IL-25 is a cytokine that shares the sequence similarity with IL-17. This cytokine can induce NF-κB activation, and stimulate the production of IL-8. Both this cytokine and IL17B are ligands for the cytokine receptor IL17RB. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this cytokine may be a proinflammatory cytokine favoring Th2-type immune response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.
Further, the IL-25 gene has been identified in a chromosomal region associated with autoimmune diseases of the gut such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although no direct evidence suggests that IL-25 plays any role in this disease.
IL-25 has potent antitumor activity in vivo in several human cancers including melanoma, breast, lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers, suggesting the potential clinical use of IL-17E as an anticancer agent.
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