International financial institutions
The international financial institutions (IFIs) are financial institutions that have been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law. Their owners or shareholders are generally national governments, although other international institutions and other organizations occasionally figure as shareholders. The most prominent IFIs are creations of multiple nations, although some bilateral financial institutions (created by two countries) exist and are technically IFIs. The best known IFIs were established after World War II to assist in the reconstruction of Europe and provide mechanisms for international cooperation in managing the global financial system.
Today, the world's largest IFI is the European Investment Bank, with a balance sheet size of Euros 512 billion in 2013. This compares to the two components of the World Bank, the IBRD (assets of $358 billion in 2014) and the IDA (assets of $183 billion in 2014). For comparison, the largest commercial banks each have assets of c.$2,000-3,000 billion.
Multilateral development bank
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A multilateral development bank (MDB) is an institution, created by a group of countries, that provides financing and professional advising for the purpose of development. MDBs have large memberships including both developed donor countries and developing borrower countries. MDBs finance projects in the form of long-term loans at market rates, very-long-term loans (also known as credits) below market rates, and through grants.
The following are usually classified as the main MDBs:
- World Bank
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- European Investment Bank(EIB)
- Islamic Development Bank (IsDB)
- Asian Development Bank (ADB)
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
- CAF - Development Bank of Latin America (CAF)
- Inter-American Development Bank Group (IDB, IADB)
- African Development Bank (AfDB)
- Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)
There are also several "sub-regional" multilateral development banks. Their membership typically includes only borrowing nations. The banks lend to their members, borrowing from the international capital markets. Because there is effectively shared responsibility for repayment, the banks can often borrow more cheaply than could any one member nation. These banks include:
- Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
- Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI)
- East African Development Bank (EADB)
- West African Development Bank (BOAD)
- Black Sea Trade and Development Bank (BSTDB)
- Economic Cooperation Organization Trade and Development Bank (ETDB)
- Eurasian Development Bank (EDB)
- New Development Bank (NDB)
There are also several multilateral financial institutions (MFIs). MFIs are similar to MDBs but they are sometimes separated since they have more limited memberships and often focus on financing certain types of projects.
- European Commission (EC)
- International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm)
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
- OPEC Fund for International Development (OPEC Fund)
- Nederlandse Financieringsmaatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden NV (FMO)
- International Investment Bank (IIB)
- The Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (BADEA)
Bretton Woods institutions
The best-known IFIs were established after World War II to assist in the reconstruction of Europe and provide mechanisms for international cooperation in managing the global financial system . They include the World Bank, the IMF, and the International Finance Corporation. Today the largest IFI in the world is the European Investment Bank which lent 61 billion euros to global projects in 2011.
Regional development banks
The regional development banks consist of several regional institutions that have functions similar to the World Bank group's activities, but with particular focus on a specific region. Shareholders usually consist of the regional countries plus the major donor countries. The best-known of these regional banks cover regions that roughly correspond to United Nations regional groupings, including the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank; the African Development Bank; the Central American Bank for Economic Integration; and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The Islamic Development Bank is among the leading multilateral development banks. IsDB is the only multilateral development bank after the World Bank that is global in terms of its membership. 56 member countries of IsDB are spread over Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America.
Bilateral development banks and agencies
A bilateral development bank is a financial institution set up by one individual country to finance development projects in a developing country and its emerging market, hence the term bilateral, as opposed to multilateral. Examples include:
- the Netherlands Development Finance Company FMO, headquarters in The Hague; one of the largest bilateral development banks worldwide.
- the DEG German Investment Corporation or Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, headquartered in Köln, Germany.
- the French Development AgencyAgence Française de Développement, and Caisse des dépôts, founded 1816, both headquartered in Paris, France.
Other regional financial institutions
Financial institutions of neighboring countries established themselves internationally to pursue and finance activities in areas of mutual interest; most of them are central banks, followed by development and investment banks. The table below lists some of them in chronological order of when they were founded or listed as functioning as a legal entity. Some institutions were conceived and started working informally 2 decades before their legal inception (e.g. the South East Asian Central Banks Centre)
|17/5/1930||BIS Bank of International Settlements||http://www.bis.org||The bank of all central banks, 60 members||Basle, Basel, Bâle|
|1958||EIB European Investment Bank||http://www.eib.org||Created by European Union member states to provide long-term finance, mainly in the EU||Luxembourg|
|2/15/1965||AACB African Association of Central Banks, ABCA Association des Banques Centrales Africaines||http://www.aacb.org/||consists of 40 African central banks||Dakar, Senegal.|
|10/7/1970||IIB International Investment Bank||http://www.iib.int||Consists of 9 member countries from 3 continents||Moscow, Russia|
|8/1976||NIB Nordic Investment Bank||http://www.nib.int||Lending operations in its 8 member countries and emerging markets on all continents.||Helsinki, Finland|
|3/2/1982||SEACEN South East Asian Central Banks Centre||http://www.seacen.org||19 Asian central banks||Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|24/1/1997||BSTDB Black Sea Trade and Development Bank||http://www.bstdb.org||11 member countries,corresponding to the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation||Thessaloniki, Greece|
|1998||ECB European Central Bank||http://www.ecb.int||Central bank of 18 EU countries that have adopted the euro||Frankfurt am Main|
- National development bank
- Climate Investment Funds
- Development finance institution
- Financial Stability Board
- Global financial system
- New Development Bank
Notes and references
- Policing the Banks: Accountability Mechanisms for the Financial Sector, Maartje van Putten, p.146
- EIB annual report, 2013
- IBRD Annual Report, p.4
- IBRD Annual Report, p.3 of the IDA section
- http://www.fmo.nl/smartsite.dws?id=46 Official website
- http://www.deginvest.de/EN_Home/index.jsp Official website of DEG
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