International recognition of the State of Palestine
The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.
The declaration was promptly acknowledged by a range of countries, and by the end of the year the state was recognised by over 80 countries. In February 1989, at the United Nations Security Council, the PLO representative claimed recognition by 94 states. As part of an attempt to resolve the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Oslo Accords signed between Israel and PLO in September 1993 established the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) as a self-governing interim administration in the Palestinian territories. Israel does not recognise Palestine as a state and maintains de facto military control in all the territories.
As of 14 September 2015, 136 (Palestinian people". On 29 November 2012, the UN General Assembly passed a motion changing Palestine's "entity" status to "non-member observer state" by a vote of 138 to 9, with 41 abstentions.70.5%) of the 193 member states of the United Nations and two non-member states have recognised the State of Palestine. Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the
Israel and a number of other countries do not recognise Palestine, taking the position that the establishment of this state can only be determined through direct negotiations between Israel and the PNA. The main issues currently obstructing an agreement are borders, security, water rights, the status of Jerusalem and freedom of access to religious sites, ongoing Israeli settlement expansion, and legalities concerning Palestinian refugees including their right of return.
- 1 Background
- 2 Israeli position
- 3 Palestine in the United Nations
- 4 Other positions
- 5 Multilateral treaties
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
On 22 November 1974, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3236 recognised the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, national independence and sovereignty in Palestine. It also recognised the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people, and accorded it observer status in the United Nations. The designation "Palestine" for the PLO was adopted by the United Nations in 1988 in acknowledgment of the Palestinian declaration of independence, but the proclaimed state still has no formal status within the system.
Shortly after the 1988 declaration, the State of Palestine was recognised by many developing states in Africa and Asia, and from communist and non-aligned states. At the time, however, the United States was using its Foreign Assistance Act and other measures to discourage other countries and international organisations from extending recognition. Although these measures were successful in many cases, the Arab League and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) immediately published statements of recognition of, support for, and solidarity with Palestine, which was accepted as a member state in both forums.
In February 1989 at the United Nations Security Council, the PLO representative acknowledged that 94 states had recognised the new Palestinian state. It subsequently attempted to gain membership as a state in several agencies connected to the United Nations, but its efforts were thwarted by U.S. threats to withhold funding from any organisation that admitted Palestine. For example, in April of the same year, the PLO applied for membership as a state in the World Health Organization, an application that failed to produce a result after the U.S. informed the organisation that it would withdraw funding if Palestine were admitted. In May, a group of OIC members submitted to UNESCO an application for membership on behalf of Palestine, and listed a total of 91 states that had recognised the State of Palestine.
In June 1989, the PLO submitted to the government of Switzerland letters of accession to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. However, Switzerland, as the depositary state, determined that because the question of Palestinian statehood had not been settled within the international community, it was therefore incapable of determining whether the letter constituted a valid instrument of accession.
Due to the incertainty [sic] within the international community as to the existence or the non-existence of a State of Palestine and as long as the issue has not been settled in an appropriate framework, the Swiss Government, in its capacity as depositary of the Geneva Conventions and their additional Protocols, is not in a position to decide whether this communication can be considered as an instrument of accession in the sense of the relevant provisions of the Conventions and their additional Protocols.
Consequently, in November 1989, the Arab League proposed a General Assembly resolution to formally recognise the PLO as the government of an independent Palestinian state. The draft, however, was abandoned when the U.S. again threatened to cut off its financing for the United Nations should the vote go ahead. The Arab states agreed not to press the resolution, but demanded that the U.S. promise not to threaten the United Nations with financial sanctions again.
