|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015)|
|Legal status of persons|
Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants (from Latin: migrare, wanderer) from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called emigrant or outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration usually as migration (as well as emigration accordingly outward migration).
Immigrants are motivated to leave their former countries of citizenship, or habitual residence, for a variety of reasons, including a lack of local access to resources, a desire for economic prosperity, to find or engage in paid work, to better their standard of living, family reunification, retirement, climate or environmentally induced migration, exile, escape from prejudice, conflict or natural disaster, or simply the wish to change one's quality of life. Commuters, tourists and other short-term stays in a destination country do not fall under the definition of immigration or migration, seasonal labour immigration is sometimes included.
In 2013 the United Nations estimated that there were 231,522,215 immigrants in the world (apx. 3.25% of the global population). The United Arab Emirates has the largest proportion of immigrants in the world, followed by Qatar.
|This section requires expansion. (October 2015)|
Many animals have migrated across evolutionary history (not including seasonal bird migration), including pre-humans. Human migration started with the migration out of Africa into the Middle East, and then to Asia, Australia, Europe, Russia, and the Americas. This is discussed in the article pre-modern human migration.
As of 2005[update], the United Nations reported that there were nearly 191 million international immigrants worldwide, about 3 percent of the world's population. In 2013 the United Nations estimated that there were 231,522,215 immigrants in the world (apx. 3.25% of the global population), while the number of immigrants increases along with the world's population the proportion of immigrants as part of the world's population remained relatively consistent since 1990. In 2005 60% of immigrants lived in developed countries while the rest lived in developing countries.
The Midwestern United States, some parts of Europe, some small areas of Southwest Asia, and a few spots in the East Indies have the highest percentages of immigrant population recorded by the UN Census 2005. The reliability of immigrant censuses is low due to the concealed character of undocumented labor migration.
A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom. The other top desired destination countries (those where an estimated 69 million or more adults would like to go) were Canada, France, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Germany and Spain.
Understanding of immigration
One theory of immigration distinguishes between push and pull factors.
Push factors refer primarily to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration (usually labor migration), differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. Particularly in the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, and nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force. Poor individuals from less developed countries can have higher standards of living in developed countries than in their originating countries.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days. When the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty (personal or for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push factor, and the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration.
Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, and the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas". They are often referred to as "expatriates", and their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better than those applying in the host country (for similar work).
For some migrants, education is the primary pull factor (although most international students are not classified as immigrants). Retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new type of international migration. Examples include immigration of retired British citizens to Spain or Italy and of retired Canadian citizens to the US (mainly to the US states of Florida and Texas).
Non-economic push factors include persecution (religious and otherwise), frequent abuse, bullying, oppression, ethnic cleansing, genocide, risks to civilians during war, and social marginalization. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows; for instance, people may emigrate in order to escape a dictatorship.
Some migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationship (e.g. to be with family or a partner), such as in family reunification or transnational marriage (especially in the instance of a gender imbalance). Recent research has found gender, age, and cross-cultural differences in the ownership of the idea to immigrate. In a few cases, an individual may wish to immigrate to a new country in a form of transferred patriotism. Evasion of criminal justice (e.g., avoiding arrest) is a personal motivation. This type of emigration and immigration is not normally legal, if a crime is internationally recognized, although criminals may disguise their identities or find other loopholes to evade detection. For example, there have been cases of those who might be guilty of war crimes disguising themselves as victims of war or conflict and then pursuing asylum in a different country.
Barriers to immigration come not only in legal form or political form; natural and social barriers to immigration can also be very powerful. Immigrants when leaving their country also leave everything familiar: their family, friends, support network, and culture. They also need to liquidate their assets, often at a large loss, and they incur the expense of moving. When they arrive in a new country, this is often with many uncertainties including finding work, where to live, new laws, new cultural norms, language or accent issues, possible racism, and other exclusionary behavior towards them and their family. These barriers act to limit international migration (scenarios where populations move en masse to other continents, creating huge population surges, and their associated strain on infrastructure and services, ignore these inherent limits on migration).
The politics of immigration have become increasingly associated with other issues, such as national security and terrorism, especially in western Europe, with the presence of Islam as a new major religion. Those with security concerns cite the 2005 French riots and point to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy as examples of the value conflicts arising from immigration of Muslims in Western Europe. Because of all these associations, immigration has become an emotional political issue in many European nations.
