International Union of Students

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International Union of Students
Stamps of Germany (DDR) 1973, MiNr 1866.jpg
AbbreviationIUS
SuccessorInternational Council of Students
Formation1946
PurposeAssociation of World's Students' Organizations
HeadquartersCzech Republic
Location
Region served
Worldwide
Membership
155 Students' Organizations from 112 Countries
Official language
English, French, Spanish
Secretary General
Frage Sherif
Treasurer
Liz Carlyle
Advisory Council Chief
Akhil Ennamsetty
Key people
Ingo Jaeger, Maria Lucia, Syed Mustaffa Ali
Main organ
Executive Secretariat
AffiliationsUNESCO, ECOSOC
RemarksIdeologically influenced by Left-Wing, Communist, Socialist and Marxist views.
Formerly called
International Students' Council

The International Union of Students (IUS) is a worldwide nonpartisan association of university student organizations.[1][2][3]

The IUS is the umbrella organization for 155 such students' organizations across 112 countries and territories representing approximately 25 million students. This is recognised by the United Nations Organization granting the IUS a consultative status in UNESCO. The primary aim of the IUS is to defend the rights and interests of students to promote improvement in their welfare and standard of education and to prepare them for their tasks as democratic citizens.[2][4]

Aim and work areas[edit]

The aims of the IUS are spelled out in the 1946 preamble to the organization's Constitution [1]:

The purpose of the International Union of Students, which is founded upon the representative student organizations of different countries, shall be to defend the rights and interests of students to promote improvement in their welfare and standard of education and to prepare them for their tasks as democratic citizens.

According to the IUS's entry in the UNESCO Non-Governmental Organization list, the priority work areas of the IUS are: "Exchange of information, defence of students' status, peace, environment, development, human rights".[2]

Activities[edit]

The IUS currently works through:[2][4]

  • Issuing Student Statements
  • Circular News Letters and Calls for Action to members
  • Celebration of the International Students' Day on November 17
  • Organizing Student Conferences

Logo symbolism[edit]

The logo and flag of the IUS is a burning torch and an open book set against the red and blue outline of a stylized globe. It symbolizes youth's persistent quest for knowledge.[5]

History[edit]

Stamp of the 25th congress of IUS in USSR

Early history 1946 - 1956[edit]

The International Union of Students was founded in Prague on August 27, 1946.[1] Student organizations from 62 countries participated in its founding envisioning a more inclusive successor to the short lived 1941-1944 International Council of Students (also known as the International Students' Council) which was set up on the initiative of the British National Union of Students to maintain open lines of communication with student organizations in allied countries during World War II.[6]

From its earliest inception, the IUS was marked by a fundamental schism:

"The spirit of [post-war] co-operation and the desire to prevent a resurgence of fascism in Europe brought together otherwise divergent groups. The main divisions, evident even at the founding congress, were between the Communist student organizations, which gained control of the executive bodies of the IUS from the beginning, and the student unions from western Europe, many of which were primarily interested in preserving the idea of a non-political international agency which would provide concrete services to the students of various countries"[7]

In response to the increasingly partisan Communist course of the IUS and the broad powers of its secretariat and executive committee to initiate new policy programmes on behalf of the members, several non-Communist members withdrew their membership in the following years. Following which the IUS also referred itself as Independent Federation of Left-Wing and Alternative Student Unions.[8]

Consequently, 21 such break-away national students organizations met in Stockholm in 1950 to form the International Student Conference (ISC) as a nonpartisan rival organization to the pro-Communist IUS.[9][10] Notable among these founders was the United States National Student Association (USNSA or NSA)[10] though "Anglo-Saxons, Scandinavians and Dutch wielded the greatest influence [in the ISC]".[11]

At the time of the formation of the ISC, the dominant view in later analyses is that the IUS had become Communist controlled to such a degree that it is often referred to as a Soviet Union Communist front organization with the IUS and ISC aligned along the Cold War fronts toward the Soviet Union and the United States of America respectively.[12][13][14][15]

A dissenting view that the IUS was strongly influenced by socialism and communism but not de facto controlled by Soviet Communist interests, has also been expressed, however, by Trotskyist Lawrence Brammer:[16]

"It is significant that several former IUS officers later became outspoken liberals in Czechoslovakia and in the French and Italian Communist Parties. The outward pro-Soviet orientation of the IUS often obscured real differences within the organization"[17]

IUS activities in this period included Student Games held by the IUS Sports Council. The first such games were held in Paris in 1946 and were subsequently integrated into the World Youth Festivals (also known as World Festival of Youth and Students) which the IUS co-sponsored with the equally Communist oriented World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY).[18]

Such festivals brought up to 30,000 youth and students together for a social, cultural and sporting event[19] (see World Federation of Democratic Youth).

