This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

International District/Chinatown station

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
International District Chinatown Station Pictogram.svg
International District/Chinatown
Link light rail and bus station
International District station with several Metro buses (2010).jpg
Platform level view of International District/Chinatown station with several buses
Location 5th Avenue S & S Jackson Street
Seattle, Washington
Coordinates 47°35′54″N 122°19′41″W / 47.59833°N 122.32806°W / 47.59833; -122.32806Coordinates: 47°35′54″N 122°19′41″W / 47.59833°N 122.32806°W / 47.59833; -122.32806
Owned by King County Metro
Line(s) Sound Transit Express, King County Metro
Platforms 2 side platforms
Tracks 2
Connections Amtrak, Sounder commuter rail, First Hill Streetcar, King County Metro, Sound Transit Express, Community Transit, BoltBus
Construction
Structure type Tunnel
Parking Pay parking nearby
Disabled access Yes
History
Opened September 15, 1990 (1990-09-15)
Rebuilt 2005–2007
Previous names International District (1990–2004)
Traffic
Passengers 5,771 daily boardings (2017; Link only)[1]
Services
Preceding station  
Link
  Following station
Central Link
toward Angle Lake
Preceding station  
ST Express
  Following station
Route 550
toward Bellevue TC
  Future service  
Preceding station  
Link
  Following station
toward Northgate
East Link Extension
(2023)
  Transfer at King Street Station  
Sounder
Terminus North Line
toward Everett
toward Lakewood
South Line Terminus
BSicon LOGO Amtrak2.svg Amtrak
Amtrak Cascades
toward Los Angeles
Coast Starlight Terminus
Terminus Empire Builder
toward Chicago

International District/Chinatown is a light rail and bus station that is part of the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel in Seattle, Washington. The station is located at the tunnel's south end, at 5th Avenue South and South Jackson Street in the Chinatown-International District neighborhood. It is served by the Central Link, part of Sound Transit's Link light rail system, as well as buses from King County Metro and Sound Transit Express. The station is located adjacent to Sound Transit headquarters at Union Station, as well as intermodal connections to Amtrak and Sounder commuter rail at King Street Station, the First Hill Streetcar, and intercity BoltBus service.

International District/Chinatown station consists of two side platforms situated under street level in an open-air structure and adjoining public plaza. It opened on September 15, 1990, as International District station, and was used exclusively by buses until a two-year renovation from 2005 to 2007 to accommodate light rail. Link light rail service to International District/Chinatown station began on July 18, 2009. Trains and buses serve the station twenty hours a day on most days; the headway between light rail trains is six minutes during peak periods, with less frequent service at other times. In 2023, the station will become the merge point between Central Link and the East Link Extension, which will continue east towards Bellevue and Redmond.

Location[edit]

International District/Chinatown station is located along 5th Avenue South between South Jackson and Weller streets, in the Chinatown-International District neighborhood of central Seattle. The station is at the western edge of the neighborhood, and is within walking distance of the Pioneer Square National Historic District.[2][3] Within 12-mile (0.8 km) of the station is an estimated population of 10,412 people in 5,183 housing units, and approximately 43,472 jobs according to the Puget Sound Regional Council.[4]

International District/Chinatown station shares its block with Union Station, the headquarters of Sound Transit.[5] The block also has the Union Station and Opus Center office complex, built on a large concrete lid covering the tunnel and an underground parking garage.[6] To the west of the station on South Jackson Street is historic King Street Station, served by Amtrak and Sounder commuter rail, and the offices of King County Metro at the King Street Center. The Weller Street Bridge connects the station's south plaza to CenturyLink Field, Safeco Field,[2][7] and Stadium Place, a mixed-use development in a former stadium parking lot.[8] To the station's east is the Historic Chinatown Gate, as well as the flagship store of Asian grocer Uwajimaya.[2][7]

History[edit]

Background and earlier proposals[edit]

Postcard depiction of King Street Station and Union Station in the late 1930s, including the future site of International District/Chinatown station