Many of the early statements of recognition of the State of Palestine were termed ambiguously. In addition, hesitation from others did not necessarily mean that these nations did not regard Palestine as a state. This has seemingly resulted in confusion regarding the number of states that have officially recognised the state declared in 1988. Numbers reported in the past are often conflicting, with figures as high as 130 being seen frequently. In July 2011, in an interview with Haaretz, Palestinian ambassador to the United Nations, Riyad Mansour claimed that 122 states had so far extended formal recognition. At the end of the month, the PLO published a paper on why the world's governments should recognise the State of Palestine and listed the 122 countries that had already done so. By the end of September the same year, Mansour claimed the figure had reached 139.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2012)|
Between the end of the Six Day War and the Oslo Accords, no Israeli government proposed a Palestinian state. Even after the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, most Israeli mainstream politicians were opposed to the idea. During Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government of 1996–1999, he went as far as to accuse the two previous governments of Rabin and Peres of bringing closer to realisation what he claimed to be the "danger" of a Palestinian state, and stated that his main policy goal was to ensure that the Palestinian Authority didn't evolve beyond an autonomy.
In December 2001, Ariel Sharon was the first Israeli Prime Minister to proclaim that a Palestinian state was the solution to the conflict and the goal of his administration. The government headed by Ehud Olmert repeated the same objective. Following the inauguration of the present Netanyahu government in 2009, the government again claimed that a Palestinian state posed a danger for Israel. The government position changed, however, following pressure from the Obama administration, and on 14 June 2009, Netanyahu for the first time made a speech in which he supported the notion of a demilitarised and territorially reduced Palestinian state. This position met some criticism for its lack of commitment on the territories to be ceded to the Palestinian state in the future.
The Israeli government has accepted in general the idea that a Palestinian state is to be established, but has refused to accept the 1967 borders either as compulsory or as a basis for final border negotiations, due to security concerns. Israeli military experts have argued that the 1967 borders are strategically indefensible. It also opposes the Palestinian plan of approaching the UN General Assembly on the matter of statehood, as it claims it does not honor the Oslo Accords agreement in which both sides agreed not to pursue unilateral moves.
Palestine in the United Nations
On 14 October 1974, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was recognised by the UN General Assembly as the representative of the Palestinian people and granted the right to participate in the deliberations of the General Assembly on the question of Palestine in plenary meetings.
On 15 December 1988, UN General Assembly Resolution 43/177 "acknowledged" the Palestinian Declaration of Independence of November 1988 and replaced the designation "Palestine Liberation Organization" by the designation "Palestine" in the United Nations system.
On 23 September 2011, President Mahmoud Abbas on behalf of the PLO submitted an application for membership of Palestine in the United Nations. On 29 November 2012, the General Assembly granted Palestine non-member observer state status in United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19.
On 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents".
Application for UN membership 2011
After a two-year impasse in negotiations with Israel, the Palestinian Authority began a diplomatic campaign to gain recognition for the State of Palestine on the borders prior to the Six-Day War, with East Jerusalem as its capital. The efforts, which began in late 2009, gained widespread attention in September 2011, when President Mahmoud Abbas submitted an application to the United Nations to accept Palestine as a member state. This would constitute collective recognition of the State of Palestine, which would allow its government to pursue legal claims against other states in international courts.
In order for a state to gain membership in the General Assembly, its application must have the support of two-thirds of member states with a prior recommendation for admission from the Security Council. This requires the absence of a veto from any of the Security Council's five permanent members. At the prospect of a veto from the United States, Palestinian leaders signalled they might opt instead for a more limited upgrade to "non-member state" status, which requires only a simple majority in the General Assembly but provides the Palestinians with the recognition they desire.
The campaign, dubbed "Palestine 194", was formally backed by the Arab League in May, and was officially confirmed by the PLO on 26 June. The decision has been labelled by the Israeli government as a unilateral step, while the Palestinian government has countered that it is essential to overcoming the current impasse. Several other countries—such as Germany and Canada—have also denounced the decision and called for a prompt return to negotiations. However, many others—such as Norway and Russia—have endorsed the plan, as has Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who stated: "UN members are entitled whether to vote for or against the Palestinian statehood recognition at the UN."
