Internal urethral sphincter
|Internal urethral sphincter|
Coronal section of anterior part of pelvis, through the pubic arch. Seen from in front. (Region visible, but muscle not labeled.)
Urinary bladder (Region visible, but muscle not labeled.)
|Origin||The inferior ramus of the pubic bone|
|Nerve||Sympathetic fibers from T10-L2 through the inferior hypogastric plexus then vesical nervous plexus|
|Actions||Constricts proximal urethra, maintains urinary continence|
|Latin||Musculus sphincter urethrae internus|
|Anatomical terms of muscle|
The internal urethral sphincter is a urethral sphincter muscle which constricts the internal urethral orifice. It is located at the junction of the urethra with the urinary bladder and is continuous with the detrusor muscle, but anatomically and functionally fully independent from it. It is composed of smooth muscle, so it is under the control of the autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic nervous system.
This is the primary muscle for maintaining continence of urine, a function shared with the external urethral sphincter which is under voluntary control. It prevents urine leakage as the muscle is tonically contracted via sympathetic fibers traveling through the inferior hypogastric plexus and vesical nervous plexus. During urination, the preganglionic neurons of this sympathetic pathway are inhibited via signals arising in the pontine micturition center and traveling through the descending reticulospinal tracts, allowing the muscle to relax. During ejaculation, the muscle contracts to prevent reflux of semen into the urinary bladder, a phenomenon called retrograde ejaculation.
Spasms of the internal urethral sphincter are associated with penile erection. Because the internal urethral sphincter is under involuntary control, it is believed to play a role in paruresis, in which a person who perceives oneself to be under observation is unable to urinate.
- Detrusor muscle
- External sphincter muscle of female urethra
- External sphincter muscle of male urethra
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- Shah AP, Mevcha A, Wilby D, Alatsatianos A, Hardman JC, Jacques S, Wilton JC (November 2014). "Continence and micturition: An anatomical basis". Clin. Anat. 27 (8): 1275–1283. doi:10.1002/ca.22388. PMID 24615792.
- Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, A. M. R. (2013-02-13). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 366. ISBN 9781451119459.
- J. B. Macalpine (November 1934). "The Musculature of the Bladder-neck of the Male in Health and Disease". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 28 (1): 39–56. PMID 19990023.
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