IUS from 1956 - 1969[edit]

From 1956 onwards, the IUS and ISC competed to attract student unions non-aligned in the Cold War sense. Focus was on Latin America, Asia and Africa and recruitment of member unions from here resulted in a broader political base for the IUS.[19][20]

Activities in this period included among others regional student seminars, donation of duplication machines and cameras to help affiliates, the establishment of student Health Centres in India,[21] international student conferences as well as the publication in German, Russian and Czech of the World Student News journal of the IUS, the Democratic Education journal of the IUS, and topical pamphlets concerning education. More spectacularly, the IUS continued to co-sponsor World Youth Festivals with the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY).[19]

It was well known from the outset that the IUS was funded by Soviet and Czech government contributions:[22]

"The cost of international meetings, large-scale publications, and the other activities in which they engage, are beyond the financial resources of university students"[23]

However, the IUS's inability to win leadership in left-wing student movements in Europe despite its many activities caused the Soviet Union to re-evaluate its support.[24]

The major challenge for the IUS in this period turned out to be its preoccupation with an ideological agenda rather than a focus on actual student concerns and affairs.[15][24] As a consequence of this stance, the organization became detached from its student base and was circumvented by grassroots movements in, e.g. the planning of international anti-war demonstrations in relation to the Vietnam War. The major achievements of the IUS in this period were therefore firstly helping create national student unions in developing countries and secondly aiding student union members with information and idea exchange.[25]

The dissolution of the IUS's rival organization the International Student Conference (ISC) owing to lack of funds became a reality in 1969.[26] The demise of the ISC were hastened by the 1967 revelation that the CIA had indirectly funded the ISC and recruited student representatives from the United States National Student Association (USNSA) to actively oppose Communism in the IUS. This undermined both the financial and student political support of the ISC leaving, once again, the IUS as the only worldwide student organization.[27]

IUS from 1970 - present[edit]

This period in IUS history is marked by the chairmanship of the same chairman from 1977 to 1986[28] under whom a flurry of international IUS activity took place in 1979.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35]

The most significant event of the period for the IUS, however, was the turmoil the organization encountered after the 1989 - 1991 fall of Communism (see also World Federation of Democratic Youth) during which the IUS lost most of its funding.[36] Additionally, in August 1991, the Czechoslovak Minister of the Interior decided to expel the IUS and other Communist front organizations from Czechoslovakia.[37][38][39] The reasons given for the expulsion were close ties with the old Communist regime and abuse of tax privileges granted during the old Communist regime.[36][40][41]

Despite the hardships caused by the changing power dynamics of the 1990s,[42] the organization elected a new leadership at its 1992 Cyprus Congress[43] and initiated structural changes of its Constitution to renew itself and evolve beyond its Communist past:

"At the 16th Congress of the International Union of Students (IUS), which took place in January 1992 in Larnaca, Cyprus, the organisation underwent major changes, including the development of a new constitution. These initiatives were adopted to establish the basis for a more democratic, representative, and independent international student organisation"[44]

The new leadership and its successors continued to make press appearances in, e.g., relation to International Students' Day celebration in Dublin in 1994[45] and the 1998 UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education.[46]

In August 2003, the International Union of Students marked a comeback by calling for a worldwide day of protest against the inclusion of Higher Education in the WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services.[36][47]

The IUS is still, however, struggling with its expulsion from its Prague headquarters as of October 2006:

"Most cold war institutions shriveled in the 1990s, along with their superpower backing. The big communist front outfits that fought propaganda wars, awash with cash and stuffed with spies, have fizzled away in a mixture of apathy and swindles. This week's court-enforced auction of a hulking concrete pile in the heart of Prague belonging to one of them, the International Union of Students, was halted amid squabbles among its dozens of creditors" [48]