Diplomatic efforts to gain support for the bid gained momentum following a succession of endorsements from South America in early 2011. High-level delegations led by Yasser Abed Rabbo, Riyad al-Maliki, Saeb Erekat, Nabil Shaath and Riyad Mansour paid visits to many states. Palestinian ambassadors, assisted by those of other Arab states, were charged with enlisting the support of the governments to which they were accredited. During the lead-up to the vote, Russia, China, and Spain publicly pledged their support for the Palestinian bid, as have inter-governmental organisations such as the African Union, and the Non-Aligned Movement.
Israel has taken steps to counter the initiative, and Germany, Italy, Canada and the U.S. have announced publicly they would vote against the resolution. Israeli and U.S. diplomats began a campaign pressuring many countries to oppose or abstain from the vote. However, because of the "automatic majority" enjoyed by the Palestinians in the General Assembly, the Netanyahu administration has stated that it does not expect to prevent a resolution from passing should it go ahead. In August, Haaretz quoted the Israeli ambassador to the United Nations, Ron Prosor, as stating that Israel would be unable to block a resolution at the General Assembly by September. "The maximum that we can hope to gain is for a group of states who will abstain or be absent during the vote", wrote Prosor. "Only a few countries will vote against the Palestinian initiative."
Instead, the Israeli government has focused on obtaining a "moral majority" of major democratic powers, in an attempt to diminish the weight of the vote. Considerable weight has been placed on the position of the European Union, which has not yet been announced. EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton has stated that it is likely to depend on the wording of the resolution. At the end of August, Israel's defence minister Ehud Barak told Ashton that Israel was seeking to influence the wording: "It is very important that all the players come up with a text that will emphasise the quick return to negotiations, without an effort to impose pre-conditions on the sides."
Efforts from both Israel and the U.S. have also focused on pressuring the Palestinian leadership to abandon its plans and return to negotiations. In the U.S., Congress passed a bill denouncing the initiative and calling on the Obama administration to veto any resolution that would recognise a Palestinian state declared outside of an agreement negotiated by the two parties. A similar bill was passed in the Senate, which also threatened a withdrawal of aid to the West Bank. In late August, another congressional bill was introduced which proposes to block U.S. government funding for any United Nations entity that supports giving Palestine an elevated status. Several top U.S. officials, including ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice and consul-general in Jerusalem Daniel Rubinstein, made similar threats. In the same month, it was reported that the Israeli Ministry of Finance was withholding its monthly payments to the PNA. Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman warned that if the Palestinians took unilateral actions at the United Nations, they would be in violation of the Oslo Accords, and Israel would no longer consider itself bound by them. He also recommended cutting all ties with the PNA.
On 11 July 2011, the Quartet met to discuss a return to negotiations, but the meeting produced no result. President Mahmoud Abbas has claimed that he would suspend the bid and return to negotiations if the Israelis agree to the 1967 borders and cease its expansion of settlements in the West Bank.
The PNA's campaign has seen an increasing level of support in grass-roots activism. Avaaz began an online petition urging all United Nations members to endorse the bid to admit Palestine; it reportedly attained 500,000 e-signatures in its first four days. OneVoice Palestine launched a domestic campaign in partnership with local news agencies, with the aim of getting the involvement and support of Palestinian citizens. Overseas, campaigns were launched in several nations, calling on their governments to vote "yes" in the resolution. On 7 September, a group of Palestinian activists under the banner "Palestine: State No. 194" staged a demonstration outside the United Nations' office in Ramallah. During the demonstration, they submitted to the office a letter addressed to Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, urging him to "exert all possible efforts toward the achievement of the Palestinian people's just demands". The following day, Ban told reporters: "I support ... the statehood of Palestinians; an independent, sovereign state of Palestine. It has been long overdue", but he also stated that "recognition of a state is something to be determined by the member states."
Other United Nations organs have previously expressed readiness to see a Palestinian state. In April 2011, the UN's co-ordinator for the Middle East peace process issued a report on the Palestinian Authority's state-building progress, describing "aspects of its administration as sufficient for an independent state". It echoed a similar assessment published the week prior by the International Monetary Fund. The World Bank released a report in September 2010 that found the Palestinian Authority "well-positioned to establish a state" at any point in the near future. However, the report highlighted that, unless private-sector growth in the Palestinian economy was stimulated, a Palestinian state would remain donor dependent.