Studies have suggested that some special interest groups lobby for less immigration for their own group and more immigration for other groups since they see effects of immigration, such as increased labor competition, as detrimental when affecting their own group but beneficial when impacting other groups. A 2010 European study suggested that "employers are more likely to be pro-immigration than employees, provided that immigrants are thought to compete with employees who are already in the country. Or else, when immigrants are thought to compete with employers rather than employees, employers are more likely to be anti-immigration than employees." A 2011 study examining the voting of US representatives on migration policy suggests that "representatives from more skilled labor abundant districts are more likely to support an open immigration policy towards the unskilled, whereas the opposite is true for representatives from more unskilled labor abundant districts."
Another contributing factor may be lobbying by earlier immigrants. The Chairman for the US Irish Lobby for Immigration Reform—which lobby for more permissive rules for immigrants, as well as special arrangements just for Irish people—has stated that "the Irish Lobby will push for any special arrangement it can get—'as will every other ethnic group in the country.'"
The term economic migrant refers to someone who has travelled from one region to another region for the purposes of seeking employment and an improvement in quality of life and access to resources. An economic migrant is distinct from someone who is a refugee fleeing persecution.
Many countries have immigration and visa restrictions that prohibit a person entering the country for the purposes of gaining work without a valid work visa. As a violation of a State's immigration laws a person who is declared to be an economic migrant can be refused entry into a country.
The process of allowing immigrants into a particular country is believed to have effects on wages and employment. In particular lower skilled workers are thought to be directly affected by economic migrants, but evidence suggests that this is due to adjustments within industries.
Laws and ethics
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014)|
Treatment of migrants in host countries, both by governments, employers, and original population, is a topic of continual debate and criticism, as many cases of abuse and violation of rights are being reported frequently. Some countries have developed a particularly notorious reputation regarding treatment of migrants. The United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, has been ratified but by 20 states, all of which are heavy exporters of cheap labor. With the sole exception of Serbia, none of the signatories are western countries, but all are from Asia, South America, and North Africa. Arab states of the Persian Gulf, which are known for receiving millions of migrant workers, have not signed the treaty as well. Although freedom of movement is often recognized as a civil right in many documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), the freedom only applies to movement within national borders: it may be guaranteed by the constitution or by human rights legislation. Additionally, this freedom is often limited to citizens and excludes others.
Proponents of immigration maintain that, according to Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to leave or enter a country, along with movement within it (internal migration), although article 13 actually restricts freedom of movement to "within the borders of each state." Additionally, the UDHR does not mention entry into other countries when it states that "everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." Some argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive immigration policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human right of freedom of movement. Such arguments are common among anti-state ideologies like anarchism and libertarianism.
As philosopher and Open borders activist Jacob Appel has written, "Treating human beings differently, simply because they were born on the opposite side of a national boundary, is hard to justify under any mainstream philosophical, religious or ethical theory." However, Article 14 does provide that "everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution."
Where immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. As of 2003[update], family reunification accounted for approximately two-thirds of legal immigration to the US every year. Ethnic selection, such as the White Australia policy, has generally disappeared, but priority is usually given to the educated, skilled, and wealthy. Less privileged individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income countries, cannot avail themselves of the legal and protected immigration opportunities offered by wealthy states. This inequality has also been criticized as conflicting with the principle of equal opportunities, which apply (at least in theory) within democratic nation-states. The fact that the door is closed for the unskilled, while at the same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labor, is a major factor in illegal immigration. The contradictory nature of this policy—which specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while exploiting their labor—has also been criticized on ethical grounds.
Immigration policies which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country. They can also mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated minority—the brain drain. This can exacerbate the global inequality in standards of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. One example of competition for skilled labour is active recruitment of health workers from the Third World by First World countries.
A survey of leading economists shows a consensus behind the view that high-skilled immigration makes the average American better off. A survey of the same economists also shows strong support behind the notion that low-skilled immigration makes the average American better off. According to David Card, Christian Dustmann, and Ian Preston, "most existing studies of the economic impacts of immigration suggest these impacts are small, and on average benefit the native population". In a survey of the existing literature, Örn B Bodvarsson and Hendrik Van den Berg write, "a comparison of the evidence from all the studies... makes it clear that, with very few exceptions, there is no strong statistical support for the view held by many members of the public, namely that immigration has an adverse effect on native-born workers in the destination country."