The Chinatown-International District of Seattle was established in the early 20th century by Asian Americans who relocated from modern-day Pioneer Square. The regrade of South Jackson Street from 1907 to 1909 paved the way for the development of a new Chinatown along King Street in the 1910s, absorbing the former Chinatown by the end of the 1920s.[9] Adjacent blocks also attracted Japanese and Filipino immigrants and descendants, leading to the use of "International District" to describe the area by the mid-20th century.[10][11][12] To the west of the new Chinatown, the city built two passenger rail terminals to replace older facilities on the waterfront: King Street Station, opened in 1906, served the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway; Union Station, opened in 1911, served the Milwaukee Road and Union Pacific Railroad.[13] The area around Union Station, originally a tide flat that was filled during the regrades, was home to a coal gasification power plant and later the station's railyard.[14]

In 1911, civil engineer Virgil Bogue presented a comprehensive plan for the city of Seattle, including an elevated rapid transit line running southeast from King Street Station through Chinatown towards the Rainier Valley.[15] The plan was, however, rejected by voters on March 5, 1912, leaving it unimplemented.[16] In 1957, Seattle City Engineer M. O. Anderberg and the Seattle Transit Commission proposed a rapid transit system utilizing the right-of-way cleared for Interstate 5 between Everett and Tacoma. The rapid transit line would travel through downtown Seattle in a tunnel under 5th Avenue, with one of its two stations at South Jackson Street at the site of Union Station. The proposal included redevelopment of Union Station into a multi-level transportation hub, with a bus terminal for intercity and suburban buses, a public parking garage, and a rooftop heliport.[17][18] The proposal was rejected by the federal government, not wanting to jeopardize freeway construction, and was ultimately shelved.[18]

In the late 1960s, the Forward Thrust Committee put forward a ballot measure to fund a rapid transit system for the Seattle metropolitan area.[19][20] One of the key components of the system was a downtown subway tunnel on 3rd Avenue terminating at Union Station,[21] where it would split into a south branch to serve Georgetown and Renton, and an east branch to serve Bellevue.[22][23] The ballot measure, requiring a supermajority to support bonding to augment $385 million in local funding with $765 million from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, failed to reach the 60 percent threshold in 1968 and again during a second vote in 1970.[24][25] The failure of the Forward Thrust ballot measures led to the creation of Metro Transit in 1972, operating bus service across King County.[26]

Bus tunnel[edit]

The Union Station office complex and International District/Chinatown station, built atop a shared concrete lid

Metro Transit began planning a bus tunnel through downtown Seattle in the 1970s, to be eventually converted to use by light rail trains. Metro approved the construction of a bus tunnel in 1983, selecting Union Station the tunnel's southern terminus and a route along 3rd Avenue and Pine Street through the rest of downtown.[27][28] The tunnel would be completed by 1989 and feature public art and stations designed to match the identities of the surrounding area; the tunnel station at Union Station would be designed around an Asian motif reflecting the International District.[29][30]

The bus tunnel's twin tunnel boring machines were assembled and launched from the site of International District station in May and June 1987, heading north towards the intersection of 3rd Avenue and Pine Street.[31][32] Most of the station's structure, including a new South Jackson Street bridge over the tunnel, was completed in early 1988.[33] A 90,000 square feet (8,400 m2) concrete lid was built atop the station during construction, designed to support a future office complex.[34] In the late 1990s, developers Vulcan Real Estate and Nitze-Stagen completed the four-building office complex atop the station's western and southern lid.[35][36]

Tunnel construction was completed in early June 1990,[37] a few weeks before the June 23 completion of the Waterfront Streetcar extension serving the future station.[38][39] International District station was dedicated at a public open house during the annual Seafair on July 15, 1990.[40][41] Bus service in the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel began on September 15, 1990, with several Metro bus routes moved into the tunnel from surface streets.[42] The tunnel was served by dual-mode buses that would switch from diesel power to electric trolleybus (supplied by overhead wires) at International District station and Convention Place station, the tunnel's respective termini.[43]