Non-member observer state status
During September 2012, Palestine decided to pursue an upgrade in status from "observer entity" to "non-member observer state". On 27 November of the same year, it was announced that the appeal had been officially made, and would be put to a vote in the General Assembly on 29 November, where their status upgrade was expected to be supported by a majority of states. In addition to granting Palestine "non-member observer state status", the draft resolution "expresses the hope that the Security Council will consider favorably the application submitted on 23 September 2011 by the State of Palestine for admission to full membership in the United Nations, endorses the two state solution based on the pre-1967 borders, and stresses the need for an immediate resumption of negotiations between the two parties."
On Thursday, 29 November 2012, in a 138–9 vote (with 41 abstaining) General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to "non-member observer state" status in the United Nations. The new status equates Palestine's with that of the Holy See. The change in status was described by The Independent as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine". Voting "no" were Canada, the Czech Republic, Israel, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Panama and the United States of America.
The vote was an important benchmark for the partially recognised State of Palestine and its citizens, while it was a diplomatic setback for Israel and the United States. Status as an observer state in the UN will allow the State of Palestine to join treaties and specialised UN agencies, the Law of the Seas treaty, and the International Criminal Court. It will permit Palestine to pursue legal rights over its territorial waters and air space as a sovereign state recognised by the UN, and allow the Palestinian people the right to sue for sovereignty over their territory in the International Court of Justice and to bring "crimes against humanity" and war-crimes charges, including that of unlawfully occupying the territory of State of Palestine, against Israel in the International Criminal Court.
The UN has, after the resolution was passed, permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as "The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations", seen by many as a reflexion of the UN's de facto position of recognising the State of Palestine's sovereignty under international law, and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports. The Palestinian authorities have also instructed its diplomats to officially represent the "State of Palestine", as opposed to the "Palestine National Authority". Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of "State of Palestine" shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents", recognising the "State of Palestine" as the official name of the Palestinian nation.
On Thursday 26 September 2013 at the United Nations, Mahmoud Abbas was given the right to sit in the General Assembly’s beige chair which is reserved for heads of state waiting to take the podium and address the General Assembly.
UN member states
Of the 193 member states of the United Nations, 136 ( The list below is based on the list maintained by the Palestine Liberation Organization during the campaign for United Nations recognition in 2011.70.5%) have recognised the State of Palestine as of 14 September 2015. Their total population is over 5.5 billion people, equaling 80 percent of the world's population.
Some states, marked with an asterisk (*) below, expressly recognised the State of Palestine on the borders of 4 June 1967 (i.e., the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem), which constituted Arab territory prior to the Six Day War.
