International University Sports Federation
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|Motto||"Excellence in Mind and Body"|
|Formation||1 January 1949|
|170 member associations|
|French and English|
|Oleg Matytsin (Russia)|
|Leonz Eder (Switzerland) (1st VP),
Liguo Yang (China)
Luciano Cabral (Brazil)
Marian Dymalski (Poland)
Leopold Senghor (Senegal)
The Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire (FISU, English: International University Sports Federation) is responsible for the organisation and governance of worldwide competitions for student-athletes between the ages of 17 and 28. It was founded in 1949 as the world governing body of national university sports organisations and currently has 170 member associations (national federations) from five continents. Between 1949 and 2011, it was based in Brussels (Belgium); since 2011, it is based in Lausanne (Switzerland).
It is the only international federation with more than 50 sports on its competition program. The FISU stages its events every two years. They currently include two Universiades (summer and winter) and 32 World University Championships.
Meanwhile, FISU permanently links the academic world with sports by hosting a number of educational events – conferences, forums and seminars. These events closely assist in promoting sport as one of the main components of the educational system.
- 1 History
- 2 Philosophy
- 3 Organisation
- 4 Events and sports
- 5 Educational programme
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
FISU was officially formed in 1949, but its origin goes back to the 1920s when the Frenchman, Jean Petitjean, organized the first "World Student Games" in Paris, France in May 1923. The following year saw the birth of the International Confederation of Students (ICS), which held a congress in Warsaw, Poland. Several delegations took part and the movement was launched. From 1925 to 1939, many great sporting events were organized by the students and the ICS: in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1925, Rome, Italy in 1927, then again in Paris, Darmstadt, Germany (1930), Turin, Italy (1933), Budapest, Hungary (1935), Paris (1937) and Monaco (1939). The Second World War interrupted these meetings, but when peace was restored, France re-launched the World University Games.
The peace was relative, and the shadow of the Cold War soon divided university sport. In 1946, the International Students Union (ISU) was created in Prague to pursue the works of the International Confederation of Students, and it organised the 9th World University Games in 1947. After those games, the increasing politicisation of the ISU led to a division within the university sports movement. In 1948, the International University Sports Federation (FISU) was created under the impetus of Paul Schleimer of Luxembourg, and it launched the International University Sport Weeks in 1949 in Meran, Italy. Other editions followed: in Luxembourg (1951), Dortmund (1953) and San Sebastián (1955). In 1957, the French federation organised a World University Sports Championship which brought together students from the Eastern and Western blocks. From this meet arose the desire to organise a universal event in which students from all over the world could participate.
In 1959, FISU and the ISU agreed to participate in the games organised in Turin, Italy, by CUSI, the Italian Student Sports Association. That year was undoubtedly the one that left the biggest impression on our federation. In fact, the Italian organisers baptised these 1959 games 'Universiade'. They created the flag with a 'U' surrounded by stars, which was to begin its journey around the world, and replaced the national anthems at the medal-awarding ceremonies with Gaudeamus Igitur. The Universiade in Turin was a success for the local Executive Committee, as well as for the man who was to change the future of the university sports movement: Dr. Primo Nebiolo. During this Universiade, which brought together 43 countries and 1,400 participants, many non-member federations applied to become members of FISU.
However, even though university sport was developing in a peaceful environment, the modus vivendi still needed to be established. In addition to the agreement that had been made concerning national symbols (neither flags nor anthems) and the programme, FISU defined its philosophy in article 2 of its statutes by stipulating: 'FISU pursues its objects without consideration or discrimination of a political, denominational or racial nature'. From then on, FISU was to organise the games at worldwide level.
Ever since this important period, the Universiades have continued to attract more and more participants. Starting with a total of 1,407 participants in Turin, Italy, in 1959, we reached a total of 6,757 participants from more than 165 countries in Beijing, China, in 2001, and 6,643 participants from 174 countries in Daegu, Korea, in 2003. The highest number of participants was registered at the 2013 Summer Universiade in Kazan, Russia, i.e. 11,759 representing 159 countries.
