Internal Family Systems Model
This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Internal Family Systems Model (IFS) is an integrative approach to individual psychotherapy developed by Richard C. Schwartz. It combines systems thinking with the view that mind is made up of relatively discrete subpersonalities each with its own viewpoint and qualities. IFS uses family systems theory to understand how these collections of subpersonalities are organized.
IFS sees consciousness as composed of a central self with three types of subpersonalities or parts: managers, exiles, and firefighters. Each individual part has its own perspective, interests, memories, and viewpoint. A core tenet of IFS is that every part has a positive intent for the person, even if its actions or effects are counterproductive or cause dysfunction. This means that there is never any reason to fight with, coerce, or try to eliminate a part; the IFS method promotes internal connection and harmony.
Parts can have either extreme roles or healthy roles. IFS focuses on parts in extreme roles because they are in need of transformation through therapy. IFS divides these parts into three types—managers, exiles, and firefighters.
Managers are parts with preemptive protective roles. They handle the way a person interacts with the external world to protect them from being hurt by others and try to prevent painful or traumatic feelings and experiences from flooding a person's awareness.
Exiles are parts that are in pain, shame, fear, or trauma, usually from childhood. Managers and firefighters try to exile these parts from consciousness, to prevent this pain from coming to the surface.
Firefighters are parts that emerge when exiles break out and demand attention. These parts work to distract a person's attention from the hurt or shame experienced by the exile by leading them to engage in impulsive behaviors like overeating, drug use, violence, or having inappropriate sex. They can also distract from the pain by causing a person to focus excessively on more subtle activities such as overworking or over-medicating.
IFS also sees people as being whole, underneath this collection of parts. Everyone has a true self or spiritual center, known as the Self to distinguish it from the parts. Even people whose experience is dominated by parts have access to this Self and its healing qualities of curiosity, connectedness, compassion, and calmness. IFS sees the therapist's job as helping the client to disentangle themselves from their parts and access the Self, which can then connect with each part and heal it, so that the parts can let go of their destructive roles and enter into a harmonious collaboration, led by the Self. IFS explicitly recognizes the spiritual nature of the Self, allowing the model to be helpful in spiritual development as well as psychological healing.
The Internal System
IFS focuses on the relationships between parts and between the Self. The goal of IFS is to have a cooperative and trusting relationship between the Self and each part. There are three primary types of relationships between parts: protection, polarization, and alliance.
Protection is provided by managers and firefighters, intended to spare exiles from harm and to protect the person from the pain of exiles.
Polarization occurs between two parts when they are battling each other to determine how a person feels or behaves in a certain situation. Each part believes that it must act as it does in order to counter the extreme behavior of the other part. IFS has a method for working with polarized parts.
Alliance is formed between two parts if they are working together to accomplish the same aim.
IFS practitioners report a well-defined therapeutic method for individual therapy based on the following principles. In this description, the term "protector" refers to either a manager or firefighter.
- Parts in extreme roles carry "burdens," which are painful emotions or negative beliefs that they have taken on as a result of harmful experiences in the past, often in childhood. These burdens are not intrinsic to the part and therefore they can be released or "unburdened" through IFS. This allows the part to assume its natural healthy role.
- The client's Self is the agent of psychological healing. The therapist helps the client to access and remain in Self and provides guidance in the therapy process.
- Protectors can't usually let go of their protective roles and transform until the exiles they are protecting have been unburdened.
- There is no attempt to work with any exile until the client has obtained permission from any protectors who are protecting that exile. This makes the method relatively safe, even in working with traumatized parts.
- The Self is the natural leader of the internal system. However, because of harmful incidents or relationships in the past, protectors have stepped in to protect the system and taken over for the Self. One protector after another is activated and takes over the system causing dysfunctional behavior. These protectors are also frequently in conflict with each other, resulting in internal chaos or stagnation. The goal of IFS is for the protectors to come to trust the Self so they will allow it to lead the system and create internal harmony under its guidance.
The IFS method involves first helping the client to access Self. Then the Self gets to know a protector, discovers its positive intent, and develops a trusting relationship with it. With the protector's permission, the client accesses the exile(s) it is protecting and discovers the childhood incident or relationship that is the source of the burden(s) it is carrying. The exile is retrieved from being stuck in that past situation and helped to release its burdens. Then the protector can also let go of its protective role and assume a healthy one.