|#||Name||Date of recognition||Diplomatic relations [note 1]||Relevant membership, further details|
|1||Algeria||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC; Algeria–Palestine relations|
|2||Bahrain||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|3||Iraq||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC; Iraq–Palestine relations|
|4||Kuwait||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|5||Libya||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|6||Malaysia||15 November 1988||Yes||OIC; Malaysia–Palestine relations|
|7||Mauritania||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|8||Morocco||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|9||Somalia||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|10||Tunisia||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|11||Turkey||15 November 1988||Yes||OIC; Palestine–Turkey relations|
|12||Yemen||15 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|13||Afghanistan||16 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|14||Bangladesh||16 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|15||Cuba||16 November 1988||Yes||—|
|16||Indonesia||16 November 1988||Yes||OIC; Indonesia–Palestine relations|
|17||Jordan||16 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|18||Madagascar||16 November 1988||No||—|
|19||Malta||16 November 1988||Yes||EU|
|20||Nicaragua||16 November 1988||Yes||—|
|21||Pakistan||16 November 1988||Yes||OIC; Pakistan–Palestine relations|
|22||Qatar||16 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|23||Saudi Arabia||16 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|24||United Arab Emirates||16 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC; Palestine–United Arab Emirates relations|
|25||Serbia||16 November 1988||Yes||—, Palestine–Serbia relations|
|26||Zambia||16 November 1988||Yes||—|
|27||Albania||17 November 1988||Yes||OIC; Albania–Palestine relations|
|28||Brunei||17 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|29||Djibouti||17 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|30||Mauritius||17 November 1988||Yes||—|
|31||Sudan||17 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|32||Cyprus||18 November 1988*||Yes||EU|
|33||Czech Republic||18 November 1988||Yes||EU; Czech Republic currently de facto does not recognise the existence of the State of Palestine.|
|34||Slovakia||18 November 1988||Yes||EU|
|35||Egypt||18 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC; Egypt–Palestine relations|
|36||Gambia||18 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|37||India||18 November 1988||Yes||India–Palestine relations|
|38||Nigeria||18 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|39||Russia||18 November 1988||Yes||UNSC (permanent); Palestine–Russia relations|
|40||Seychelles||18 November 1988||Yes||—|
|41||Sri Lanka||18 November 1988||Yes||—|
|42||Belarus||19 November 1988||Yes||—|
|43||Guinea||19 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|44||Namibia||19 November 1988||Yes||—|
|45||Ukraine||19 November 1988||Yes||—|
|46||Vietnam||19 November 1988||Yes||—, Palestine–Vietnam relations|
|47||China||20 November 1988||Yes||UNSC (permanent); China–Palestine relations|
|48||Burkina Faso||21 November 1988||Yes||OIC; Burkina Faso-Palestine relations|
|49||Comoros||21 November 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|50||Guinea-Bissau||21 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|51||Mali||21 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|52||Cambodia||21 November 1988||Yes||—|
|53||Mongolia||22 November 1988||Yes||—|
|54||Senegal||22 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|55||Hungary||23 November 1988||Yes||EU|
|56||Cape Verde||24 November 1988||No||—|
|57||North Korea||24 November 1988||Yes||—, North Korea–Palestine relations|
|58||Niger||24 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|59||Romania||24 November 1988||Yes||EU; Palestine–Romania relations|
|60||Tanzania||24 November 1988||Yes||—|
|61||Bulgaria||25 November 1988||Yes||EU|
|62||Maldives||28 November 1988||Yes||OIC|
|63||Ghana||29 November 1988||Yes||—|
|64||Togo||29 November 1988||No||OIC|
|65||Zimbabwe||29 November 1988||Yes||—|
|66||Chad||1 December 1988||Yes||OIC|
|67||Laos||2 December 1988||Yes||—|
|68||Sierra Leone||3 December 1988||No||OIC|
|69||Uganda||3 December 1988||Yes||OIC|
|70||Republic of the Congo||5 December 1988||Yes||—|
|71||Angola||6 December 1988||Yes||—|
|72||Mozambique||8 December 1988||Yes||OIC|
|73||São Tomé and Príncipe||10 December 1988||No||—|
|74||Democratic Republic of the Congo||10 December 1988||No||—|
|75||Gabon||12 December 1988||Yes||OIC|