The Winter Universiades have experienced the same success. In fact, statistics show that 98 athletes participated in the games in Zell am See, Austria, in 1958, while a record of 2,668 participants from 52 countries came to the Winter Universiade in Trentino, Italy, in 2013. The expansion of university sport around the world created a new need for meets and competitions to complete the Universiade programme. As a consequence, FISU launched the World University Championships (WUC) in the early sixties.
Over 50 years, more than 300 championships have been organised, covering a large range of events (almost always different from the Universiade sports) and gathering participants from all over the world. Meant to guarantee continuity in the competition programme, these championships take place on even-numbered years and experience an increasing success over the years. They allow a large number of students and university sports leaders to get together on occasions other than Universiades. In 2000, 20 World University Championships were held in different places for different sports, attracting 3,623 participants. In 2002, 24 World University Championships were held, attracting 4,228 participants from 83 countries. In 2010, 27 championships were staged, bringing together 4,431 participants. For 2014, 29 WUC were attributed.
Following a breathtaking 27th Summer Universiade in Kazan (RUS) where no more than eleven (11) Championship sports where present, as well as a successful year of World University Championships in 2012, where 27 events took place in 17 countries over 4 continents, the 2014 edition of WUCs was amazing. Starting early March and running until mid-December, the 2014 World University Championships included 28 events in a single year, this time in 23 countries and over the 5 continents (17 Europe, 7 Asia, 2 America, 1 Africa and 1 Oceania). The Championships took place for the first time in Belarus, India, Kazakhstan, Malaysia and Singapore.
The most recent edition of the Summer Universiade was held in Gwangju, Korea in Summer 2015. The 2015 Winter Universiade was held in Granada, Spain and Štrbské Pleso, Slovakia (co-host for the Nordic Skiing and Biathlon events). The 2017 edition of the Summer Universiade was attributed respectively to the cities of Taipei City, Tapei. The 2017 and 2019 editions of the Winter Universiade will be held in Almaty, Kazakhstan and Krasnoyarsk, Russia respectively.
The FISU (International University Sports Federation) was formed within university institutions in order to promote sports values and encourage sports practice in harmony with and complementary to the university spirit. Promoting sports values means encouraging friendship, fraternity, fair-play, perseverance, integrity, cooperation and application amongst students, who one day will have responsibilities and even key positions in politics, the economy, culture and industry. As allies or competitors, perhaps even as antagonists, these men and women will have learned how to collaborate and deal with every eventuality, whilst respecting the ethical code enshrined in these values. Promoting sports values and sports practice also implies giving a new dimension to the university spirit in study, research, and discipline, through the strong affirmation of the full humanist development of the individual and of society at large. This development is not just intellectual, but also moral and physical.
University students should be able to practice sport at the level of their choice within their university. Even if they reach a high level of competition in their sport, students should not consider these competitions as an end in itself, but as an element enabling them to develop their own potential, in the same way as they prepare for their professional life. Seeing its international dimension, FISU brings together the university community in a broader sense, necessarily transcending the conflicts which divide countries and people, to achieve harmony between academic excellence and top-level sport, or competition and leisure sport. The world university sports movement also aims to become a powerful channel of communication for bringing together the various communities, the rich diversity of which is all too often a source of conflict today. This philosophy necessarily implies that FISU not only has an international dimension, but is also independent and free, regardless of the source of financial and technical support from its institutional, academic, financial or media partners.
In order to promote its philosophy and fulfill its mission during this decade, FISU has decided to concentrate on the following objectives:
- Ensure the quality of its sporting events by entrusting the members of its commissions with the task of guaranteeing the right execution of the specifications and regulations sent to the organisers, through close cooperation with the technical directors of the International Sports Federations.
- Develop its reputation and assert itself in university and sports circles, so as to enhance its credibility and that of the movement.
- Develop existing national federations in the various countries and support them in their dealings with governments.
- Contribute through study commissions to strengthen the links between universities, the sports movement and students.
- Approach political and economic authorities, as well as the media, to obtain new funding sources for the development of university sport in all countries.
Identify a sports development programme through education, and establish a set of moral standards in line with the evolution of contemporary sport and educational issues throughout the world.
