International Geo Sample Number
The International Geo Sample Number or IGSN is a sample identification code of typically nine characters. As an active persistent identifier it can be resolved through the Handle System. The system is used in production by the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), Geoscience Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mineral Resources, Curtin University John de Laeter Centre for Geochemistry, University of Bremen MARUM, and German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Other organisations are preparing the introduction of the IGSN.
The IGSN preserves the identity of a sample even as it is moved from lab to lab and as data appear in different publications, thus eliminating ambiguity that stems from similar names for samples from the earth. The IGSN unique identifier allows researchers to track the analytical history of a sample and build on previously collected data as new techniques are developed. Additionally, the IGSN provides a link between disparate data generated by different investigators and published in different scientific articles.
The IGSN was developed as part of SESAR with the support of the National Science Foundation at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. The project was initiated and managed by the Geoinformatics for Geochemistry Program under the direction of Kerstin Lehnert to address data curation obstacles such as different samples that share the same name, and samples that are renamed as they move between laboratories and thus generating analyses that are published under different aliases. As a result, metadata that ensure unique identification are often missing and this causes irritation for future reuse of data from a sample or the sample itself. Sample databases, such as the SESAR database, are designed to address these issues.
At a workshop hosted at the San Diego Supercomputer Center in 2011, a group of experts met to discuss how to transition the IGSN project into a sustainable infrastructure. The group recommended to open the system to other IGSN registration agents, make it international and transfer the operation and governance of the IGSN to an independent body. This recommendation lead to the foundation of the International Geo Sample Implementation Organization e.V. (IGSN e.V.) and the founding event was held at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2011 in San Francisco, California. The IGSN e.V. is an incorporated organisation under German law and is registered at the Magistrates Court in Potsdam, Germany.
Membership in the organisation is open only to institutions, not to individuals. At present, IGSN e.V. has 21 full members.
An example of a publication using live IGSNs can be found here:
Dere, A. L., T. S. White, R. H. April, B. Reynolds, T. E. Miller, E. P. Knapp, L. D. McKay, and S. L. Brantley (2013), Climate dependence of feldspar weathering in shale soils along a latitudinal gradient, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 122, 101–126, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.08.001.
This paper contains several samples identified by IGSN, one of them is IGSN: SSH000SUA. Information about this sample can be obtained by resolving the IGSN by adding the URL of the resolver before the IGSN: http://igsn.org/SSH000SUA. Since IGSN and Digital Object Identifier are technically Handles, the example IGSN can also be resolved through http://hdl.handle.net/10273/SSH000SUA or https://dx.doi.org/10273/SSH000SUA.
IGSN can be used to identify samples and sampling features, such as boreholes or outcrops. The IGSN ICDP5054ESYI201 identifies a core section from core 5054_1_A_658_Z (IGSN ICDP5054ECYD101) of the COSC Expedition of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The corresponding drill hole (sampling feature) 5054_1_A is identified by IGSN ICDP5054EEW1001.
Samples are registered through Allocating Agents. At present (Feb 2016) the following IGSN Allocation Agents register IGSN:
- System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR)
- Geoscience Australia
- Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mineral Resources
- Curtin University John de Laeter Centre for Geochemistry
- University of Bremen MARUM
- German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ)
To obtain an IGSN, users need to register a sample by submitting information about it to an IGSN Allocating Agent. Once logged in, users can:
- register individual samples or batches
- track relationships between samples and subsamples (e.g., bulk samples and mineral separates)
- update information on registered samples
- download QR code images for labelling purposes
- request new sample types to be added to the system