Whereas the impact on the average native tends to be small and positive, studies show more mixed results for low-skilled natives. Overall immigration has not had much effect on native wage inequality but low-skill immigration has been linked to greater income equality in the native population. Research also suggests that cultural diversity has a net positive effect on the productivity of natives. A literature review of the economic impacts of immigration finds that the net fiscal impact of migrants varies across studies but that the most credible analyses typically find small and positive fiscal effects on average. According to the authors, "the net social impact of an immigrant over his or her lifetime depends substantially and in predictable ways on the immigrant's age at arrival, education, reason for migration, and similar". Studies of refugees' impact on native welfare are scant but the existing literature shows mixed results (negative, positive and no significant effects on native welfare). According to labor economist Giovanni Peri, the existing literature suggests that there are no economic reasons why the American labor market could not easily absorb 100,000 Syrian refugees in a year.
Research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. According to one study, welfare increases in both types of countries: "welfare impact of observed levels of migration is substantial, at about 5% to 10% for the main receiving countries and about 10% in countries with large incoming remittances". According to Branko Milanovic, country of residency is by far the most important determinant of global income inequality. A study of equivalent workers in the United States and 42 developing countries found that "median wage gap for a male, unskilled (9 years of schooling), 35 year-old, urban formal sector worker born and educated in a developing country is P$15,400 per year at purchasing power parity". A 2014 survey of the existing literature on emigration finds that a 10 percent emigrant supply shock would increase wages in the sending country by 2-5.5%. According to economists Michael Clemens and Lant Pratchett, "permitting people to move from low-productivity places to high-productivity places appears to be by far the most efficient generalized policy tool, at the margin, for poverty reduction". A successful two-year in situ anti-poverty program, for instance, helps poor people make in a year what is the equivalent of working one day in the developed world. Research on a migration lottery that allowed that allowed Tongans to move to New Zealand found that the lottery winners saw a 263% increase in income from migrating (after only one year in New Zealand) relative to the unsuccessful lottery entrants. A longer-term study on the Tongan lottery winners finds that they "continue to earn almost 300 percent more than non-migrants, have better mental health, live in households with more than 250 percent higher expenditure, own more vehicles, and have more durable assets". A conservative estimate of their lifetime gain to migration is NZ$315,000 in net present value terms (approximately US$237,000).
Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67–147.3%. Research also finds that migration leads to greater trade in goods and services. Using 130 years of data on historical migrations to the United States, one study finds "that a doubling of the number of residents with ancestry from a given foreign country relative to the mean increases by 4.2 percentage points the probability that at least one local firm invests in that country, and increases by 31% the number of employees at domestic recipients of FDI from that country. The size of these effects increases with the ethnic diversity of the local population, the geographic distance to the origin country, and the ethno-linguistic fractionalization of the origin country." Mass migration can also boost innovation and growth, as shown by the Huguenot Diaspora in Prussia, German Jewish Émigrés in the US and the Mariel boatlift.
One study finds "some evidence that larger immigrant population shares (or inflows) yield positive impacts on institutional quality. At a minimum, our results indicate that no negative impact on economic freedom is associated with more immigration."
The Cato Institute finds little or no effect of immigration on the income of citizens belonging to established populations. The Brookings Institution finds a 2.3% depression of wages from immigration from 1980 to 2007. The Center for Immigration Studies finds a 3.7% depression wages from immigration from 1980 to 2000.
Research indicates that immigrants are more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants' lower English language ability and educational attainment. Further, some studies indicate that higher ethnic concentration in metropolitan areas is positively related to the probability of self-employment of immigrants.
Professional economic advisers suggest that lowering the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States would significantly strengthen its economy.
Some research has found that as immigration and ethnic heterogeneity increase, government funding of welfare and public support for welfare decrease. Ethnic nepotism may be an explanation for this phenomenon. Other possible explanations include theories regarding in-group and out-group effects and reciprocal altruism.
Research however also challenges the notion that ethnic heterogeneity reduces public goods provision. Studies that find a negative relationship between ethnic diversity and public goods provision often fail to take into account that strong states were better at assimilating minorities, thus decreasing diversity in the long run. Ethnically diverse states today consequently tend to be weaker states. Because most of the evidence on fractionalization comes from sub-Saharan Africa and the United States, the generalizability of the findings is questionable. Much of the fractionalization in the US comes from African Americans, whose ancestors were involuntary immigrants.
Research finds that Americans' attitudes towards immigration influences their attitudes towards welfare spending.
