. Those (Al-Mushrikoon) invite you to the Fire, but Allaah invites (you) to Paradise and forgiveness by His Leave, and makes His Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember”[al-Baqarah 2:221]

Early jurists in the most-prominent schools of Islamic jurisprudence ruled in fiqh that the marriage of a Muslim man to a Christian or Jewish woman is makruh (disapproved) if they live in a non-Muslim country. Umar (634–644) denied interfaith marriage to Muslim men during his command of the ummah.[38] According to the Quran,

Today the good things are made lawful for you, and the food of the ones to whom the Book was brought is lawful to you, and your food is made lawful to them. And (so) are believing women in wedlock, and in wedlock women of (the ones) to whom the Book was brought even before you when you have brought them their rewards in wedlock, other than in fornication, neither taking them to yourselves as mates (i.e., girl-friends). And whoever disbelieves in belief, (i.e., the religion) then his deed has been frustrated and in the Hereafter, he is among the losers. (Surah 5:5)

Scholar Ahmad Kutty of Toronto has expressed disapproval of interfaith marriage, citing Umar.[38] According to scholar Bilal Philips, the verse permitting Muslim men to marry non-Muslim women is no longer valid for several reasons (including its misinterpretation).[39] Canadian Islamic scholar Shabir Ally has also said that it is makruh for a Muslim man to marry outside his religion.[40] This prohibition preserves and expands Islam in patriarchal, multi-faith societies. It ensures that over a number of generations, Islam would gain in numbers relative to other religions.[41]

If a non-Muslim woman married to non-Muslim converts to Islam, the marriage is suspended until her husband converts to Islam; she could theoretically leave the non-Muslim husband and marry a Muslim one, analogous to the Pauline privilege for Catholic Christians. If the non-Muslim husband converts, a new marriage is not needed. According to the Quran,

O ye who believe! When there come to you believing women refugees, examine (and test) them: Allah knows best as to their Faith: if ye ascertain that they are Believers, then send them not back to the Unbelievers. They are not lawful (wives) for the Unbelievers, nor are the (Unbelievers) lawful (husbands) for them. But pay the Unbelievers what they have spent (on their dower), and there will be no blame on you if ye marry them on payment of their dower to them. But hold not to the guardianship of unbelieving women: ask for what ye have spent on their dowers, and let the (Unbelievers) ask for what they have spent (on the dowers of women who come over to you). Such is the command of Allah. He judges (with justice) between you. And Allah is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom. (Surah 60:10)

Judaism[edit]

Interfaith marriage in Judaism was historically viewed with disfavor by Jewish leaders, and it remains controversial. The Talmud and poskim prohibit non-Jews to marry Jews, and discuss when the prohibition is from the Torah and when it is rabbinical.[42] In 1236, Moses of Coucy encouraged Jewish men who had married Christian or Muslim women to divorce them.[43] In 1844, the reform Rabbinical Conference of Brunswick permitted Jews to marry "any adherent of a monotheistic religion" if children of the marriage were raised Jewish.[44] This conference was controversial; one of its resolutions called on members to abolish the Kol Nidre prayer, which opens the Yom Kippur service.[45] One member of the conference later changed his opinion, becoming an opponent of intermarriage.[46]

Traditional Judaism does not consider marriage between a Jew by birth and a convert as intermarriage;[47][48][49] Biblical passages which apparently support intermarriage, such as that of Joseph to Asenath and Ruth to Boaz, were regarded by classical rabbis as having occurred after the non-Jewish spouse had converted.[50] Some still considered Canaanites forbidden to marry even after conversion, although this did not necessarily apply to their children.[51]

Orthodox Judaism refuses to accept intermarriage, and tries to avoid facilitating them. Conservative Judaism does not sanction intermarriage, but encourages acceptance of the non-Jewish spouse by the family in the hope that such acceptance will lead to the spouse's conversion to Judaism.[52] In December 2014 the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's United Synagogue Youth controversially modified a binding rule that its leaders would not date non-Jews, replacing it with a "recogni[tion of] the importance of dating within the Jewish community."[53]

Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism do not generally regard the authority of classical rabbis; many rabbis from these denominations are willing to officiate at interfaith marriages,[54][55] although they try to persuade intermarried couples to raise their children as Jews. In 1870, some Reform Jews published the opinion that intermarriage is prohibited.[56]