Embracing FISU’s motto of 'Excellence in Mind and Body', all events incorporate educational and cultural aspects into sports competitions, bringing together sport and academia from all over the world to celebrate in a true spirit of friendship and sportsmanship.
FISU is composed of a General Assembly which represents the members (170 National University Sports Federations). It is FISU's main governing body. It elects the Executive Committee for a period of four years, which takes all the necessary decisions for the smooth running of FISU. Ten permanent commissions advise the Executive Committee in their specialised areas and so to simplify its duties. FISU is funded through subscription, organising and entry fees, television incomes, and marketing activities.
The General Assembly Every two years the General Assembly brings together the national university sports organisations which are FISU members (167), and it elects the Executive Committee and the auditor for a four-year period. It adopts the budget and the programme of FISU activities.
The Executive Committee' The Executive Committee is composed of 23 members. It meets twice a year to take the decisions necessary for the proper functioning of FISU. The Steering Committee consists of the President, the first Vice-President, the four Vice-Presidents, the Secretary General, the Treasurer and the first Assessor. It meets periodically when convened by the President, to carry out the business of FISU between meetings of the Executive Committee.
FISU Office The General Secretariat is in charge of FISU's administrative work and it is based at the ‘Maison du Sport International’ in Lausanne, Switzerland, a unique complex that brings together under one roof several of the leading players in international sports administration. This new infrastructure constitutes a remarkable opportunity for FISU, allowing to work together, cultivate contacts, share experience and exploit synergies.
The Committees The committees assist and advise the Executive Committee in the overall administration of FISU. There are 16 permanent committees:
- International Technical Committees – CTI: one for the Summer Universiade, one for the Winter Universiade and one for the World University Championships; monitors the preparation of competitions from a technical point of view, drawing up the competition programme and ensuring the good running of the event.
- Committee for Sports Regulations – CRS: ensures that the sports regulations are updated and proposes new rules to the EC.
- Medical Committee – CM: supervises the organisation of medical care, as well as the norms of security and hygiene; supervises the anti-doping control procedures.
- International Control Committee – CIC: verifies that the participants fulfill the conditions of participation.
- Education Committee – EduC: promotes the study of university sport by organising the Conference during the Universiade, as well as the FISU Forum.
- Media and Communication Committee – CMC: inspects and controls all the infrastructures and technical means provided to the press; cooperates with international media to ensure media coverage of FISU events.
- Universiade Supervision Committee (Summer) – CSU: responsible for supervising the progress made in the preparation of the Summer Universiades, by making inspection visits and meeting regularly with the leaders of the Organising Committees.
- Universiade Supervision Committee (Winter) – CSU: responsible for supervising the progress made in the preparation of the Winter Universiades, by making inspection visits and meeting regularly with the leaders of the Organising Committees.
- Finance Committee – CF: studies the budget plan with the Treasurer.
- Committee for the Development of University Sport – CDSU: responsible for studying all the projects aiming at developing the structures of FISU and its member associations.
- Committee for Gender Equality – CEG: responsible for studying all the projects aiming at developing women's sport within FISU and its member associations.
- Legal Committee – CJ: advises the EC on all legal matters related to FISU activities.
- Intercontinental Council – CI: assesses the specific needs to encourage, support and enhance university sport in each continent.
- Student Committee – CdE: represents the student athletes and student managers involved in university sports organisations.
- Committee for Marketing and Strategic Partnership – CMPS: assists FISU in developing a better understanding of modern technology and the huge potential for university sport stakeholders to forge global and national partnerships from within the sports movement and beyond.
- Disciplinary Committee – CD: preserves the integrity and reputation of FISU and FISU events, and contributes to ensure the security of the FISU student athletes.
The Internal Auditor The Auditor verifies FISU accountancy.
Brand and Emblem
The “FIVE STARS” Logotype is the official International University Sports emblem. Over the years the image of the International University Sports Federation (FISU) had become confused, being sometimes mistaken for the image of the events FISU was organising. To remedy this situation, it was important to provide each of the endorsed events with a clearly identifiable symbol. The solution was to concentrate the International University Sports Federation's image on the stars, and use the letter 'U' to identify the Universiades and World Championships. This creates a clear hierarchy between the identity of the individual event and its endorsement by the International University Sports Federation.