One study finds that non-native speakers of English in the UK have no causal impact on the performance of other pupils. The presence of immigrant children in classrooms has no significant impact on the test scores of Dutch children. An Austrian study finds no effect on grade repetition among native students exposed to migrant students. A North Carolina study found that the presence of Latin American children in schools had no significant negative effects on peers, but that students with limited English skills had slight negative effects on peers.
Research finds that first generation immigrants from countries with less egalitarian gender cultures adopt gender values more similar to natives over time. According to one study, "this acculturation process is almost completed within one generational succession: The gender attitudes of second generation immigrants are difficult to distinguish from the attitudes of members of mainstream society. This holds also for children born to immigrants from very gender traditional cultures and for children born to less well integrated immigrant families." Similar results are found on a study of Turkish migrants to Western Europe. The assimilation on gender attitudes has been observed in education, as one study finds "that the female advantage in education observed among the majority population is usually present among second-generation immigrants."
First-generation immigrants tend to hold less accepting views of homosexual lifestyles but opposition weakens with longer stays. Second-generation immigrants are overall more accepting of homosexual lifestyles, but the acculturation effect is weaker for Muslims and to some extent, Eastern Orthodox migrants.
A study of Bangladeshi migrants in East London found they shifted towards the thinking styles of the wider non-migrant population in just a single generation.
A study on Germany found that foreign-born parents are more likely to integrate if their children are entitled to German citizenship at birth.
There is some research that suggests that immigration adversely affects social capital. One study, for instance, found that "larger increases in US states’ Mexican population shares correspond to larger decreases in social capital over the period" 1986-2004.
Much of the empirical research on the causal relationship between immigration and crime has been limited due to weak instruments for determining causality. The problem with causality primarily revolves around the location of immigrants being endogenous, which means that immigrants tend to disproportionally locate in deprived areas where crime is higher (because they cannot afford to stay in more expensive areas) or because they tend to locate in areas where there is a large population of residents of the same ethnic background. A burgeoning literature relying on strong instruments provides mixed findings. As one economist describes the existing literature in 2014, "most research for the US indicates that if any, this association is negative... while the results for Europe are mixed for property crime but no association is found for violent crime".
Research suggests that legal status largely explains the differences in crime between legal and illegal immigrants, most likely because legal status leads to greater job market opportunities for the immigrants.
- Childhood and migration
- Criticism of multiculturalism
- Feminization of migration
- Human overpopulation
- Human migration
- Immigration and crime
- Immigration law
- Immigration reform
- Opposition to immigration
- People smuggling
- Political demography
- Replacement migration
- Right of foreigners to vote
- First world privilege
- List of countries by net migration rate
- List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density
- Immigrate. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/immigration
- The truth about asylum - Who's who: Refugee, Asylum Seeker, Refused asylum seeker, Economic migrant, London, England: Refugee Council, retrieved 7 September 2015
- Oxford Dictionaries: Outmigrant
- Data blog, the Guardian, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/sep/11/on-the-move-232-million-migrants-in-the-world
- Immigration - Page 19, Nick Hunter - 2012
- "Global Migration: A World Ever More on the Move". The New York Times. June 25, 2010.
- "150 Million Adults Worldwide Would Migrate to the U.S". Gallup.com. April 20, 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- Crisis Strands Vietnamese Workers in a Czech Limbo. The New York Times. 5 June 2009.
- "White ethnic Britons in minority in London". Financial Times. December 11, 2012.
- Graeme Paton (1 October 2007). "One fifth of children from ethnic minorities". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
- See the NIDI/Eurostat push and pull study for details and examples:  Archived December 9, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- York, Harlan (July 4, 2015). "How Many People are Immigrants?". Harlan York and Associates. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- Boustan, Adain May . "Fertility and Immigration." UCLA. 15 January 2009.
- Cattaneo, Cristina; Peri, Giovanni (2015-10-01). "The Migration Response to Increasing Temperatures".
- Chiswick, Barry. "The Earnings of Male Hispanic Immigrants in the United States".
- Kislev, Elyakim. "The Effect of Minority/Majority Origins on Immigrants' Integration".
- Borjas, George. "The Earnings of Male Hispanic Immigrants in the United States".
- Rubin, M. (2013). "'It wasn't my idea to come here!': Ownership of the idea to immigrate as a function of gender, age, and culture". International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 497-501. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.02.001
- Anita Böcker (1998) Regulation of migration: international experiences. Het Spinhuis. p.218. ISBN 90-5589-095-2
- Tamura, Yuji, Do Employers Support Immigration? (July 29, 2010). Trinity Economics Papers No. 1107. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1021941
- Facchini, G.; Steinhardt, M. F. (2011). "What drives U.S. Immigration policy? Evidence from congressional roll call votes". Journal of Public Economics 95 (7–8): 734. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.02.008.