Members[edit]

The IUS has the following members:[49]

Country Member Membership
 Afghanistan Union of Afghan Youth Consultative
 Algeria Union Nationale des Étudiants Algériens Full
 Argentina Argentine University Federation Full
 Bahrain National Union of Bahrain Students Full
 Bangladesh Bangladesh Students' Union Shared
Bangladesh Chatra Federation Shared
Students Unity of Bangladesh Shared
Bangladesh Chatra League Shared
Socialist Students Front of Bangladesh Shared
Bangladesh Student League Shared
National Student League Frozen
 Barbados Guild of Undergraduates Full
 Belgium Flemish Union of Students Associate
 Benin Fédération Nationale des Étudiants du Bénin Full
 Bolivia Confederacion Universitaria Boliviana Full
 Botswana Botswana Student Council Frozen
 Brazil National Union of Students Full
União Brasileira dos Estudantes Secundaristas [pt] Consultative
 Bulgaria National Student Coordinating Center of Bulgaria Full
 Burkina Faso Alliance Démocratique des Étudiants Pour le Développement du Burkina Full
 Burma All Burma Students Democratic Front Full
 Burundi Jeunesse Révolutionnaire Rwagasore (Commission Estudiantine) Frozen
 Cambodia Youth Association of Cambodia Frozen
 Cameroon Union Nationale des Étudiants Socialistes du Kamerun Full
 Canada Canadian Federation of Students Full
 Cape Verde Juventude Africana Amilcar Cabral-Cabo Verde Frozen
 Chad Union Générale des Étudiants et Stagiaires du Tchad Full
 Chile Consejo Nacional de Federaciones de Estudiantes Chilenos Frozen
 Commonwealth of Independent States Student Council of Associations and Unions of Higher Educational Institutions of the CIS Consultative
 Colombia Union Nacional de Estudiantes Colombianos Frozen
 Comoros Union Nationale de la Jeunesse et des Étudiants des Comores Consultative
 Congo, Rep. Union Nationale des Étudiants Congolais Full
 Congo, Dem. Rep. Étudiants Congolais Progressistes Consultative
 Costa Rica Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica [es] Shared
Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad Nacional Shared
 Cuba Federación Estudiantil Universitaria [es] Full
 Cyprus Pancyprian Federation of Students and Young Scientists Full
Turkish-Cypriot Student Association Consultative
 Dominican Republic Federación de Estudiantes Dominicanos Full
 Ecuador Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios del Ecuador Frozen
Federación de Estudiantes Politécnicos del Ecuador Shared
 Egypt General Union of Students of the Arab Republic of Egypt Frozen
Union of Democratic Egyptian Youth (Student Section) Shared
 El Salvador General de Estudiantes Universitarios Salvadoreños Full
 Eritrea National Union of Eritrean Youth Full
 Fiji University of the South Pacific Students Association Full
 France Union Nationale des Étudiants de France Shared
Union Nationale des Étudiants de France - Indépendante et Démocratique [fr] Shared
 Gambia National Union of Gambian Students Full
 Germany Freier Zusammenschluss von StudentInnenschaften [de] Full
 Ghana National Union of Ghana Students Full
 Guatemala Asociación de Estudiantes Universitarios Full
 Guinea Bissau African Youth Amílcar Cabral Frozen
 Guyana Student Council of the Progressive Youth Organization Frozen
 Haiti Fédération Nationale des Étudiants Haïtiens Full
 Honduras Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Honduras Frozen
 India National Student Union of India Shared
Chatra Janata Dal Shared
All India Students Federation Shared
Students' Federation of India Shared
All-India Students Bloc Shared
 Iran Organization of Democratic Youth and Students of Iran Frozen
 Iraq General Union of Students in Iraqi Republic Shared
National Union of Iraqi Students Frozen
 Jamaica Jamaica Union of Tertiary Students Full
 Japan All-Japan Federation of Student Unions Full
 Jordan National Union of Jordan Students Frozen
 Kenya Student Organization of Nairobi University Frozen
 Kiribati Kiribati Students' Association Consultative
 North Korea Korean Students Committee Full
 Kurdistan Kurdish Students Society in Europe Full
 Kuwait National Union of Kuwait Students Frozen
 Laos Lao People's Revolutionary Youth Union Consultative
 Lebanon Union Nationale des Étudiants de l'Université Libanaise Frozen
 Lesotho Students' Representative Council Full
 Liberia Liberia National Students Union Full
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya General Union of Great Jamahiriya Students Full