The official FISU emblem was inspired by the 'U' of 'University', accompanied by five stars that symbolise the five continents. The original emblem, created by the CUSI (Italian University Sports Centre) during the 1st Universiade in 1959, symbolises FISU. Originally, the stars were curved around the bottom of the U.
The FISU flag includes the emblem of FISU centered on a flag made out of white material.
The Gaudeamus Igitur is the official anthem of FISU. It is a popular academic commercium song in many Western countries, mainly sung or performed at university graduation ceremonies. Despite its use as a formal graduation hymn, it is a jocular, light-hearted composition that pokes fun at university life.
- Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus (bis) Post jucundam juventutem Post molestam senectutem Nos habebit humus (bis).
- Ubi sunt qui ante nos, in mundo fuere (bis) Vadite ad superos, Transite ad inferos, Ubi iam fuere (bis).
- Vita nostra brevis est brevi finietur (bis) Venit mors velociter, Rapit nos atrociter, Nemini parcetur (bis).
- Vivat Acedémia,vivant Professores (bis) Vivat membrum quodlibet, Vivant membra quaelibet, Semper sint in flore (bis)!
- Vivant omnes virgines, faciles, formosae (bis) Vivant et mulieres, Tenerae, amabiles, Bonae, laboriosae (bis)!
- Vivat et respublica et qui illam regit (bis) Vivat nostra civitas, Maecenatum caritas, Quae nos hic protegit (bis).
- Pereat tristitia, pereant osores (bis) Pereat diabolus, Patriae maledictus, Nec non irrisores (bis).
Events and sports
The Universiade is an international sporting and cultural festival which is staged every two years in a different city. It is only second to the Olympic Games. The Summer Universiade consists of 11 compulsory sports with 14 compulsory disciplines and up to three optional sports chosen by the host country. The record figures are 10,622 participants in Shenzhen, China, in 2011 and 174 countries in Daegu, Korea, in 2003.
The Summer Universiade is the only summer multi-sport event in the world that connects students at both academic and athletic levels. During 12 days of sports competitions more than 9,000 student-athletes and officials from over 170 countries participate in the different events. Both volunteers and participants are students, generally of the same age, which creates a unique and loosened atmosphere throughout the competitions. The Summer Universiade is broadcast by more than 100 TV channels from all over the world.
Embracing FISU’s motto of 'Excellence in Mind and Body', the Summer Universiade incorporates educational and cultural aspects into 12 days of sports competitions, allowing university student-athletes from all over the world to celebrate with the host city in a true spirit of friendship and sportsmanship.
The programme of the Universiade currently includes 11 compulsory sports (14 compulsory disciplines):
Additionally, three optional sports are chosen by the host country.
As of 2019 the list of compulsory sports will be expanded with archery included into the sports programme, as well as badminton in 2021. Optional sports vary from one Summer Universiade to another. Depending on their own interests, Organising Committees may choose from the list of the World University Championships (WUC) up to 3 optional sports to be included in their specific sports programme. For the most recent Universiades in Shenzhen (CHN), Kazan (RUS) and Gwangju (KOR) the total number of sports has reached a peak with 24, 27 and 21 sports featured respectively. In order to reduce the scale of the Universiade and more easily find future candidate cities, FISU prefers that the number of optional sports return to the number of 3.
The Winter Universiade is an international sporting and cultural festival which is staged every two years in a different city. It is only second to the Olympic Games and the biggest global winter multi-sports event for student-athletes. The programme of the Winter Universiade currently includes six compulsory sports (eight compulsory disciplines) and up to three optional sports chosen by the host country. It gathered a record of 2,668 participants in Trentino, Italy, in 2013 and a record number of 52 countries in Erzurum, Turkey, in 2011.
Embracing FISU’s motto of 'Excellence in Mind and Body', the Winter Universiade incorporates educational and cultural aspects into eleven days of sports competitions, allowing university student-athletes worldwide to celebrate with the host city in a true spirit of friendship and sportsmanship.
