International migration

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Net migration rates for 2008: positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray)

International migration occurs when people cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of time.[1] Migration occurs for many reasons. Many people leave their home countries in order to look for economic opportunities in another country. Others migrate to be with family members who have migrated or because of political conditions in their countries. Education is another reason for international migration, as students pursue their studies abroad.[2] While there are several different potential systems for categorizing international migrants, one system organizes them into nine groups: temporary labour migrants; irregular, illegal, or undocumented migrants; highly skilled and business migrants; refugees; asylum seekers; forced migration; family members; return migrants; and long-term, low-skilled migrants.[3] These migrants can also be divided into two large groups, permanent and temporary. Permanent migrants intend to establish their permanent residence in a new country and possibly obtain that country’s citizenship. Temporary migrants intend only to stay for a limited periods of time; perhaps until the end of a particular program of study or for the duration of a their work contract or a certain work season.[4] Both types of migrants have a significant effect on the economies and societies of the chosen destination country and the country of origin.[5]

Similarly, the countries which receive these migrants are often grouped into four categories: traditional settlement countries, European countries which encouraged labour migration after World War II, European countries which receive a significant portion of their immigrant populations from their former colonies, and countries which formerly were points of emigration but have recently emerged as immigrant destinations.[6]


Incentives for migration[edit]

Push Factors

  • Poor Medical Care
  • Not enough jobs
  • Few opportunities
  • Primitive Conditions
  • Political fear
  • Fear of torture and mistreatment
  • Religious discrimination
  • Loss of wealth
  • Natural disasters
  • Bullying
  • Lower chances of finding courtship

Pull Factors

  • Chances of getting a job
  • Better living standards
  • Enjoyment
  • Education
  • Better Medical Care
  • Security
  • Family Links
  • Lower crime
  • Better chances of finding courtship

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Where Immigrant Students Succeed - A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003. Paris: OECD Publications, 2006 (17-19).
  2. ^ OECD International Migration Outlook, 2007, Paris: OECD Publications, 2007, SourceOECD 18 July 2007,3347,en_2649_33931_1_1_1_1_1,00.html.
  3. ^ Where Immigrant Students Succeed (17-19).
  4. ^ OECD International Migration Outlook, 2007.
  5. ^ “Trends in International Migration and Migration Policies: About,” OECD Directorate for Labour, Employment and Social Affairs,, 18 July 2007,3347,en_2649_33931_1_1_1_1_1,00.html .
  6. ^ Where Immigrant Students Succeed (17-19).

External links[edit]