International Encyclopedia of Unified Science
The International Encyclopedia of Unified Science (IEUS) was a series of publications devoted to unified science. The IEUS was conceived at the Mundaneum Institute in The Hague in the 1930s, and published in the United States beginning in 1938. It was an ambitious project that was never completed.
The IEUS was an output of the Vienna Circle to address the "growing concern throughout the world for the logic, the history, and the sociology of science..." Only the first section Foundations of the Unity of Science (FUS) was published; it contains two volumes for a total of nineteen monographs published from 1938 to 1969.
International Congresses for the Unity of Science
Creation of the IEUS was facilitated by the International Congresses for the Unity of Science organized by members of the Vienna Circle. After a preliminary conference in Prague in 1934, the First International Congress for the Unity of Science was held at the Sorbonne, Paris, 16–21 September 1935.:171 It was attended by about 170 people from over twenty different countries. With the active involvement of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (Poland), Susan Stebbing (England), and Federigo Enriques (Italy) the scope of the project for an IEUS was considerably expanded.:173 The congress expressed its approval of the planned IEUS as proposed by the Mundaneum, and further set up a committee to plan future congresses.:173 This committee included the following members::173
- Marcel Boll
- Percy Williams Bridgman
- Henri Bonnet
- Niels Bohr
- Rudolph Carnap
- Élie Cartan
- Jacob Clay
- Morris Raphael Cohen
- Federigo Enriques
- Phillip Frank
- Maurice René Fréchet
- Ferdinand Gonseth
- Jacques Hadamard
- Maurice Janet
- Herbert Spencer Jennings
- Jørgen Jørgensen
- Hans Kelsen
- Tadeusz Kotarbiński
- André Lalande
- Paul Langevin
- Karl Lashley
- Clarence Irving Lewis
- Jan Łukasiewicz
- Richard von Mises
- Charles W. Morris
- Otto Neurath
- Charles Nicolle
- Charles Kay Ogden
- Jean Baptiste Perrin
- Hans Reichenbach
- Abel Rey
- Charles Rist
- Louis Rougier
- Bertrand Russell
- Moritz Schlick
- Susan Stebbing
- Joseph Henry Woodger
The Third International Congress for the Unity of Science, which was devoted exclusively to the IEUS, was held in Paris, 29–31 July 1937.:182
Foundations of the Theory of Signs (FUS I-2)
Foundations of Logic and Mathematics (FUS I-3)
Linguistic Aspects of Science (FUS I-4)
Procedures of Empirical Science (FUS I-5)
Victor F. Lenzen
Principles of the Theory of Probability (FUS I-6)
Foundations of Physics (FUS I-7)
Cosmology (FUS I-8)
Foundations of Biology (FUS I-9)
The Conceptual Framework of Psychology (FUS I-10)
Foundations of the Social Sciences (FUS II-1)
Science and the Structure of Ethics (FUS II-3)
Theory of Valuation (FUS II-4)
The Technique of Theory Construction (FUS II-5)
Joseph H. Woodger
Methodology of Mathematical Economics and Econometrics (FUS II-6)
Concept Formation in Empirical Science (FUS II-7)
Carl G. Hempel
The Development of Logical Empiricism (FUS II-9)
Historian David Hollinger argued that the IEUS was a less comprehensive account of the sciences of the time than it could have been, and was especially weak in the social sciences. Hollinger noted that the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, published around the same time, provided a much more comprehensive account of the social sciences: "The Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (12 vols., New York, 1933–1937) was a prodigious endeavor brought to successful completion by Alvin Johnson. This encyclopedia is a much more important episode in the history of thought than The International Encyclopedia of Unified Science yet has attracted much less attention from historians than the abortive enterprise led by Neurath." Hollinger also said that the scholarly journal Philosophy of Science, founded in 1934, provided a much more inclusive perspective on the sciences in those years than did the IEUS.