During 11 days of sports competitions more than 2,500 participants from more than 50 countries take part in the Winter Universiade. Additionally, 1,500 to 3,000 volunteers are present. The Winter Universiade is broadcast by more than 100 TV channels around the World.
The programme of the Winter Universiade currently includes 6 compulsory sports (8 compulsory disciplines):
Additionally, up to three optional sports are chosen by the host country.
World University Championships
The World University Championships (WUC) are part of the sporting events of the International University Sports Federation. Alternating with the Summer and Winter Universiades, they are organised every even-numbered year. The first FISU World University Championship was organised in the city of Lund (SWE) in 1963 and welcomed the best student handball players of the time. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the World University Championships, with celebrations throughout the year.
Unlike the Universiade, the World University Championships are multiple mono-sport events, the organisation of which is delegated to a National University Sports Federation (NUSF), and then to a city and an Organising Committee. Organising a World University Championship gives a city, and often a university, a chance to host an international major sporting event without being a big and rich city. The attribution process of the FISU WUCs starts with a call for candidature. Candidate NUSFs are required to provide a bidding dossier examined by the FISU Executive Committee, which after deliberation attributes the WUC to the chosen NUSF and city.
According to FISU's way of working, the World University Championships are the gateway to its sports programme. Indeed, the integration of a sport into a FISU event is made through the World University Championships programme, following a specific procedure. This enables FISU to experiment and implement new activities. In 2012 netball is on the FISU sports programme for the first time, offering top student-athletes the opportunity to take part in a worldwide tournament. Given that the WUCs take place every two years, FISU can evaluate the popularity and evolution of sports, and contribute to the development of some practices. As an example, from 2012 FISU is a key partner of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) in the development and promotion of a new discipline: basketball 3x3.
After a sport has been steadily included into the World University Championships programme, it can apply to become part of the Universiade programme. This process enables FISU to evaluate the interest of its member associations in given sports, as was the case with judo, table tennis and more recently taekwondo.
The programme of the World University Championships (WUCs) is subject to change and currently includes 37 sports. In order to be as complete as possible, it includes individual and team sports, indoor and outdoor sports, mind sports, summer and winter sports. The complete sports programme is the following:
- 3x3 Basketball
- American Football
- Beach Volleyball
- Canoe Slalom & Wildwater
- Canoe Sprint
- Cross Country
- Modern Pentathlon
- Muay Thai
- Nordic Combined
- Roller Sports
- Rugby Sevens
- Shooting Sports
- Ski Jumping
- Ski Orienteering
- Speed Skating
- Sport Climbing
Besides its sporting events, FISU stages educational events and manages education-related programmes under the supervision of the Education Committee (EduC), with an aim to encourage the study and enhancement of university sport through education.
The FISU Summer Universiade Conference Along with the Summer Universiade, FISU organises, every two years, the FISU Summer Universiade Conference. This major academic conference is one of FISU’s traditional events as the first edition was organised way back in 1960. The FISU Summer Universiade Conference is always organised in cooperation with the highest local academic authorities ensuring the academic level and scientific credibility.
The objective of the FISU Summer Universiade Conference is to create a platform to present scientific papers on university sport and to stimulate research on this topic. The themes discussed in the conference focus on the study of university sport further elaborated with keynote addresses, poster presentations, paper-presentation sessions and discussion groups.
The FISU Summer Universiade Conference is a key FISU event as it allows many of the student-athletes who compete in the Universiade to take part in an international academic conference. It fosters the academic spirit in the sports arena. The FISU Summer Universiade Conference is open to all accredited participants of the Universiade.
The FISU Winter Universiade Conference Along with the Winter Universiade, FISU provides the organising committee with the opportunity to host a scientific conference. The objective of the FISU Winter Universiade Conference is to create a networking platform for scientists who will present and promote the research on scientific innovations and enhance the sustainable development of winter sports. It is an opportunity for the young generation of sport scientists to discuss new ideas or to arrange projects/cooperative efforts in the area of sports science.
The FISU Forum Like the Universiade, the Conference is biennial. This is why FISU decided to give students and university sports officials the opportunity to meet more often to discuss subjects involving education, culture and sport, through the FISU Forum. The Forum takes place every two years, alternating with the Universiade years, each time in a different location.