|76||Oman||13 December 1988||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|77||Poland||14 December 1988||Yes||EU|
|78||Botswana||19 December 1988||No||—|
|79||Nepal||19 December 1988||No||—|
|80||Burundi||22 December 1988||No||—|
|81||Central African Republic||23 December 1988||No||—|
|82||Bhutan||25 December 1988||No||—|
|83||Rwanda||2 January 1989||No||—|
|84||Ethiopia||4 February 1989||Yes||—|
|85||Iran||4 February 1989||Yes||OIC; Iran–Palestine relations|
|86||Benin||May 1989 or before[when?]||Yes||OIC|
|87||Equatorial Guinea||May 1989 or before[when?]||No||—|
|88||Kenya||May 1989 or before[when?]||Yes||—|
|89||Vanuatu||21 August 1989||Yes||—|
|91||Swaziland||July 1991 or before[when?]||Yes||—|
|92||Kazakhstan||6 April 1992||Yes||OIC|
|93||Azerbaijan||15 April 1992||Yes||OIC|
|94||Turkmenistan||17 April 1992||Yes||OIC|
|95||Georgia||25 April 1992||Yes||—|
|96||Bosnia and Herzegovina||27 May 1992||Yes|
|97||Tajikistan||2 April 1994||Yes||OIC|
|98||Uzbekistan||25 September 1994||Yes||OIC|
|99||Papua New Guinea||4 October 1994||Yes||—|
|100||South Africa||15 February 1995||Yes||Palestine–South Africa relations|
|101||Kyrgyzstan||12 September 1995||Yes||OIC|
|102||Malawi||23 October 1998*||Yes||—|
|103||East Timor||1 March 2004||Yes||—|
|104||Paraguay||25 March 2005*||Yes||—|
|105||Montenegro||24 July 2006||Yes||—|
|106||Costa Rica||5 February 2008||Yes||—|
|107||Lebanon||30 November 2008||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|108||Côte d'Ivoire||2008 or before[when?]||Yes||OIC|
|109||Venezuela||27 April 2009||Yes||—, Palestine–Venezuela relations|
|110||Dominican Republic||14 July 2009||Yes||—|
|111||Brazil||1 December 2010*||Yes||Brazil–Palestine relations|
|112||Argentina||6 December 2010*||Yes||—|
|113||Bolivia||17 December 2010*||No||—|
|114||Ecuador||24 December 2010*||Yes||—|
|115||Chile||7 January 2011||Yes||—|
|116||Guyana||13 January 2011*||Yes||OIC|
|117||Peru||24 January 2011||Yes||—|
|118||Suriname||1 February 2011*||No||OIC|
|119||Uruguay||15 March 2011||Yes||—|
|120||Lesotho||6 June 2011*||No||—|
|121||Syria||18 July 2011*||Yes||Arab League, OIC|
|122||Liberia||July 2011 or before[when?]||No||—|
|123||El Salvador||25 August 2011||Yes||—|
|124||Honduras||26 August 2011*||Yes||— Honduras-Palestine relations|
|125||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||29 August 2011*||No||—|
|126||Belize||9 September 2011*||Yes||—|
|127||Dominica||19 September 2011||No||—|
|128||South Sudan||21 September 2011 or afterwards||No||—|
|129||Antigua and Barbuda||22 September 2011*||No||—|
|130||Grenada||25 September 2011||Yes||—|
|131||Iceland||15 December 2011*||Yes||Iceland–Palestine relations|
|132||Thailand||18 January 2012*||Yes||—|
|133||Guatemala||9 April 2013||No||—|
|134||Haiti||27 September 2013||Yes||—|
|135||Sweden||30 October 2014||Yes||EU|
|136||Saint Lucia||14 September 2015||Yes||—|
Not members of the UN
|#||Name||Date of recognition||Diplomatic relations
|Relevant membership, further details|
|137||Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||15 November 1988||No||AU|
|138||Holy See||February 2013||Yes||—; Holy See–Palestine relations|
|States which maintain diplomatic relations with the State of Palestine|
No diplomatic recognition
UN member states
|1||Andorra||In January 2011, Andorra co-sponsored a draft resolution guaranteeing the Palestinian people's right to self-determination. In September, it argued for a proposed resolution to give the State of Palestine observer status in the United Nations.||No|
|2||Armenia||On 20 June 2011, Fatah representative Nabil Shaath met with Foreign Minister Eduard Nalbandyan to enlist the support of Armenia in the upcoming resolution. Afterwards, Shaath announced that he had been informed by a number of countries that they would recognise Palestine in the following weeks, and that he expected Armenia to be the first of these. However, the Armenian government did not release any statement regarding the meeting. The situation in Palestine is seen as analogous[by whom?] to the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, and that any recognition of a Palestinian state by Armenia would set a precedent for the right to self-determination in that region. On similar situations, President Serzh Sargsyan previously stated, "Having the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Armenia can not recognise another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognised the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic".||No|