In 2015 the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College voted to accept rabbinical students in interfaith relationships, making Reconstructionist Judaism the first movement within Judaism to allow rabbis to have relationships with non-Jewish partners.[57] Humanistic Judaism is a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life, defining Judaism as the cultural and historical experience of the Jewish people. The Society for Humanistic Judaism answers the question, "Is intermarriage contributing to the demise of Judaism?" on its website: "Intermarriage is the positive consequence of a free and open society. If the Jewish community is open, welcoming, embracing, and pluralistic, we will encourage more people to identify with the Jewish people rather than fewer. Intermarriage could contribute to the continuity of the Jewish people."[58]

During the early 19th century, intermarriage was relatively rare; less than one-tenth of one percent of the Jews of Algeria, for example, practiced exogamy.[59] Since the early 20th century, rates of Jewish intermarriage have increased. In the United States from 1996 to 2001, nearly half (47 percent) of marriages involving Jews were intermarriages with non-Jewish partners[60] (a similar proportion—44 percent—as in the early 20th century in New South Wales).[61]

In Israel, the religious authorities, which are the only entities authorized to perform weddings in Israel, are prohibited from marrying couples unless both partners share the same religion. Therefore, interfaith couples can be legally married in Israel only if one of the partners converts to the religion of the other.[14]

Serer religion[edit]

In orthodox Serer religion (an ethnoreligious faith), interfaith and interracial marriages are forbidden. Banishment and disinheritance may be levied against a Serer who disobeys the law.[62] The Serer-Noon (a sub-group of the Serer people) adhere strongly to this teaching.[62]

Sikhism[edit]

Some gurdwaras allow weddings between a Sikh and a non-Sikh, but others oppose it. In 2014, the Sikh Council in the UK developed a consistent approach towards marriages in Gurdwaras where one partner is not of Sikh origin, following a two-year consultation with Gurdwara Sahib Committees, Sikh Organisations, and individuals. The resulting guidelines were approved by the General Assembly of Sikh Council UK on 11 October 2014, and state that Gurdwaras are encouraged to ensure that both parties to an Anand Karaj wedding are Sikhs, but that where a couple chooses to undertake a civil marriage they should be offered the opportunity to hold an Ardas, Sukhmani Sahib Path, Akhand Path, or other service to celebrate their marriage in the presence of family and friends.[63] Some gurdwaras permit mixed marriages, which has led to controversy.

Zoroastrianism[edit]

Some traditional Zoroastrians in India disapprove of and discourage interfaith marriages, and female adherents who marry outside the faith are often considered to be excommunicated. When a female adherent marries a partner from another religion, they go through the risk of not being able to enter the Agyaris and Atash Behrams. In the past, their partner and children were forbidden from entering Zoroastrian religious buildings; this is often still observed. A loophole was found to avoid such expulsion: the offspring (especially born out of wedlock) of a Parsi man and a non-Parsi woman were often "adopted" by the Parsi father and tacitly accepted into the religion. Alternatively in a few cases such as that of Suzanne RD Tata, the non-Zoroastrian spouse has been allowed to convert Zoroastrianism by undergoing the navjote ritual [64] Interfaith marriages may skew Zoroastrian demographics, since the number of adherents is low.

According to Indian law (where most Parsis live), only the father of the child must be a Zoroastrian for the child (or children) to be accepted into the faith. This has been debated, since the religion promotes gender equality (which the law violates). Zoroastrians in North America and Europe defy the rule, and children of a non-Zoroastrian father are accepted as Zoroastrians.

Sacred music[edit]