- An Irish Face on the Cause of Citizenship, Nina Bernstein, March 16, 2006, The New York Times. 
- National Council of La Raza, Issues and Programs » Immigration » Immigration Reform,  Archived April 13, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Dustmann, Christian. "Labor market effects on immigration" (PDF). Business Source Elite. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Remittance Prices Worldwide MAKING MARKETS MORE TRANSPARENT (2014-04-28). "Remittance Prices Worldwide". Remittanceprices.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 1948. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Theresa Hayter, Open Borders: The Case Against Immigration Controls, London: Pluto Press, 2000.
- "Anarchism and Immigration". theanarchistlibrary. January 1, 2005.
- "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 1948. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- "Family Reunification", Ramah McKay, Migration Policy Institute.
- "Poll Results | IGM Forum". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
- "Poll Results | IGM Forum". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
- Card, David; Dustmann, Christian; Preston, Ian (2012-02-01). "Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities". Journal of the European Economic Association 10 (1): 78–119. doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01051.x. ISSN 1542-4774.
- Bodvarsson, Örn B; Van den Berg, Hendrik (2013-01-01). The economics of immigration: theory and policy. New York; Heidelberg [u.a.]: Springer. p. 157. ISBN 9781461421153.
- Card, David (1989-01-01). "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market" (PDF). doi:10.3386/w3069.
- Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni (2013-01-01). "Immigrants' and Native Workers: New Analysis on Longitudinal Data" (PDF). doi:10.3386/w19315.
- Card, David (2009-04-01). "Immigration and Inequality". American Economic Review 99 (2): 1–21. doi:10.1257/aer.99.2.1. ISSN 0002-8282.
- Xu, Ping; Garand, James C.; Zhu, Ling (2015-09-23). "Imported Inequality? Immigration and Income Inequality in the American States". State Politics & Policy Quarterly: 1532440015603814. doi:10.1177/1532440015603814. ISSN 1532-4400.
- Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.; Peri, Giovanni (2006-01-01). "The economic value of cultural diversity: evidence from US cities". Journal of Economic Geography 6 (1): 9–44. doi:10.1093/jeg/lbi002. ISSN 1468-2702.
- Kerr, Sari Pekkala; Kerr, William. "Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey" (PDF). doi:10.3386/w16736.
- "Refugee Economies: Rethinking Popular Assumptions — Refugee Studies Centre". www.rsc.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- "Economic Impact of Refugees in the Cleveland Area" (PDF).
- Cortes, Kalena E. (2004-03-01). "Are Refugees Different from Economic Immigrants? Some Empirical Evidence on the Heterogeneity of Immigrant Groups in the United States". Rochester, NY.
- "Much ado about nothing? The economic impact of refugee 'invasions'". The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2016-01-02.
- The Impact of Syrians Refugees on the Turkish Labor Market. Policy Research Working Papers. The World Bank. 2015-08-24. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-7402.
- Maystadt, Jean-François; Verwimp, Philip. "Winners and Losers among a Refugee-Hosting Population". Economic Development and Cultural Change 62 (4): 769–809. doi:10.1086/676458.
- "Immigration and Prices: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Syrian Refugees in Turkey" (PDF).
- Ruist, Joakim (2013). "The labor market impact of refugee immigration in Sweden 1999–2007" (PDF).
- Fakih, Ali; Ibrahim, May (2016-01-02). "The impact of Syrian refugees on the labor market in neighboring countries: empirical evidence from Jordan". Defence and Peace Economics 27 (1): 64–86. doi:10.1080/10242694.2015.1055936. ISSN 1024-2694.
- "'No reasons to reject refugees' - Giovanni Peri". SoundCloud. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
- di Giovanni, Julian; Levchenko, Andrei A.; Ortega, Francesc (2015-02-01). "A Global View of Cross-Border Migration". Journal of the European Economic Association 13 (1): 168–202. doi:10.1111/jeea.12110. ISSN 1542-4774.
- Milanovic, Branko (2014-01-07). "Global Inequality of Opportunity: How Much of Our Income Is Determined by Where We Live?". Review of Economics and Statistics 97 (2): 452–460. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00432. ISSN 0034-6535.
- Clemens, Michael (2009-01-15). "The Place Premium: Wage Differences for Identical Workers Across the US Border".