IFS proponents claim to have a "complete" form of individual therapy that is used for the full range of human development, from the healing of trauma to personal and spiritual growth. It has also been applied in the following areas:
Richard Schwartz developed IFS while working with a population that had experienced considerable trauma, so IFS is thought to be very effective in this area and has evoked much interest among trauma therapists. In working with a traumatized exile, the client learns to reside in Self and witness the exile's traumatic memory without being flooded by it. In this way the memory is revisited and processed so it can be healed without the danger of retraumatization.
IFS proponents claim to have successfully applied the method to couples therapy, investigating the interactions between the parts of the two people and how a part in one person can activate extreme parts in the other. The method incorporates short pieces of individual therapy in a couples session along with work on communicating from Self.
Self-help and peer counseling
Because the Self is the agent of transformation in IFS, it naturally lends itself to self-help. The IFS method has been taught in classes on self-therapy and peer counseling for the general public.
Healing Inner Conflict (HIC), a modality developed by David 'Bhakti' Gotlieb, corroborates the notion that the Inner Critic has an intention to protect, usually from undesirable external responses—such as criticism, name calling, and smacking—in an early childhood context or withdrawal of love or attention. Usually, there is a critical part that is an internalized authority figure that then overrides by intimidating the part that would like to express itself into paralyzed silence in order to avoid potential criticism from the external environment. HIC also concurs that by developing a healthy relationship with the critical part and meeting that part's needs (to not get criticized), transformation is able to happen. This transformation is usually the ability for the person in the present moment to express themselves freely where they weren't able to before, often due to childhood or later traumatic conditioning.
Training and certification of therapists
The Center for Self Leadership is the official IFS training organization started by Richard Schwartz. It offers three levels of training in IFS in many cities around the U.S. and some in Europe and Israel. In 2010 The Center for Self Leadership initiated a program of certification for IFS therapists.
- Schwartz, R. C. (1995) Internal Family Systems Therapy, Guilford Press.
- Earley, J. (2012) Self-Therapy: A Step-by-Step Guide to Inner Wholeness Using IFS, Pattern System Books.
- Earley, J. (2012) Resolving Inner Conflict, Pattern System Books.
- Schwartz, R. C. and Goulding, R. A. (2002) The Mosaic Mind, Trailheads Publications.
- Schwartz, R. C. (2008) You are the One You’ve Been Waiting For, Trailheads Publications.
- Barbera, M. (2007) Bring Yourself to Love, Dos Monos Press.
- Earley, J. & Weiss, B. (2010) Self-Therapy for Your Inner Critic, Pattern System Books.
- Healing Inner Conflict e-book by David (Bhakti) Gotlieb
- Counselling Australia - December 2012 Taking the 'DYS' out of the 'FUNCTION' of dissociation using the "Healing Inner Conflict' technique
- Breunlin, Douglas C.; Schwartz, Richard C.; Kune-Karrer, Betty Mac (1992). Metaframeworks: transcending the models of family therapy. The Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 1555424260. OCLC 24590165.
- Michelson, Katherine J. (1998). "Mapping multiplicity: an application of the internal family systems model". In Nelson, Thorana Strever; Trepper, Terry S. 101 more interventions in family therapy. Haworth marriage and the family. New York: Haworth Press. pp. 426–430. ISBN 078900058X. OCLC 38144382.
- Schwartz, Richard C. (1998). "Internal family systems family therapy". In Dattilio, Frank M.; Goldfried, Marvin R. Case studies in couple and family therapy: systemic and cognitive perspectives. The Guilford family therapy series. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 331–352. ISBN 1572302976. OCLC 37721397.
- Schwartz, Richard C. (1999). "The internal family systems model". In Rowan, John; Cooper, Mick. The plural self: multiplicity in everyday life. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 238–253. ISBN 0761960759. OCLC 44414295.
- Schwartz, Richard C. (1999). "The self-to-self connection: intimacy and the internal family systems model". In Carlson, Jon; Sperry, Len. The intimate couple. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 263–275. ISBN 0876308809. OCLC 39347380.
- Johnson, Laura M.; Schwartz, Richard C. (2000). "Internal family systems work with children and families". In Bailey, C. Everett. Children in therapy: using the family as a resource. A Norton professional book. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 73–111. ISBN 0393702898. OCLC 43845598.
- Schwartz, Richard C.; Rose, Michi (2002). "Internal family systems therapy". In Carlson, Jon; Kjos, Diane. Theories and strategies of family therapy. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 275–295. ISBN 020527403X. OCLC 47296206.
