International Phonetic Alphabet chart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association.

Official chart[edit]

The official IPA chart, revised to 2018.

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

Consonants[edit]

Pulmonic consonants[edit]

Place Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz t̠ʃ d̠ʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v t̪θ d̪ð tɹ̝̊ dɹ̝ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ʡʢ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̠ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ɻ˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ̥ ʋ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ ʔ̞
Tap/flap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̆
Trill ʙ̥ ʙ r ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̝̊ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ɭ˔ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral tap/flap ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̆ ʟ̆

Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Non-pulmonic consonants[edit]

Ejective Stop ʈʼ ʡʼ
Affricate t̪θʼ tsʼ t̠ʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ qχʼ
Fricative ɸʼ θʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
Lateral affricate tɬʼ cʎ̝̊ʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ
Lateral fricative ɬʼ
Click Tenuis ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ
Voiced ʘ̬ ǀ̬ ǃ̬ ‼̬ ǂ̬
Nasal ʘ̃ ǀ̃ ǃ̃ ‼̃ ǂ̃
Tenuis lateral ǁ
Voiced lateral ǁ̬
Implosive Voiced ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Voiceless ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̥ ʄ̥ ɠ̊ ʛ̥

Co-articulated consonants[edit]

t͡p
d͡b
Labial–alveolar
Labial–velar
ɧ
Sj-sound (variable)
Labial–velar
Velarized alveolar
Nasal approximant
Palatal
Labial–velar
Glottal

Auxiliary symbols[edit]

Diacritics
◌̥ ◌̊ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ ◌͆ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
◌ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ ◌͗ ◌˒ More rounded ◌ʷ Labialized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ ◌͑ ◌˓ Less rounded ◌ʲ Palatalized ◌ⁿ Nasal release
◌̟ ◌˖ Advanced ◌ˠ Velarized ◌ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ ◌˗ Retracted ◌ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ◌ᵊ Mid central vowel release
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ ◌˔ Raised ◌ᶿ Voiceless dental fricative release
◌̩ ◌̍ Syllabic ◌̞ ◌˕ Lowered ◌ˣ Voiceless velar fricative release
◌̯ ◌̑ Non-syllabic ◌̘ Advanced tongue root ◌ʼ Ejective
◌˞ Rhoticity ◌̙ Retracted tongue root ◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra-short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
Tones and word accents
Level Contour
◌̋ ˥ Extra-high (top) ◌̌ ˩˥ Rising
◌́ ˦ High tone ◌̂ ˥˩ Falling
◌̄ ˧ Mid tone ◌᷄ ˦˥ High rising
◌̀ ˨ Low tone ◌᷅ ˩˨ Low rising
◌̏ ˩ Extra-low (bottom) ◌᷈ ˧˦˧ Rising-falling
◌ꜜ Downstep ↗︎ Global rise
◌ꜛ Upstep ↘︎ Global fall
Transcription
[ ] Phonetic transcription
/ / Phonemic transcription
( ) Indistinguishable utterance
⸨ ⸩ Sound obscured
} Prosodic notation

See also[edit]

External links[edit]