International Criminal Court judges election, 2006
An ordinary election for six judges of the International Criminal Court was held during the resumption of the 4th session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court in New York on 26 January 2006.
The judges elected at this election were to take office on 11 March 2006. All six judges elected for a three-year term in 2003 were eligible for re-election, all of them ran.
The election was governed by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Its article 36(8)(a) states that "[t]he States Parties shall, in the selection of judges, take into account the need, within the membership of the Court, for:
- (i) The representation of the principal legal systems of the world;
- (ii) Equitable geographical representation; and
- (iii) A fair representation of female and male judges."
Furthermore, article 36(3)(b) and 36(5) provide for two lists:
- List A contains those judges that "[h]ave established competence in criminal law and procedure, and the necessary relevant experience, whether as judge, prosecutor, advocate or in other similar capacity, in criminal proceedings";
- List B contains those who "[h]ave established competence in relevant areas of international law such as international humanitarian law and the law of human rights, and extensive experience in a professional legal capacity which is of relevance to the judicial work of the Court".
Each candidate must belong to exactly one list.
Further rules of election were adopted by a resolution of the Assembly of States Parties in 2004.
Following these rules, the nomination period of judges for the 2006 election lasted from 18 July to 20 November 2005. The following persons were nominated:
|Name||Nationality||List A or B||Region||Gender|
|Károly Bard||Hungary||List B||Eastern European States||Male|
|Haridiata Dakoure||Burkina Faso||List A||African States||Female|
|Hans-Peter Kaul||Germany||List B||Western European and Other States||Male|
|Erkki Kourula||Finland||List B||Western European and Other States||Male|
|Akua Kuenyehia||Ghana||List B||African States||Female|
|Tuiloma Neroni Slade||Samoa||List A||Asian States||Male|
|Sang-hyun Song||South Korea||List A||Asian States||Male|
|Cheikh Tidiane Thiam||Senegal||List B||African States||Male|
|Ekaterina Trendafilova||Bulgaria||List A||Eastern European States||Female|
|Anita Ušacka||Latvia||List B||Eastern European States||Female|
Minimum voting requirements
Minimum voting requirements governed part of the election. This was to ensure that article 36(8)(a) cited above is fulfilled. For this election, the following minimum voting requirements existed; they were to be adjusted once the election was underway.
Regarding the List A or B requirement, there was a minimum voting requirement (not to be waived at any time) of one judge from List A and one judge from List B.
Regarding the regional criteria, there were minimum voting requirements for one African, one Asian and two Eastern European judges.
Regarding the gender criteria, there was a minimum voting requirement for one female judge.
The regional and gender criteria could have been adjusted even before the election depending on the number of candidates. Paragraph 20(b) of the ASP resolution that governed the elections states that if there are less than double the number of candidates required for each region, the minimum voting requirement shall be a (rounded-up) half of the number of candidates; except when there is only one candidate which results in no voting requirement. Furthermore, if the number of candidates of one gender is less than ten, then the minimum voting requirement shall not exceed a certain number depending on the number of candidates.
The regional and gender criteria could have been dropped either if they were not (jointly) possible any more, or if after four ballots not all seats were filled.
The voting requirements were as follows:
|Criterion||Voting requirement ex ante||Candidates as of now||Adjusted voting requirement||Adjusted requirement equals ex ante?|
|Lists A or B|
|Eastern European states||2||3||2||Yes|
|Latin American and Caribbean States||0||0||0||Yes|
|Western European and other States||0||2||0||Yes|
The only ballot took place on 26 January 2006.
|Name||Nationality||List A or B||Region||Gender||Ballot|
|Number of States Parties voting||100|
|Ekaterina Trendafilova||Bulgaria||List A||Eastern European States||Female||82|
|Anita Ušacka||Latvia||List B||Eastern European States||Female||77|
|Erkki Kourula||Finland||List B||Western European and Other States||Male||73|
|Akua Kuenyehia||Ghana||List B||African States||Female||72|
|Sang-hyun Song||South Korea||List A||Asian States||Male||70|
|Hans-Peter Kaul||Germany||List B||Western European and Other States||Male||67|
|Tuiloma Neroni Slade||Samoa||List A||Asian States||Male||50|
|Károly Bard||Hungary||List B||Eastern European States||Male||36|
|Cheikh Tidiane Thiam||Senegal||List B||African States||Male||29|
|Haridiata Dakoure||Burkina Faso||List A||African States||Female||16|
With the exception of Judge Slade (who was replaced by Ekaterina Trendafilova) all re-eligible judges were in fact re-elected.
- "Second election of the judges of the International Criminal Court" (PDF). International Criminal Court. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
- "Resolution ICC-ASP/3/Res.6" (PDF). International Criminal Court. 2004-09-10. Retrieved 2011-06-28.
- "Alphabetical listing". International Criminal Court. 2007-10-03. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
- Alphabetical listing of candidates. ICC. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Note verbale governing the election. ICC. Retrieved 11 December 2011.