American political theorist James Burnham refers to the Encyclopedia in Science and Style: A Reply to Comrade Trotsky (1940), his penultimate tract discussing his differences with Leon Trotsky and marking Burnham's renouncement of dialectical materialism. In this text he responds to Trotsky's request to draw his attention to "those works which should supplant the system of dialectic materialism for the proletariat" by referring to Principia Mathematica by Russell and Whitehead and "the scientists, mathematicians and logicians now cooperating in the new Encyclopedia of Unified Science".
- Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia – published in 1938, the same year as the first monograph in the IEUS
- World Brain – published in 1938, the same year as the first monograph in the IEUS
- World Congress of Universal Documentation – held in Paris in 1937 a few weeks after the Third International Congress for the Unity of Science
- Neurath, Otto (1983) . "An international encyclopedia of unified science". In Cohen, Robert S.; Neurath, Marie; Fawcett, Carolyn R. (eds.). Philosophical papers, 1913–1946. Vienna Circle collection. 16. Dordrecht; Boston: D. Reidel. pp. 139–144. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-6995-7_12. ISBN 9027714835.
- Neurath, Otto; Carnap, Rudolf; Morris, Charles W., eds. (1969) . Foundations of the unity of science: toward an international encyclopedia of unified science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 103. ISBN 0226575861. OCLC 186129.
- Stadler, Friedrich (2015) . The Vienna Circle: studies in the origins, development, and influence of logical empiricism. Vienna circle institute library. 4 (Abridged and revised ed.). Cham: Springer Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16561-5. ISBN 9783319165608. OCLC 911018849. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- Hollinger, David A. (May 2011). "The unity of knowledge and the diversity of knowers: science as an agent of cultural integration in the United States between the two world wars". Pacific Historical Review. 80 (2): 211–230 [216–217]. doi:10.1525/phr.2011.80.2.211.
- Burhham J. (1940a) Science and Style: A Reply to Comrade Trotsky, in In Defence of Marxism by Leon Trotsky, London 1966, pp.232–256.
- Morris, Charles W. (1962) . "On the history of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science". Logic and language: studies dedicated to Professor Rudolf Carnap on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Synthese library. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. pp. 242–246. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-2111-0_16. ISBN 9789048183197. JSTOR 20114366. OCLC 23127209.
- Nemeth, Elisabeth; Stadler, Friedrich, eds. (1996). Encyclopedia and utopia: the life and work of Otto Neurath (1882–1945). Vienna Circle Institute yearbook. 4. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0792341619. OCLC 36219438.
- Neurath, Otto (1983) . "Encyclopedia as 'model'". In Cohen, Robert S.; Neurath, Marie; Fawcett, Carolyn R. (eds.). Philosophical papers, 1913–1946. Vienna Circle collection. 16. Dordrecht; Boston: D. Reidel. pp. 145–158. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-6995-7_13. ISBN 9027714835.
- O'Neill, John (September 2003). "Unified science as political philosophy: positivism, pluralism and liberalism". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A. 34 (3): 575–596. doi:10.1016/S0039-3681(03)00048-7.
- Pombo, Olga (2011). "Neurath and the encyclopaedic project of unity of science". In Symons, John; Pombo, Olga; Torres, Juan Manuel (eds.). Otto Neurath and the unity of science. Logic, epistemology and the unity of science. 18. Dodrecht; New York: Springer Verlag. pp. 59–70. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0143-4_5. ISBN 9789400701427. OCLC 723045353.
- Potochnik, Angela (May 2011). "A Neurathian conception of the unity of science" (PDF). Erkenntnis. 74 (3): 305–319. doi:10.1007/s10670-010-9228-0.
- Reisch, George A. (June 1994). "Planning science: Otto Neurath and the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science". The British Journal for the History of Science. 27 (2): 153–175. doi:10.1017/S0007087400031873. JSTOR 4027433.
- Zolo, Danilo (1989) . "The unity of science as a historico-sociological goal: from the primacy of physics to the epistemological priority of sociology". Reflexive epistemology: the philosophical legacy of Otto Neurath. Boston studies in the philosophy of science. 118. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 83–106. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-2415-4_5. ISBN 0792303202. OCLC 19814200.