In modern times various composers have written sacred music for use during interfaith marriage ceremonies including:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  2. ^ "UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  3. ^ "AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS". cidh.org. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  4. ^ "Interfaith marriage is common in U.S., particularly among the recently wed". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  5. ^ Joan Boocock Lee; Stan Lee (2010). With Great Power: The Stan Lee Story. Event occurs at 0:47:20. OCLC 1038407559.
  6. ^ The problem with India’s ‘love jihad’ laws
  7. ^ To Harass Hindu-Muslim Couples, Rightwing Activists Are Now Using Their Marriage Documents
  8. ^ a b Indian court strikes down provisions against interfaith marriage
  9. ^ Muslims targeted under Indian state's 'love jihad' law
  10. ^ A New Law In India Is Making It Harder For Interfaith Couples To Get Married
  11. ^ India's interfaith couples on edge after new law
  12. ^ a b 'Love jihad': Indian states want to pass laws to prevent interfaith marriages. The move is unconstitutional and misogynistic
  13. ^ Hanna Lerner (2011). Making Constitutions in Deeply Divided Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-139-50292-4.
  14. ^ a b Michel Chabin 2013-06-13 Married On The Mediterranean — But Not In Israel The Jewish Week. Retrieved 2015-10-01
  15. ^ Soards, Marion L. (1999). New International Biblical Commentary: 1 Corinthians. Hendrickson. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-943575-97-1. Although the church has attempted to work from these lines in formulating policies about so-called mixed marriages, the present verses do not deal with the majority of interfaith marriages as we know them in the late twentieth century. Paul is writing to first-century, first-generation converts, many of whom had religious backgrounds in paganism and many of whom might have spouses who were not believers.
  16. ^ Lukito, Ratno (6 August 2012). Legal Pluralism in Indonesia: Bridging the Unbridgeable. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-136-28557-8. Furthermore, from the judges' understanding of Christian teaching, interfaith marriage is similarly disallowed in the New Testament (2 Corinthians 6:14).
  17. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (2012). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE. p. 563. ISBN 978-0-7619-2729-7. ... most Christian churches support members who take part in intermarriage, citing 1 Corinthians 7:12-14.
  18. ^ Hurtado, Larry W. (2 November 2005). "To Live and Die for Jesus: Social and Political Consequences of Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity". How on Earth Did Jesus Become a God? Historical Questions about Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, UK: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-8028-2861-3.
  19. ^ a b Weitz, Lev E. (24 May 2018). Between Christ and Caliph: Law, Marriage, and Christian Community in Early Islam. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-8122-5027-5.
  20. ^ a b Hippolytus. "Apostolic Tradition" (PDF). St. John's Episcopal Church. p. 16. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  21. ^ Sahanam, L. E. (2009). Belonging But Not Believing: Interfaith Marriage. ISPCK. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-8458-088-4.
  22. ^ a b Interfaith Marriage. Presbyterian Church (USA). 6 October 2010. p. 2.
  23. ^ a b Foster, Michael Smith (1999). Annulment. Paulist Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780809138449. The Catholic Church considers marriages of baptized Protestants to be valid marriages. So if two Lutherans marry in the Lutheran Church in the presence of a Lutheran minister, the Catholic Church recognizes this as a valid sacrament of marriage.
  24. ^ Burke, John (1999). Catholic Marriage. Paulines Publications Africa. p. 98. ISBN 9789966081063. We might remind ourselves here that a marriage between a Catholic and a baptized person that takes place in the Catholic Church, or in another Church with permission from the diocesan bishop, is a sacramental union. Such a marriage is a life-long union and no power on earth can dissolve it.
  25. ^ "Are non-Catholic marriages valid in the eyes of the Catholic Church? What if a Catholic marries a non-Catholic?". Catholic Answers. 1996. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2015. Supernatural marriages exist only between baptized people, so marriages between two Jews or two Muslims are only natural marriages. Assuming no impediments, marriages between Jews or Muslims would be valid natural marriages. Marriages between two Protestants or two Eastern Orthodox also would be valid, presuming no impediments, but these would be supernatural (sacramental) marriages and thus indissoluble.
  26. ^ The Discipline of the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection (Original Allegheny Conference). Salem: Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection. 2014. p. 33.
  27. ^ a b Burton-Edwards, Taylor (2010). "Interfaith Marriage: Pastoral Discernment and Responsibility". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  28. ^ Declaration of Principles: Manual of the Wesleyan Holiness Association of Churches. Wesleyan Holiness Association of Churches. 2017. p. 22.