- "Emigration and wages in source countries: a survey of the empirical literature : International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development". www.elgaronline.com. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- "The New Economic Case for Migration Restrictions". Development Research Institute. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- McKenzie, David; Stillman, Steven; Gibson, John (2010-06-01). "How Important is Selection? Experimental VS. Non-Experimental Measures of the Income Gains from Migration". Journal of the European Economic Association 8 (4): 913–945. doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2010.tb00544.x. ISSN 1542-4774.
- Gibson, John; Mckenzie, David J.; Rohorua, Halahingano; Stillman, Steven (2015-01-01). "The long-term impacts of international migration : evidence from a lottery". The World Bank.
- Iregui, Ana Maria (2003-01-01). "Efficiency Gains from the Elimination of Global Restrictions on Labour Mobility: An Analysis using a Multiregional CGE Model".
- Clemens, Michael A (2011-08-01). "Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?". Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (3): 83–106. doi:10.1257/jep.25.3.83. ISSN 0895-3309.
- Hamilton, B.; Whalley, J. (1984-02-01). "Efficiency and distributional implications of global restrictions on labour mobility: calculations and policy implications". Journal of Development Economics 14 (1-2): 61–75. doi:10.1016/0304-3878(84)90043-9. ISSN 0304-3878. PMID 12266702.
- "Cross-border movement of persons stimulates trade". VoxEU.org. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- Bratti, Massimiliano; Benedictis, Luca De; Santoni, Gianluca (2014-04-18). "On the pro-trade effects of immigrants". Review of World Economics 150 (3): 557–594. doi:10.1007/s10290-014-0191-8. ISSN 1610-2878.
- "Migrants, Ancestors, and Investment". NBER.
- Hornung, Erik. "Immigration and the Diffusion of Technology: The Huguenot Diaspora in Prussia †". American Economic Review 104 (1): 84–122. doi:10.1257/aer.104.1.84.
- Moser, Petra; Voena, Alessandra; Waldinger, Fabian. "German Jewish Émigrés and US Invention †". American Economic Review 104 (10): 3222–3255. doi:10.1257/aer.104.10.3222.
- Harris, Rachel Anne. "The Mariel Boatlift- A Natural Experiment in Low-Skilled Immigration and Innovation" (PDF).
- Clark, J.R.; Lawson, Robert; Nowrasteh, Alex; Powell, Benjamin; Murphy, Ryan (June 2015). "Does immigration impact institutions?". Public Choice (Springer) 163 (3): 321–335. doi:10.1007/s11127-015-0254-y.
- "Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on July 9, 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- "Impact of Immigration on the Distribution of American Well-Being" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Retrieved 24 September 2010.[dead link]
- "Increasing the Supply of Labor Through Immigration" (PDF). Center for Immigration Studies. May 2004. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Pia m. Orrenius, P. M.; Zavodny, M. (2009). "Do Immigrants Work in Riskier Jobs?". Demography 46 (3): 535–551. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0064. PMC 2831347. PMID 19771943.
- Toussaint-Comeau, Maude (2005). "Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrants' Self-Employment Decision?" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper 2005-23.
- "Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe: A World of Difference". scholar.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- Freeman, G. P. (2009). "Immigration, Diversity, and Welfare Chauvinism". The Forum 7 (3). doi:10.2202/1540-8884.1317.
- Wimmer, Andreas (2015-07-28). "Is Diversity Detrimental? Ethnic Fractionalization, Public Goods Provision, and the Historical Legacies of Stateness". Comparative Political Studies: 0010414015592645. doi:10.1177/0010414015592645. ISSN 0010-4140.
- Kymlicka, Will; Banting, Keith (2006-09-01). "Immigration, Multiculturalism, and the Welfare State". Ethics & International Affairs 20 (03): 281–304. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7093.2006.00027.x. ISSN 1747-7093.
- Garand, James C.; Xu, Ping; Davis, Belinda C. (2015-12-01). "Immigration Attitudes and Support for the Welfare State in the American Mass Public". American Journal of Political Science: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/ajps.12233. ISSN 1540-5907.
- Geay, Charlotte; McNally, Sandra; Telhaj, Shqiponja (2013-08-01). "Non-native Speakers of English in the Classroom: What Are the Effects on Pupil Performance?*". The Economic Journal 123 (570): F281–F307. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12054. ISSN 1468-0297.
- Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan C. (2013-08-01). "How Immigrant Children Affect the Academic Achievement of Native Dutch Children". The Economic Journal 123 (570): F308–F331. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12052. ISSN 1468-0297.