Light rail[edit]

In the early 1990s, a regional transit authority (RTA) was formed to plan and construct a light rail system for the Seattle area. After an unsuccessful attempt in 1995, regional voters passed a $3.9 billion plan to build light rail under the RTA in 1996.[44] The downtown transit tunnel had already been planned for eventual light rail use and was built with tracks that would be incorporated into the initial system.[45][46] The RTA, later renamed Sound Transit, approved the tunnel as part of the route of its initial light rail line in 1999.[47] Ownership of the tunnel, including its stations, was transferred to Sound Transit in 2000 but returned two years later to King County Metro under a joint-operations agreement.[48][49]

In November 2004, the Metropolitan King County Council approved the renaming of the station to International District/Chinatown station.[50] The renaming came at the behest of Chinese community leaders who had already renamed the neighborhood's new branch library and community center to a similar moniker.[51] The new name, implemented during the two-year tunnel closure, came as a compromise between naming the station "Chinatown" and "International District".[52]

The downtown transit tunnel closed on September 23, 2005, for a two-year, $82.7 million renovation to accommodate light rail vehicles. The renovation included the installation of new rails, a lowered roadbed at stations for level boarding, new signalling systems and emergency ventilation.[53][54] As part of the renovation, the outdoor plaza at International District/Chinatown station was repainted with red accents, replacing the original pink, to better reflect the traditional colors of the neighborhood.[55] The tunnel reopened on September 24, 2007,[56] and Link light rail service began on July 18, 2009, from Westlake station to Tukwila International Boulevard station.[57][58]

Future[edit]

The downtown transit tunnel is expected to lose bus service in 2019, due to construction at Convention Place station; the tunnel would become served exclusively by light rail trains after that point.[59] International District/Chinatown station will become the transfer point between the north–south Central Link light rail line and east–west East Link light rail line when the latter opens in 2023, connecting Seattle to Mercer Island, Bellevue, and Redmond.[60] The new line will include the construction of a turnback track within the station, as well as reconfiguration of other tracks.[61][62]

As part of the Sound Transit 3 program, approved by voters in 2016, International District/Chinatown station will be the terminus of a second downtown light rail tunnel, running under 5th Avenue and towards South Lake Union.[63] The tunnel, part of a line serving Lower Queen Anne and Ballard,[64] is scheduled to open in 2036.[65]

Station layout[edit]

View of International District/Chinatown station from the plaza level, open to the platforms below
Street Level Exits/Entrances, Ticket vending machines, First Hill Streetcar, walkway to King Street Station
Platform
level
Side platform, doors will open on the right
Northbound Central Link toward University of Washington (Pioneer Square)
Bus Bay A (41, 74) northbound toward Interstate 5 (Pioneer Square)
Bus Bay A (255) eastbound toward State Route 520 (Pioneer Square)
Southbound Central Link toward Angle Lake (Stadium)
Bus Bay C (101, 102, 150) southbound toward SODO Busway (Royal Brougham)
Bus Bay D (550) eastbound toward Interstate 90 (Rainier Freeway Station)
Side platform, doors will open on the right

International District/Chinatown station consists of two side platforms below street level, partially covered by a lid with a public plaza.[2][7] The station is 1,060 feet (320 m) long and 82 feet (25 m) wide, including a bus layover area and operations facility to the south of the platforms.[66][67] It has two entrances, with elevators, escalators and stairs connecting to the platform, at South Jackson Street and South Weller Street. The Weller Street entrance also includes a pedestrian corridor traveling west from the station to King Street Station's Sounder commuter rail platforms, as well as CenturyLink Field and Pioneer Square.[7][68]