 Madagascar Comité Démocratique des Jeunes et des Étudiants de Madagascar Full
Organisation de la Jeunesse Révolutionnaire du Parti d'Avantgarde de la Révolution Malgache-Arema Consultative
 Malawi Malawi Students Union of Lesoma Full
 Malta Young Students' Movement Consultative
 Mauritius Mauritius Union of Student Councils Consultative
Council of Students & Youth Movements Consultative
 Mexico Coordinadora Nacional de Estudiantes Mexicanos Full
Federación de Estudiantes de Guadalajara [de] Consultative
 Mongolia Union of Mongolian Students Full
 Morocco Union Nationale des Étudiants du Maroc [fr] Frozen
Union Générale des Étudiants du Maroc Consultative
 Mozambique Associaçao dos Estudantes Universitarios de Moçambique Full
Mozambican Youth Organisation Frozen
 Namibia Namibian National Student Organization Full
   Nepal Nepal National Federation of Students Shared
All Nepal National Free Student Union Shared
Nepal Progressive Student Union Frozen
 Netherlands Dutch Student Union Full
 Nicaragua Unión Nacional de Estudiantes de Nicaragua Full
 Niger Union des Scolaires Nigériens Full
 Nigeria National Association of Nigerian Students Full
 Oman National Union of Oman Students Full
 Pakistan Democratic Students Federation Frozen
Jeay Sindh Taraqui Pasand Student Federation Consultative
Sindhi Shagird Tehreek Consultative
Baloch Students Organization Consultative
 Palestine General Union of Palestine Students Full
 Panama Federación de Estudiantes de Panamá Full
 Papua New Guinea National Union of Students Full
 Paraguay Unión Estudiantil de Paraguay Full
 Peru Federación de Estudiantes del Perú Full
 Philippines National Union of Students of the Philippines Full
 Poland Polish Students' Association Full
 Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Pro-Independence University Federation Full
 Quebec Mouvement des Étudiants et Étudiantes du Québec Full
 Romania National Union of Independent Students Full
 Rwanda Association Générale des Étudiants de l'Université Nationale du Ruanda Full
 Saint Lucia Student Bureau (National Youth Council) Full
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines National Student Council Full
 Samoa University of South Pacific-Alafuna Campus Students Association Full
 Sao Tome and Principe Jeunesse du Mouvement de Libération de Sao Tomé et Principe Full
 Saudi Arabia National Union of Students of Saudi Arabia Consultative
 Senegal Union Démocratique des Étudiants de Dakar Full
 Seychelles Seychelles People's Progressive Front (Youth League) Frozen
 Sierra Leone National Union of Sierra Leone Students Full
 Somalia Somali National Students' Union(SNSU)-Midowga Ardayda Qaranka Soomaaliyeed( MAQSO) Full
 South Africa South African Students Congress Full
Congress of South African Students Consultative
 Spain Estudiantes Progresistas Full
Unión de Estudiantes Consultative
Coordinadora d'Estudiants d'Ensenyament Mitjà de Catalunya Consultative
 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka National Union of Students Shared
United National Party (Youth League) Shared
 Sudan Democratic Front of Sudanese Students Full
 Suriname Surinaamse Studenten Unie Frozen
  Switzerland VSS-UNES-USU Full
 Syria National Union of Syrian Students Full
 Tanzania National Union of Tanzanian Students Frozen
Dar Es Salaam University Student Union Consultative
 Togo Mouvement National des Étudiants et Stagiaires du Togo Full
 Trinidad and Tobago Guild of Undergraduates Full
 Tunisia Union Générale des Étudiants de Tunisie [fr] Shared
Union Générale Tunisienne des Étudiants [fr] Frozen
 Uganda Makerere Students Guild Shared
Uganda National Students Association Shared
 Uruguay Asociación Social y Cultural de Estudiantes de la Enseñanza Pública (Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios del Uruguay [es]) Full
 United States United States Student Association Full
 Vanuatu Vanuatu National Union of Students Consultative
 Venezuela Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Venezuela Consultative
Federación de Centros Universitarios Consultative
 Vietnam Union Nationale des Étudiants du Vietnam Full
 Western Sahara Sahrawi Youth Union (Sección Estudiantil) Full
 Yemen Supreme Student Committee Shared
Central Council of Yemeni Students Shared
 Zambia University of Zambia Student Union Full
 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe National Students Union Full