The FISU Sport Education Summit The FISU Sport Education Summit gathers university rectors from around the world during two days to discuss the place of sport within higher education systems. The main aims of this event are to exchange ideas regarding the development of university sport and to understand the way university sport is organised in the different parts of the world. Every edition of the FISU Sport Education Summit brings together University Rectors, Presidents, Vice-Chancellors, Vice- Presidents and other high-ranking university leaders from the five continents. For FISU, it is of great importance to come to an understanding with such key actors as Rectors or Chancellors on the significance and values of sport for the students’ communities.
The FISU Seminars The FISU Seminar gives committee and staff members along with organisers of FISU events the opportunity to fully understand the FISU environment and to achieve better cooperation in their activities within FISU. Seminars are divided into two types: one for the future event organisers and one for the newly nominated members of the FISU Family.
The FISU-GUOC-WADA Anti-Doping Programme, in partnership with WADA and the 2015 Summer Universiade Organising Committee FISU has partnered with the Gwangju Universiade Organising Committee (GUOC) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to develop a new resource to support universities from all over the world, in introducing the topic of the fight against doping in sport. Engaging university students is the perfect way to promote drug-free sport values to future sport leaders and professionals. The FISU-GUOC-WADA partnership project, which strives to create a drug-free environment to protect athletes and youth, is part of the GUOC’s Legacy Programme for the 2015 Universiade, which took place in Gwangju, Republic of Korea, on 3–14 July 2015.
The FISU-Daegu Scholarship Programme, in partnership with the Daegu Metropolitan City A partnership between FISU and the Metropolitan City of Daegu, the FISU-Daegu Scholarship Programme was launched in 2011 as part of the legacy of the 2003 Daegu Summer Universiade, with the aim of encouraging young student-athletes to excel their academic and sports careers through financial support. The programme is focused on students aged between 17 and 28, from a FISU member federation/country, who have participated in FISU sporting events.
The Young Researcher Award One of the key objectives of the FISU Conference is the promotion of junior scientists and the fostering of state-of-the-art research. Accordingly, the Young Researcher Award for FISU Conference Presenters, hosted by the FISU Conference, recognises young leaders in research and is awarded in the framework of the FISU Summer Universiade Conference organised in odd-numbered years. PhD students or students less than 2 years posterior PhD graduation, under the age of 35 at the time of the Conference, are eligible.
Through EduC, FISU is a signatory of the Trento Declaration on Sport and University for Innovation (10 December 2013). EduC also coordinates the activities of the Student Committee (CdE), thus giving students an active role in the life of FISU.
FISU is constantly promoting gender equality under the supervision of the Gender Equality Committee (CEG), through the following events and activities:
- The FISU Gender Equality-Sport Award
- The FISU Gender Equality Round Table
- Brighton Declaration on Women and Sport
- Maison du Sport International
- International Olympic Committee
- International Academy of Sport Science and Technology
- Lausanne campus
- International School Sport Federation
- 1949–2011: Brussels (Belgium). Since 2011: Lausanne (Switzerland).
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- World University Team Cup. World Bridge Federation. 5th World University Bridge Championship Event website (2010). Chinese Taipei University Sports Federation. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
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- FISU Current Structure. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- 34th General Assembly in Lausanne elects New Board. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Current structure. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- FISU Brand. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- FISU Corporate Elements Guidelines. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- FISU Emblem. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- FISU Anthem. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Summer Universiade. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Sports. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Summer Universiade. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Winter Universiade. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Winter Universiade. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- "World University Championships". Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Educational Services. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- "Educational Services The FISU Summer Universiade Conference". Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Educational Services The FISU Winter Universiade Conference". Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The FISU Forum". Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Educational Services The FISU Sport Education Summit". Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Educational Services The FISU Seminar". Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Anti-Doping Programme. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Information Leaflet. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Scolarship Programme. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Information Leaflet. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Young Researcher Award. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Application Rules. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Trento Declaration. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Equality-Sport Award. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Round Table. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Brighton Declaration. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
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