- Nichols, Michael P.; Schwartz, Richard C. (2006) . Family therapy: concepts and methods (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education/Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0205478093. OCLC 60825574.
- Schwartz, Richard C.; Schwartz, Mark F.; Galperin, Lori (2009). "Internal family systems therapy". In Courtois, Christine A.; Ford, Julian D. Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: an evidence-based guide. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 353–370. ISBN 9781606230398. OCLC 234176147.
- Schwartz, Richard C.; Blow, Adrian J. (2010). "Creating self-to-self intimacy: internal family systems therapy with couples". In Gurman, Alan S. Clinical casebook of couple therapy. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 375–398. ISBN 9781606236765. OCLC 559649909.
- Ecker, Bruce; Ticic, Robin; Hulley, Laurel (2012). Unlocking the emotional brain: eliminating symptoms at their roots using memory reconsolidation. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415897167. OCLC 772112300.
- Schwartz, Richard C. (2013). "Internal family systems". In Rambo, Anne Hearon; et al. Family therapy review: contrasting contemporary models. New York: Routledge. pp. 196–199. ISBN 9780415806626. OCLC 754732614.
- Sweezy, Martha; Ziskind, Ellen L., eds. (2013). Internal family systems therapy: new dimensions. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415506830. OCLC 758394531.
- van der Kolk, Bessel A. (2014). "Filling in the holes: creating structures". The body keeps the score: brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York: Viking Press. pp. 298–310. ISBN 9780670785933. OCLC 861478952.
- Papernow, Patricia L. (2013). Surviving and thriving in stepfamily relationships: what works and what doesn't. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415894371. OCLC 727702714.
- Mones, Arthur G. (2014). Transforming troubled children, teens, and their families: an internal family systems model for healing. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415744218. OCLC 869140910.
- Schwartz, Richard C.; Sparks, Flint (2015). "The internal family systems model in trauma treatment: parallels with Mahayana Buddhist theory and practice". In Follette, Victoria M.; Briere, John; Rozelle, Deborah; Hopper, James W.; Rome, David I. Mindfulness-oriented interventions for trauma: integrating contemplative practices. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 125–139. ISBN 9781462518586. OCLC 895272630.
- Herbine-Blank, Toni (2016). "Tracking protective sequences in internal family systems therapy". In Weeks, Gerald R.; Fife, Stephen T.; Peterson, Colleen M. Techniques for the couple therapist: essential interventions from the experts. New York: Routledge. pp. 133–136. ISBN 9781138814608. OCLC 926090888.
- Scott, Derek (2016) . "The internal family system model". In Winokuer, Howard Robin; Harris, Darcy. Principles and practice of grief counseling (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing. pp. 184–185. ISBN 9780826171832. OCLC 922628314.
- Fisher, Janina (2017). Healing the fragmented selves of trauma survivors: overcoming internal self-alientation. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415708227. OCLC 961009372.
- Grabowski, Amy Yandel (2017). An internal family systems guide to recovery from eating disorders: healing part by part. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138745209. OCLC 972740227.
- Spiegel, Lisa (2017). Internal family systems therapy with children. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138682108. OCLC 959602748.
- Sweezy, Martha; Ziskind, Ellen L., eds. (2017). Innovations and elaborations in internal family systems therapy. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138024380. OCLC 920723974.
- Vesper, Joyce H. (April 1996). "Review of Internal Family Systems Therapy". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 33 (1): 154–155. doi:10.1037/h0092358.
- Barton, Marci A.; Bischoff, Richard J. (July 1998). "Rocks and rituals in producing therapeutic change". Journal of Family Psychotherapy. 9 (3): 31–41. doi:10.1300/J085V09N03_03.
- Deacon, Sharon A.; Davis, Jonathan C. (March 2001). "Internal family systems theory: a technical integration". Journal of Systemic Therapies. 20 (1): 45–58. doi:10.1521/jsyt.188.8.131.5210.
- Wark, Linda; Thomas, Melanie; Peterson, Sahri (April 2001). "Internal family systems therapy for children in family therapy". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 27 (2): 189–200. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2001.tb01156.x. PMID 11314552.
- Dolbier, Christyn L.; Soderstrom, Mike; Steinhardt, Mary A. (September 2001). "The relationships between self-leadership and enhanced psychological, health, and work outcomes". The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied. 135 (5): 469–485. doi:10.1080/00223980109603713. PMID 11804002.
- Lavergne, Majie (March 2004). "Art therapy and internal family systems therapy: an integrative model to treat trauma among adjudicated teenage girls". Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal. 17 (1): 17–36. doi:10.1080/08322473.2004.11432257.