The station was designed by architect Gary Hartnett in an Asian motif, intending to create a "gathering place" for the neighborhood as a whole. Along with the rest of the downtown transit tunnel stations, International District/Chinatown station was designed with integrated public artwork, coordinated by lead artists Alice Adams and Sonya Ishii.[14] The plaza level includes seating areas, covered shelters for seller's booths, and a small wooden stage modeled after the architecture of traditional Japanese homes.[69] The plaza is paved with bricks arranged with symbols of the Chinese zodiac in the style of traditional Coast Salish depictions of animals.[14] Other areas of the plaza have steel trellises with grown ivy and a pair of etched poems about Asian railroad laborers. At the north end of the plaza are two kiosks with clay tiles depicting legends and stories from Native American, Asian, and African cultures, created by elementary school students from Beacon Hill.[70] The platform level's east wall has a series of nine painted steel origami patterns by Ishii, called the "Paper Chase";[14] the origami depicts the phases of the moon and blooming of a cherry blossom.[71] The entrance stairways between the platform and plaza levels are also adorned with quotations from Philippine writer Jose Rizal, poet Eve Triem, Chinatown merchant Chin Gee Hee, and University of Washington professor Teresa Schmid McMahon.[7][14]

The station's pictogram, a dragon, pays homage to the various cultures of the International District neighborhood. It was created in 2009 by Christian French as part of the Stellar Connections series and its points represent nearby destinations, including Union Station, the Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience, and Hing Hay Park.[72]

Services[edit]

International District/Chinatown station is the southern terminus of the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel, served by six King County Metro bus routes and one Sound Transit Express bus route, as well as Sound Transit's Central Link light rail line. The bus routes are divided into three bays by their outbound direction: Bay A is served by three routes (routes 41, 74, and 255) heading north toward Northgate and the University District and east towards Kirkland; Bay C is served by three routes (routes 101, 102, and 150) heading south through the SODO Busway toward Kent and Renton; and Bay D is served by one route (Sound Transit Express route 550) heading east via Interstate 90 to Bellevue.[73]

Central Link light rail runs from the University of Washington campus to Downtown Seattle, the Rainier Valley and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, using the downtown transit tunnel between Westlake and International District/Chinatown stations. International District/Chinatown is the tenth northbound station from Angle Lake station, the line's southern terminus, and fifth southbound station from University of Washington station, the northern terminus. The station is located between Pioneer Square and Stadium stations. Central Link trains operate for twenty hours a day on weekdays and Saturdays, from 5:00 am to 1:00 am, and eighteen hours on Sundays, from 6:00 am to 12:00 am. During regular weekday service, trains operate roughly every six minutes during peak periods and ten minutes at midday. Trains have longer headways of fifteen minutes in the early morning and twenty minutes at night on weekdays. During weekends, Central Link trains arrive every ten minutes during daytime hours and every fifteen minutes during early mornings and evenings. The station is approximately 31 minutes from SeaTac/Airport station and seven minutes from Westlake station.[74][75] In 2017, an average of 5,771 passengers boarded Link trains at International District/Chinatown station on weekdays.[1]

In addition to service in the tunnel, International District/Chinatown station is within close proximity to several other regional and local transit services. King Street Station is located one block west of the station and is served by inter-city Amtrak trains on the Cascades, Coast Starlight, and Empire Builder,[76] as well as Sounder commuter trains to Everett, Tacoma, and Lakewood.[77] BoltBus, a private bus operator, uses a curbside stop near the station for its intercity routes serving Vancouver and Portland, Oregon.[78] The First Hill Streetcar stops one block east of the station on South Jackson Street, connecting the area to Little Saigon, Yesler Terrace, First Hill, and Capitol Hill.[79] The Waterfront Streetcar also served the station, using a separate platform on 5th Avenue South,[80] until service was suspended in 2005.[81]

International District/Chinatown station is also adjacent to several surface bus stops, served by King County Metro, Sound Transit Express, and Community Transit routes.[82] Bus stops on South Jackson Street serve routes headed east and southeast to the Central District, Beacon Hill, and Rainier Valley, as well as routes headed north towards Belltown, Queen Anne, Capitol Hill, and the University District. Bus stops on 4th Avenue South, 5th Avenue South, and 2nd Avenue Extension South serve local routes to West Seattle, Burien, and Shoreline; as well as regional routes to Snohomish County, the Eastside, southern King County, and Pierce County.[82][83]