- Schneeweis, Nicole (2015-08-01). "Immigrant concentration in schools: Consequences for native and migrant students". Labour Economics 35: 63–76. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2015.03.004.
- "Gender and Racial Differences in Peer Effects of Limited English Students: A Story of Language or Ethnicity?". www.iza.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
- Röder, Antje; Mühlau, Peter (2014-03-01). "Are They Acculturating? Europe's Immigrants and Gender Egalitarianism". Social Forces 92 (3): 899–928. doi:10.1093/sf/sot126. ISSN 0037-7732.
- Spierings, Niels (2015-04-16). "Gender Equality Attitudes among Turks in Western Europe and Turkey: The Interrelated Impact of Migration and Parents' Attitudes". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (5): 749–771. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2014.948394. ISSN 1369-183X.
- Fleischmann, Fenella; Kristen, Cornelia; Contributions, With; Research, Including the Provision of Data and Analyses Instrumental to The; by; Heath, Anthony F.; Brinbaum, Yaël; Deboosere, Patrick; Granato, Nadia (2014-07-01). "Gender Inequalities in the Education of the Second Generation in Western Countries". Sociology of Education 87 (3): 143–170. doi:10.1177/0038040714537836. ISSN 0038-0407.
- Röder, Antje (2015-12-01). "Immigrants' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: Socialization, Religion, and Acculturation in European Host Societies". International Migration Review 49 (4): 1042–1070. doi:10.1111/imre.12113. ISSN 1747-7379.
- Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar (2016-01-13). "How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes". PLoS ONE 11 (1): e0147162. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147162.
- Avitabile, Ciro; Clots-Figueras, Irma; Masella, Paolo (2013-08-01). "The Effect of Birthright Citizenship on Parental Integration Outcomes". The Journal of Law and Economics 56 (3): 777–810. doi:10.1086/673266. ISSN 0022-2186.
- Levy, Morris (2015-12-01). "The Effect of Immigration from Mexico on Social Capital in the United States". International Migration Review: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/imre.12231. ISSN 1747-7379.
- Buonanno, Paolo; Drago, Francesco; Galbiati, Roberto; Zanella, Giulio (2011-07-01). "Crime in Europe and the United States: dissecting the ‘reversal of misfortunes’". Economic Policy 26 (67): 347–385. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0327.2011.00267.x. ISSN 0266-4658.
- Papadopoulos, Georgios (2014-07-02). "Immigration status and property crime: an application of estimators for underreported outcomes". IZA Journal of Migration 3 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/2193-9039-3-12. ISSN 2193-9039.
- Bianchi, Milo; Buonanno, Paolo; Pinotti, Paolo (2012-12-01). "Do Immigrants Cause Crime?". Journal of the European Economic Association 10 (6): 1318–1347. doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01085.x. ISSN 1542-4774.
- Nunziata, Luca (2015-03-04). "Immigration and crime: evidence from victimization data". Journal of Population Economics 28 (3): 697–736. doi:10.1007/s00148-015-0543-2. ISSN 0933-1433.
- Jaitman, Laura; Machin, Stephen (2013-10-25). "Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales". IZA Journal of Migration 2 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1186/2193-9039-2-19. ISSN 2193-9039.
- Bell, Brian; Fasani, Francesco; Machin, Stephen (2012-10-10). "Crime and Immigration: Evidence from Large Immigrant Waves". Review of Economics and Statistics 95 (4): 1278–1290. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00337. ISSN 0034-6535.
- Bell, Brian; Machin, Stephen (2013-02-01). "Immigrant Enclaves and Crime*". Journal of Regional Science 53 (1): 118–141. doi:10.1111/jors.12003. ISSN 1467-9787.
- Wadsworth, Tim (2010-06-01). "Is Immigration Responsible for the Crime Drop? An Assessment of the Influence of Immigration on Changes in Violent Crime Between 1990 and 2000*". Social Science Quarterly 91 (2): 531–553. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00706.x. ISSN 1540-6237.
- Piopiunik, Marc; Ruhose, Jens (2015-04-06). "Immigration, Regional Conditions, and Crime: Evidence from an Allocation Policy in Germany". Rochester, NY.
- Mastrobuoni, Giovanni; Pinotti, Paolo. "Legal Status and the Criminal Activity of Immigrants †". American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 7 (2): 175–206. doi:10.1257/app.20140039.