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The IUS Constitution - Preamble". International Union of Students. 2002-07-18. Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
  2. ^ a b c d "UNESCO List of Non-Governmental Organizations". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2002-08-26. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
  3. ^ "Collection International Union of Students". International Institute of Social History. 2005-08-12. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
  4. ^ a b "IUS Website". International Union of Students. 2002-11-18. Archived from the original on 2007-04-30. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
  5. ^ Rzhevsky, Valery (1988): 'International Day of Students Marked Today'; Prague, November 17; The Russian Information Agency ITAR-TASS
  6. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 161-162
  7. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 161
  8. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 162-164
  9. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 163
  10. ^ a b Kehr, Marguerite (1958): 'The International Program of the USNSA'; The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 6. (June, 1958), p. 317
  11. ^ Pinner, Frank A. : 'Student Trade-Unionism in France, Belgium and Holland: Anticipatory Socialization and Role-Seeking'; Sociology of Education, Vol. 37, No. 3. (Spring, 1964), p. 182
  12. ^ Masani, M. R. (1951): 'The Communist Party in India'; Pacific Affairs, Vol. 24, No. 1. (March, 1951), p. 26
  13. ^ Kroef, Justus M. Van Der (1955): 'Higher Education in Indonesia'; The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 26, No. 7. (October, 1955), p. 370
  14. ^ Morris, Bernard S. (1956): 'Communist International Front Organizations: Their Nature and Function'; World Politics, Vol. 9, No. 1. (October, 1956), p. 78
  15. ^ a b Lyonette, Kevin (1966): 'Student Organisations in Latin America'; International Affairs" (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 42, No. 4. (October, 1966), p. 660
  16. ^ Brammer, Lawrence M. (1967): 'The Student Rebel in the University: A World-wide View'; The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 38, No. 5. (May 1967), pp. 259
  17. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 162
  18. ^ Riordan, James (1974): 'Soviet Sport and Soviet Foreign Policy'; Soviet Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3. (July, 1974), p. 328
  19. ^ a b c Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 171-172
  20. ^ Ibingira, Grace (1965): 'Political Movements and Their Role in Promoting Unity in East Africa'; Transition, No. 20. (1965), p. 42
  21. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 164
  22. ^ Rudner, Martin (1996): 'East European Aid to Asian Developing Countries: The Legacy of the Communist Era'; Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1. (February, 1996), p. 23
  23. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 167
  24. ^ a b Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 173
  25. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 171
  26. ^ Altbach, Philip G. (1970): 'The International Student Movement'; Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 174
  27. ^ McDonald, Robert (1967): 'NSA/CIA: The Kiddies and Their Playmates'; Transition, No. 31 (June - Jul, 1967), pp. 14-19
  28. ^ United Press International (1990): 'Former Communist Party boss goes on trial in Prague'; June 25, 1990, SECTION: International
  29. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979a): 'Indochina. IUS delegation in Cambodia'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts; November 7, 1979, Part 3 The Far East; A. International Affairs; 2. The USSR and East-ern Europe; FE/6265/A2/3
  30. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979b): 'Indochina; IUS delegation in Vietnam'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, October 5, 1979, Part 3 The Far East; A. International Affairs; 2. The USSR and East-ern Europe; FE/6237/A2/2
  31. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979c): 'IUS delegation leaves for Indochina'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, September 26, 1979, Part 2 Eastern Europe; A. International Affairs; 3. The Far East; EE/6229/A3/1