  29. ^ "Bhagavad-Gita: Chapter 3, Verse 35".
  30. ^ Mukundananda, Swami. "Chapter 1, Verse 41 – Bhagavad Gita, The Song of God – Swami Mukundananda".
  31. ^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (11 January 2013). Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-134-92417-2. The Quran speaks favourably of the people of the Book. For example, Surah 3, verse 199, carries a universal message of goodwill and hope to all those who believe, the people of the Book irrespective of their religious label--Christian, Jew or Muslim. Muslims can marry with the people of the Book,
  32. ^ Timani, Hussam S.; Ashton, Loye Sekihata (29 November 2019). Post-Christian Interreligious Liberation Theology. Springer Nature. p. 196. ISBN 978-3-030-27308-8.
  33. ^ Jahangir, Junaid (21 March 2017). "Muslim Women Can Marry Outside The Faith". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  34. ^ Saeed, Hassan (2004): Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3082-1.
  35. ^ Daniels, Timothy P. (2005): Building Cultural Nationalism in Malaysia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-94971-8.
  36. ^ Altstein,Howard;Simon, Rita James (2003): Global perspectives on social issues: marriage and divorce. Lexington, Mass: LexingtonBooks. ISBN 0-7391-0588-4.
  37. ^ "404 - Page Not Found". Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2015. Cite uses generic title (help)
  38. ^ a b "Marriage to a Christian Woman: Unrestrictedly Permitted?". Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  39. ^ "Marriage to Non Muslim - Contemporary Issues - Bilal Philips". YouTube. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  40. ^ "Can a Muslim Woman Marry a Non-Muslim Man?". Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  41. ^ Ben Youssef Zayzafoon, Lamia. The production of the Muslim woman: negotiating text, history, and ideology (Oxford, UK: Lexington Books, 2005) 108. [1]
  42. ^ Talmud Bavli, Avodah Zarah 36b; Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sanctity, Laws of Prohibited Relations 12:1 and commentaries; Rabbi Yosef Karo, Shulchan Aruch II:16:2 and commentaries
  43. ^ Moses of Coucy, Sefer Mitzvot ha-Gadol, 112, as per JE
  44. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Intermarriage
  45. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, "Conferences, Rabbinical"
  46. ^ Ludwig Philippson, Israelitische Religionslehre (1865), 3:350
  47. ^ Berakhot 28a
  48. ^ Kiddushin 5:4 (Tosefta)
  49. ^ Rabbi Yosef Karo, Shulchan Aruch III:4:10
  50. ^ Genesis Rabbah, 65
  51. ^ Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sanctity, Laws of Prohibited Relations, 12:22 and Maggid Mashnah ad. loc.
  52. ^ Leadership Council of Conservative Judaism, Statement on Intermarriage, Adopted on March 7, 1995
  53. ^ Fendel, Hillel (26 December 2014). "Conservative Judaism Youth Group Relaxes Inter-Dating Rules" (Main-News-Jewish World). Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  54. ^ Survey of the American Rabbinate, The Jewish Outreach Institute, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (retrieved 6 May 2009)
  55. ^ Summary of Rabbinic Center for Research and Counseling 2003 Survey, Irwin H. Fishbein, Rabbi, D. Min., Rabbinic Center for Research and Counseling, [2] (retrieved 6 May 2009)
  56. ^ D.Einhorn, in The Jewish Times, (1870), No. 45, p. 11
  57. ^ Lisa Hostein (1 October 2015). "Reconstructionists give green light to intermarried rabbinical students". Jweekly. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  58. ^ "13 Tough Questions". Shj.org. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  59. ^ Ricoux, Demography of Algeria, Paris, 1860, p. 71
  60. ^ National Jewish Population Survey 2000-01
  61. ^ Census of New South Wales, 1901, Bulletin No. 14
  62. ^ a b Ndiaye, Ousmane Sémou, "Diversité et unicité Sérères: L'Exemple Le de la Région de Thiès", [in] Ethiopiques n°54, revue semestrielle, de culture négro-africaine, Nouvelle série volume 7., 2e semestre (1991)[3]
  63. ^ Sikh Council UK (25 October 2014). "Sikh Council UK Develops Guidelines of Approach to Inter-Faith Marriages in Gurdwaras". Sikh24.com. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  64. ^ "Conversion Allowed in Zoroastrianism ?". zoroastrians.net. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Interfaith Marriage: Share and Respect with Equality by Dr. Dilip Amin, Mount Meru publishing
  • This is My Friend, This is My Beloved: A Pastoral Letter on Human Sexuality (Jewish) Elliot N. Dorff, The Rabbinical Assembly
  • It All Begins with a Date: Jewish Concerns about Intermarriage: Jewish Concerns about Intermarriage, Alan Silverstein, Jason Aronson, 1995, ISBN 1-56821-542-8
  • Leadership Council of Conservative Judaism, Statement on Intermarriage. Adopted on March 7, 1995
  • 'Why Marry Jewish: Surprising Reasons for Jews to Marry Jews', Doron Kornbluth, [Targum/Feldheim], 2003, ISBN 1-56871-250-2
  • 'Dear Rabbi, Why Can't I Marry Her?', Eliezer Shemtov, [Targum/Feldheim], 2006, ISBN 1-56871-410-6
  • Strange Wives: Intermarriage in the biblical world, Stanley Ned Rosenbaum and Allen Secher [forthcoming]
  • Intimate Diversity: an Anglican Practical Theology of Interreligious Marriage, Paul Aidan Smith, [Brill],2021, ISSN 2452-2953, ISBN 979-90-04-46031-7

External links[edit]