- Baker, Scott R. "Effects of Immigrant Legalization on Crime †". American Economic Review 105 (5): 210–213. doi:10.1257/aer.p20151041.
- Pinotti, Paolo (2014-10-01). "Clicking on Heaven's Door: The Effect of Immigrant Legalization on Crime". Rochester, NY.
- Appel, Jacob. The Ethical Case for an Open Immigration Policy May 4, 2009.
- Balin, Bryan. State Immigration Legislation and Immigrant Flows: An Analysis Johns Hopkins University, 2008.
- Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Borjas, George J. (2014). Immigration Economics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-04977-2.
- Center for Immigration Studies Refer to "Publications" for research on illegal immigration, demographic trends, terrorism concerns, environmental impact, and other subjects.
- De La Torre, Miguel A., Trails of Hope and Terror: Testimonies on Immigration. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2009.
- Esbenshade, Jill. Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2007.
- Ewing, Walter A. Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies and National Security, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Spring 2006.
- Fell, Peter and Hayes, Debra. What are they Doing Here? A Critical Guide to Asylum and Immigration, Birmimgham, Venture Press, 2007.
- Fitzgerald, David Scott; Cook-Martin, David (2014). Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674-72904-9.
- Freeman, Joe. Living and Working in the European Union for Non-EU Nationals. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 0-9786254-0-4
- Immigration Policy Center. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, November 2005.
- Karakayali, Nedim. 2005. "Duality and Diversity in the Lives of Immigrant Children: Rethinking the 'Problem of Second Generation' in Light of Immigrant Autobiographies", Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 325–344.
- Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century until the End of the Gilded Age. BOD, 2009. ISBN 3-8370-9303-4
- Legrain, Philippe. Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them. Little Brown, 2007. ISBN 0-316-73248-6
- Massey, Douglas S. Beyond the Border Buildup: Towards a New Approach to Mexico-U.S. Migration. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, September 2005.
- Massey, Douglas S., Joaquín Arango, Hugo Graeme, Ali Kouaouci, Adela, Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor.Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-928276-5
- Meilander, Peter C. Towards a Theory of Immigration. Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 978-0-312-24034-9
- Molina, Natalia. Fit to Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1940. University of California Press, 2006.
- Myers, Dowell. Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America. Russell Sage Foundation, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4
- Passel, Jeffrey S. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2005.
- Passel, Jeffrey S. Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2007.
- Passel, Jeffrey S. and Roberto Suro. Rise, Peak and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration. Pew Hispanic Center, September 2005.
- Pearce, Susan C. Immigrant Women in the United States: A Demographic Portrait. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2006.
- Portes, Alejandro and József Böröcz, "Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation" International Migration Review, 23,3, Silver Anniversary Issue, International Migration: an Assessment for the 90's. (Autumn, 1989), pp. 606–630.
- Rumbaut, Ruben and Walter Ewing. "The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men." The Immigration Policy Center, Spring 2007.
- Sintès Pierre, La raison du mouvement : territoires et réseaux de migrants albanais en Grèce, Karthala, Maison Méditerranéenne des sciences de l'homme, Ecole française d'Athènes, Paris - Aix-en-Provence - Athens, 2010.
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, ISBN 9780773457393 New York, Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
- Valle, Isabel. Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey. ISBN 978-0-87422-101-5
- West, Lorane A. Color: Latino Voices in the Pacific Northwest. ISBN 978-0-87422-274-6
- Zolberg, Aristide. A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-674-02218-1
|Look up immigration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Immigration|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Immigration.|
|Wikisource has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia article about Immigration.|
- A Description of the Immigrant Population—2013 Update U. (2013, May 8). Congressional Budget Office
- Open Borders: The Case
- 101Blogs at 101Migration.com
- Immigration and Migration from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- International Migration from the United Nations
- UNESCO Programme on International Migration and Multicultural Policies
- Different Types of Immigration Visas in the United States of America
- BBC News Factfile: Global migration
- The debate about separate Immigration Courts in the US
- Immigration Newspaper Archive A collection of more than 50,000 searchable newspaper articles on Immigration.
- A world map with territory sizes adjusted to the number of immigrants living in those countries
- Princeton Center for Migration and Development—a leading research center on migration to the USA
- Casahistoria - European emigration since 1800—links to 19th & 20th century global European emigration
- Do Foreigners Have Rights? François Crépeau, Professor of International Law, University of Montreal
- Immigration at DMOZ
- Globalization: A Basic Text
- "700 Million Worldwide Desire to Migrate Permanently," at gallup.com