During closures of the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel and International District/Chinatown station, tunnel buses are rerouted onto the surface; southbound buses stop at either 2nd Avenue Extension South and South Jackson Street or 5th Avenue South and South Jackson Street, while northbound buses stop on 4th Avenue South and South Jackson Street. King County Metro also runs a special route, the Route 97 Link Shuttle, between all Link light rail stations during service disruptions, stopping at South Jackson Street to serve the station.[84]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Q4 2017 Service Delivery Quarterly Performance Report" (PDF). Sound Transit. February 22, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved February 22, 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c d Lindblom, Mike (May 26, 2009). "International District/Chinatown Station is switching point for many commuters". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  3. ^ Seattle's Original Neighborhood: Pioneer Square (PDF) (Map). Alliance for Pioneer Square. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 17, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  4. ^ Growing Transit Communities Oversight Committee (October 2013). "International District: Light Rail/Commuter Rail/Bus" (PDF). The Growing Transit Communities Strategy. Puget Sound Regional Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  5. ^ Sipe, Tyler; Wasson, Lindsey (December 12, 2016). "Transit Tourism: Explore Seattle by Link light rail". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  6. ^ "Opus Center @ Union Station". Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. November 9, 2000. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Transit Tunnel: International District/Chinatown Station (PDF) (Map). King County Metro Transit. October 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  8. ^ Broberg, Brad (May 24, 2013). "Structures: West's largest TOD takes shape near Pioneer Square". Puget Sound Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 2, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  9. ^ Crowley, Walt; MacIntosh, Heather (1999). The Story of Union Station in Seattle. History Ink. pp. 29–30. OCLC 42880659. 
  10. ^ Anderson, Rick (January 9, 1983). "'All Kinds Now': Seattle's Asian community bends with the winds of change". The Seattle Times. pp. 12–13. 
  11. ^ "Seattle Chinatown Historic District". Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Itinerary. National Park Service. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  12. ^ Williams, David B. (2017). Seattle Walks: Discovering History and Nature in the City. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780295741284. OCLC 963736198. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017 – via Google Books. 
  13. ^ Caldbick, John (October 17, 2015). "King Street Station (Seattle)". HistoryLink. Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "International District/Chinatown Station—A Cultural Exchange". King Couny Metro. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  15. ^ Bogue, Virgil (1911). "Appendix No. III—Proposed Rapid Transit System". Plan of Seattle: Report of the Municipal Plans Commission. Seattle, Washington: Lowman & Hanford. p. 183. OCLC 1440455. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2017 – via Google Books. 
  16. ^ Crowley, Walt (September 17, 1972). "Virgil Bogue's plan: Seattle that might have been". The Seattle Times. pp. 8–9. 
  17. ^ Kennett, John J. (March 1, 1957). Rapid Transit on Freeway, Tacoma-Seattle-Everett. Seattle Transit. OCLC 13297486. 
  18. ^ a b Fish, Byron (February 17, 1966). "'Traffic Intolerable'–1926". The Seattle Times. p. 30. 
  19. ^ De Leuw, Cather & Company (October 30, 1967). "Chapter 8: Engineering Studies and Analyses". Report on a Comprehensive Public Transportation Plan for the Seattle Metropolitan Area. Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle. p. 93. OCLC 74314. 
  20. ^ De Leuw, Cather & Company (February 19, 1970). "Chapter 1: Recommended Public Transportation Plan". The Rapid Transit Plan for the Metropolitan Seattle Area. Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle. p. 15. OCLC 120953. 
  21. ^ Lane, Bob (April 29, 1970). "Choice of Third Avenue Transit Line Explained". The Seattle Times. p. A8. 
  22. ^ Lane, Bob (April 23, 1970). "Rapid Transit: How South and West Legs Would Work". The Seattle Times. p. D1. 
  23. ^ Lane, Bob (April 26, 1970). "Rapid Transit: How It Will Serve". The Seattle Times. p. B1. 