- Miller, Bobbi J.; Cardona, Jose Ruben Parra; Hardin, Michael (February 2007). "The use of narrative therapy and internal family systems with survivors of childhood sexual abuse: examining issues related to loss and oppression". Journal of Feminist Family Therapy. 18 (4): 1–27. doi:10.1300/J086v18n04_01.
- Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P. (July 2007). "What clients of couple therapy model developers and their former students say about change, part I: model-dependent common factors across three models". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 33 (3): 318–343. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00030.x. PMID 17598781.
- Mones, Arthur G.; Schwartz, Richard C. (December 2007). "The functional hypothesis: a family systems contribution toward an understanding of the healing process of the common factors". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 17 (4): 314–329. doi:10.1037/1053-04184.108.40.2064.
- Wilkins, Erica J. (December 2007). "Using an IFS informed intervention to treat African American families surviving sexual abuse: one family's story". Journal of Feminist Family Therapy. 19 (3): 37–53. doi:10.1300/J086v19n03_03.
- Green, Eric J. (April 2008). "Individuals in conflict: an internal family systems approach". The Family Journal. 16 (2): 125–131. doi:10.1177/1066480707313789.
- Pais, Shobha (March 2009). "A systemic approach to the treatment of dissociative identity disorder". Journal of Family Psychotherapy. 20 (1): 72–88. doi:10.1080/08975350802716566.
- Sweezy, Martha (March 2011). "Treating trauma after dialectical behavioral therapy". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 21 (1): 90–102. doi:10.1037/a0023011.
- Sweezy, Martha (April 2011). "The teenager's confession: regulating shame in internal family systems therapy". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 65 (2): 179–188. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2011.65.2.179. PMID 21847894.
- Schwartz, Richard C. (August 2013). "Moving from acceptance toward transformation with Internal Family Systems Therapy (IFS)". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 69 (8): 805–816. doi:10.1002/jclp.22016. PMID 23813465.
- Makidon, Yvonne (January 2014). "Trailhead intervention". Journal of Family Psychotherapy. 25 (1): 83–86. doi:10.1080/08975353.2014.881700.
- Mojta, Carl; Falconier, Mariana K.; Huebner, Angela J. (January 2014). "Fostering self-awareness in novice therapists using Internal Family Systems therapy". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 42 (1): 67–78. doi:10.1080/01926187.2013.772870.
- Seedall, Ryan B. (April 2014). "Review of Internal Family Systems Therapy: New Dimensions". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 40 (2): 262–263. doi:10.1111/jmft.12033.
- Hsieh, Alexander L. (January 2015). "Internal family systems: a parts party intervention". Journal of Family Psychotherapy. 26 (1): 31–35. doi:10.1080/08975353.2015.1002740.
- Hoffman, David A. (October 2015). "What the #@!* are they fighting about?!?: reflections on fairness, identity, social capital, and peacemaking in family conflicts". Family Court Review. 53 (4): 509–516. doi:10.1111/fcre.12171.
- Haddock, Shelley A.; Weiler, Lindsey M.; Trump, Lisa J.; Henry, Kimberly L. (January 2017). "The efficacy of internal family systems therapy in the treatment of depression among female college students: a pilot study". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 43 (1): 131–144. doi:10.1111/jmft.12184. PMID 27500908.
- Lester, Rebecca J. (February 2017). "Self‐governance, psychotherapy, and the subject of managed care: internal family systems therapy and the multiple self in a US eating‐disorders treatment center". American Ethnologist. 44 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1111/amet.12423.
- Minaiy, Cayla; Johnson, Natalie; Ciochon, Tim; Perkins, Dustin (June 2017). "Adaptability of family therapy modalities in the treatment of lesbian and gay clients with bulimia nervosa". Contemporary Family Therapy. 39 (2): 121–131. doi:10.1007/s10591-017-9410-5.
- Smith, Jesse A.; Hayes, Nicholas D.; Smock Jordan, Sara (July 2018). "Systemic integration of IFS therapy and 12-step facilitation for substance use: a theoretical discussion". Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly: 1–15. doi:10.1080/07347324.2018.1502032.
- Lucero, Rebecca; Jones, Adam C.; Hunsaker, Jacob C. (September 2018). "Using internal family systems theory in the treatment of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and their families". Contemporary Family Therapy. 40 (3): 266–275. doi:10.1007/s10591-017-9424-z.