  32. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979d): 'Afghan Youth Organization delegation in Prague'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, September 18, 1979, Part 2 Eastern Europe; A. International Affairs; 3. The Far East; EE/6222/A3/3
  33. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979e): 'Panamanian student leader in Czechoslovakia'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, September 6, 1979, Part 2 Eastern Europe; A. International Affairs; 1. General and Western Affairs; EE/6212/A1/4
  34. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979f): 'Latin American student official in Czechoslovakia'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 29, 1979, PART 2 EASTERN EUROPE; A. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS; 1. GENERAL AND WESTERN AFFAIRS; EE/6205/A1/5
  35. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1979g): 'International students' forum in Helsinki'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 21, 1979, PART 2 EASTERN EUROPE; A. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS; 1. GENERAL AND WESTERN AFFAIRS; EE/6199/A1/3
  36. ^ a b c Fine, Philip (2003): 'International Union of Students Marks Its Comeback With Call For Worldwide Day of Protest'; The Times Higher Education Supplement, TSL Education Limited, August 8, 2003, No.1601; Pg.2
  37. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1992): 'International organisations protest expulsion from Czechoslovakia'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, January 15, 1992, Part 2 Eastern Europe; A. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS; 1. GENERAL AND WESTERN AFFAIRS; EE/1278/A1/ 1
  38. ^ The British Broadcasting Corporation (1992): 'International organisations protest expulsion from Czechoslovakia'; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, January 15, 1992, Part 2 Eastern Europe; A. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS; 1. GENERAL AND WESTERN AFFAIRS; EE/1278/A1/ 1
  39. ^ The Russian Information Agency ITAR-TASS (1990): 'STUDENTS' SEMINAR DEALS WITH EMPLOYMENT, SEAT OF IUS HQ'; TASS, December 19, 1990, BY TASS CORRESPONDENT NIKOLAI PASKA, HAVANA, DECEMBER 19
  40. ^ The Russian Information Agency ITAR-TASS (1990): 'CZECHO-SLOVAKIA DECIDES TO EXPEL IOJ AND IUS FROM COUNTRY'; TASS, November 22, 1990
  41. ^ CTK National News Wire (1992): 'INTERNATIONAL UNION OF STUDENTS ANNOUNCES NEW LEADERSHIP'; CTK National News Wire, April 23, 1992, NEWS
  42. ^ Fine, Philip (2003): 'International Union Of Students Marks Its Comeback With Call For Worldwide Day of Protest'; The Times Higher Education Supplement, TSL Education Limited, August 8, 2003, No.1601; Pg.2
  43. ^ CTK National News Wire (1992): 'INTERNATIONAL UNION OF STUDENTS ANNOUNCES NEW LEADERSHIP'; CTK National News Wire, April 23, 1992, NEWS
  44. ^ International Union of Students (2000): Report of the Executive Secretariat to The Council and 17th Congress of The International Union of Students. For the Period from February 1992 to March 2000; dated March 19, 2000, p. 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-05-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ The Irish Times (1994): "Students' Day marked by Dublin march"; The Irish Times, November 18, 1994, CITY EDITION, HOME NEWS; Pg. 4
  46. ^ FT Asia Intelligence Wire (1998): 'Free access to education demanded'; The Hindu
  47. ^ Jobbins, David (2003): 'Qatar's Iraq Gesture Challenges Us Grip'; The Times Higher Education Supplement, TSL Education Limited, June 27, 2003, No.1595; Pg.11
  48. ^ The Economist Newspapers Ltd. (2006): 'Let each stand in his place: Cold war survivors'; The Economist October 28, 2006, U.S. Edition, SECTION: INTERNATIONAL, Dateline: Prague
  49. ^ "List of IUS Member Organizations". stud.uni-hannover.de. IUS. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cornell, Richard (1965): Youth And Communism: An Historical Analysis of International Communist Youth Movements; Walker & Co.: New York
  • Clews, John (1952): Students Unite: The International Union of Students and Its Work; foreword by S. Spender, Congress for Cultural Freedom; British Society for Cultural Freedom: Paris (ASIN: B0000CIEJO)
  • Maanen, Gert Van (1966): The International Student Movement. History and Background; International Documentation and Information Centre: The Hague

External links[edit]