  24. ^ McRoberts, Patrick (January 1, 1999). "King County voters on Forward Thrust bonds approve stadium and aquarium and nix transit on February 13, 1968". HistoryLink. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  25. ^ "Voters reject rail transit plan and three other Forward Thrust bond proposals on May 19, 1970". HistoryLink. September 19, 2002. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  26. ^ "Milestones—The 1970s". King County Metro. Archived from the original on May 7, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  27. ^ Gough, William (November 4, 1983). "Metro Council OK's downtown transit tunnel". The Seattle Times. p. B1. 
  28. ^ Nogaki, Sylvia (February 18, 1984). "Metro envisions city bus subway in 5 years". The Seattle Times. p. A6. 
  29. ^ "Panel picks sites for tunnel stations". The Seattle Times. November 1, 1984. p. C6. 
  30. ^ Lane, Bob (May 8, 1986). "Bus-tunnel stations will be designed to match buildings". The Seattle Times. p. B6. 
  31. ^ Lane, Bob (May 15, 1987). "Big 'mole' to gnaw through downtown". The Seattle Times. p. C1. 
  32. ^ Lane, Bob (June 26, 1987). "'Mole' is burrowing bus tunnel; 140-ton 'creature' digging its way under downtown". The Seattle Times. p. A1. 
  33. ^ Lilly, Dick (April 28, 1988). "Early Christmas gift for Seattleites: Downtown". The Seattle Times. p. D3. 
  34. ^ "City council OKs Union Station project". The Seattle Times. October 12, 1989. p. B3. 
  35. ^ Jago, Jill (November 9, 2000). "Seattle's biggest jigsaw puzzle". Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  36. ^ Silver, Jon (November 9, 2000). "From coal plant to depot to office complex". Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  37. ^ Lane, Bob (June 7, 1990). "Deafening silence: Bus tunnel's done". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  38. ^ Lane, Bob (May 30, 1989). "Trolleys to link up with Metro". The Seattle Times. p. B1. 
  39. ^ "Activities to mark streetcar extension". The Seattle Times. June 23, 1990. p. A6. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  40. ^ "Red alert, skinwise: Hot sun in sight for Bite, Seafair". The Seattle Times. July 14, 1990. p. A1. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  41. ^ "Metro to dedicate bus-tunnel station". The Seattle Times. July 13, 1990. p. B3. 
  42. ^ Rosenwald, Lonnie (September 15, 1990). "Seattle opens glitzy new bus tunnel today". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington: Cowles Publishing Company. p. A9. Retrieved July 17, 2017 – via Google News Archive. 
  43. ^ Lane, Bob (September 11, 1990). "The Metro Mission: Easy riders". The Seattle Times. p. A4. 
  44. ^ Schaefer, David (November 6, 1996). "Voters back transit plan on fourth try". The Seattle Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  45. ^ Hamilton, Charles (November 6, 2006). "Sound Transit (King, Pierce, and Snohomish counties)". HistoryLink. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  46. ^ Pryne, Eric (October 13, 2005). "Bus-tunnel error years ago is costly in shutdown today". The Seattle Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  47. ^ "Sound Transit Board achieves historic milestone by selecting route for central Link light rail" (Press release). Sound Transit. November 18, 1999. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  48. ^ Pryne, Eric (June 25, 2002). "Sound Transit, county agree to bus-tunnel plan". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  49. ^ Pryne, Eric (May 12, 2002). "The bus tunnel tug-of-war". The Seattle Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  50. ^ "King County Ordinance 15074: Renaming of the International District Station" (PDF). Metropolitan King County Council. October 19, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  51. ^ Vinh, Tan (June 11, 2005). "Name feud clouds opening of library". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  52. ^ "Pelz Leads Renaming of "International District/Chinatown" Tunnel Station" (Press release). Metropolitan King County Council. November 22, 2014. Archived from the original on December 4, 2004. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  53. ^ Gilmore, Susan (September 23, 2005). "Bus tunnel shuts down tonight for 2 years". The Seattle Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  54. ^ "Whats, whys of $82.7 million tunnel project". The Seattle Times. September 23, 2005. p. A15. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  55. ^ "What's new in the tunnel?". SeattleTunnel.org. