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- Intergovernmental organizations, also known as international governmental organizations (IGOs): the type of organization most closely associated with the term 'international organization', these are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states). Notable examples include the United Nations (UN), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (COE), International Labour Organization (ILO), International Police Organization (INTERPOL) and CGIAR (formerly the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research). The UN has used the term "intergovernmental organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity.
- International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs): non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally. These include international non-profit organizationsuch as the World Organization of the Scout Movement, International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières.
The first and oldest intergovernmental organization is the International Telecommunication Union (founded in 1865), which served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations Several regional organizations also existed before then, such as the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna.
The role of international organizations is helping to set the international agenda, mediating political bargaining, providing a place for political initiatives and acting as catalysts for coalition- formation. International organizations also define the salient issues and decide which issues can be grouped together, thus help governmental priority determination or other governmental arrangements.
Not all international organizations seek economic, political and social cooperation and integration.
Notes and references
- ‹See Tfd›(in French) François Modoux, "La Suisse engagera 300 millions pour rénover le Palais des Nations", Le Temps, Friday 28 June 2013, page 9.
- The Penguin Dictionary of International Relations divides modern international organizations into two "basic types, the 'public' variety known as intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and the 'private' variety, the international non-governmental organization (INGOs)." (Evans, Graham, and Richard Newnham. Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. Penguin, 1998, p. 270.)
- "Intergovernmental organizations having received a standing invitation to participate as observers in the sessions and the work of the General Assembly and maintaining permanent offices at Headquarters." United Nations Department of Public Information, United Nations Secretariat.
- Headquarters of International Organisation List of International Organisation and their Headquarters
- Procedural history and related documents on the 'Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law
- World News related documents on the World News related documents