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  56. ^ Gilmore, Susan (September 25, 2007). "Reopening of downtown Seattle bus tunnel goes smoothly". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  57. ^ "Link light rail launches new era of mobility for central Puget Sound" (Press release). Seattle, Washington: Sound Transit. July 18, 2009. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  58. ^ Lindblom, Mike (July 20, 2009). "Light-rail trains run smoothly, if not to capacity, on first day". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on November 28, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  59. ^ Lindblom, Mike (June 25, 2017). "Reprieve for tunnel riders, but cascading projects to multiply Seattle's traffic woes". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on June 25, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  60. ^ "East Link Extension: Location & stations". Sound Transit. Archived from the original on January 21, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  61. ^ "Sound Transit Motion No. M2013-48" (PDF). Sound Transit. July 25, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  62. ^ "Proposed Ordinance 2017-0094 Staff Report" (PDF). King County Council. June 12, 2017. p. 74. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  63. ^ Lindblom, Mike (December 5, 2015). "Would voters dig another transit tunnel?". The Seattle Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  64. ^ "Downtown Seattle Light Rail Tunnel" (PDF). Sound Transit 3. Sound Transit. July 1, 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  65. ^ Lindblom, Mike (November 14, 2016). "Where Sound Transit 3 projects could speed up or slow down". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  66. ^ Sandaas, Richard K. (January 1, 1990). "Downtown Seattle Transit Project: International District Station". Deep Foundations Institute. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017 – via OneMine. 
  67. ^ The Book: Transit Operating Handbook (PDF). King County Metro. February 2011. pp. 726–729. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017 – via Seattle Transit Blog. 
  68. ^ "Qwest Field: Covering all the routes". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  69. ^ Plank, Joanne (June 20, 1989). "Multicultural drawings by pupils will adorn bus tunnel entrance". The Seattle Times. p. B3. 
  70. ^ Lau, Alan (May 15, 1991). "Arts, Etc" (PDF). International Examiner. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  71. ^ "Stellar Connections". Sound Transit. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2017. 
  72. ^ Downtown Metro Service: Frequent Routes to Help You Get Around Downtown (PDF) (Map). King County Metro. September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  73. ^ "Link light rail schedule". Sound Transit. March 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 9, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2017. 
  74. ^ "Expanded Metro bus service coming; Link light rail ramps up in downtown tunnel" (Press release). King County Metro. September 16, 2015. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  75. ^ "Seattle, WA (SEA): King Street Station". Amtrak. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  76. ^ "King Street Station". Sound Transit. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  77. ^ Lindblom, Mike (May 7, 2012). "Low-cost bus line to Portland on track to compete against Amtrak". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  78. ^ Seattle Streetcar (PDF) (Map). Seattle Department of Transportation. December 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  79. ^ Lilly, Dick (January 15, 1992). "Transit plan chugs along; feasibility study brings King Street idea closer to reality". The Seattle Times. p. F3. 
  80. ^ Lacitis, Erik (June 18, 2012). "Seattle's classic waterfront streetcars stuck at dead end". The Seattle Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  81. ^ a b Regional Transit Map Book (PDF) (Map). Sound Transit. February 2014. pp. 8–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  82. ^ Downtown Metro Service: Frequent Routes to Help You Get Around Downtown (PDF) (Map). King County Metro. September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  83. ^ Surface Street Bus Stops When the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel is Closed (PDF) (Map). King County Metro. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 

External links[edit]