|3||Australia||Australian policy calls for a two-state solution, but it has not supported calls toward Palestinian statehood in the past, insisting instead on a negotiated settlement. In regards to a resolution to admit Palestine as a UN non-member observer state, a division in positions emerged: Former Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd recommended abstaining from the vote, whilst former Prime Minister Julia Gillard declared strong support for Israel. In response, Gillard noted: "There isn't a resolution available for people to read or respond to. If such a resolution does hit the deck, then in deciding how Australia will vote, we will bring our very long-standing principles about questions in the Middle East. That is, we are long-standing supporters of a two-state solution." In 2014, Australia voted against a United Nations Security Council draft resolution proposing the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza and The West Bank by 2017.||Yes|
|4||Austria||Austria conferred full diplomatic status on the PLO representation in Vienna on 13 December 1978, under then-chancellor Bruno Kreisky. In June 2011, Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger said that Austria "had not yet made up its mind whether to support a UN recognition of a Palestinian state", adding that he preferred to wait for a joint EU approach to the issue. "We will decide at the last moment because it might still give [the two parties] the opportunity to bring the Middle East peace process back on track." Spindelegger also suggested that the EU draft its own version of the resolution.||Yes||EU|
|5||Bahamas||The Bahamas has not publicised an official position of its own regarding the State of Palestine. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, which supports a two-state solution along internationally recognised borders. In March 2011, the new Israeli ambassador to the country urged its leaders not to recognise a Palestinian state before negotiations for co-existence between Israel and Palestine had been settled.||No|
|6||Belgium||On the issue of Palestinian statehood, Belgium explicitly supports the declarations of the European Union. On 15 July 2011, the Belgian Senate adopted a resolution urging the government to recognise Palestine on the pre-1967 borders. Prime Minister Yves Leterme stressed the importance of achieving a unified EU position before September, though this never happened. The parties of the new centre right government have agreed to recognise Palestine. The Chamber of Representatives has already adopted a resolution in favour on 5 February 2015. The left-wing opposition called for an unconditional recognition of Palestine.||Yes||EU|
|7||Cameroon||Cameroon officially supports a two-state solution. Although a member of the OIC, President Paul Biya has developed strong ties with Israel since the mid-1980s. This perceived friendship has soured the country's traditionally close ties with Arab states, many of whom have withdrawn longstanding economic development assistance and pressed Biya to support Palestinian interests. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu asked Biya to oppose the United Nations resolution that would admit Palestine as a member state.||Yes||OIC |
|8||Canada||Canada supports the creation of a sovereign Palestinian state, but only as part of a "comprehensive, just and lasting peace settlement". The Harper administration is traditionally regarded as a staunch supporter of Israel. In July 2011, the spokesman for Foreign Minister John Baird stated, "Our government's long-standing position has not changed. The only solution to this conflict is one negotiated between and agreed to by the two parties. ... One of the states must be a Jewish state and recognised as such, while the Palestinian state is to be a non-militarised one".||Yes|
|9||Colombia||In March 2011, following a succession of recognition statements from South American governments, President Juan Manuel Santos stated unequivocally that Colombia will not recognise Palestine as a state as a "matter of principle" until an agreement is reached with Israel. He emphasised that the only path to peace in the Middle East was through direct negotiations. Colombia strengthened its ties with Israel in 2008, and Israel is now its primary supplier of weaponry.||Yes|
|10||Croatia||Croatia formalised relations with the PLO on 31 March 2011. Croatian Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor said in 2011 that her government supports the co-existence of two states, Israel and Palestine, but Croatia abstained during voting on upgrading Palestine to non-member observer state status in the United Nations and on admission of Palestine to UNESCO. Croatian Foreign Minister Vesna Pusić stated on 24 October 2014 that "Croatia will most likely recognise Palestine soon". Croatia supports Israel in this case for several reasons. Two most important are: 1. Palestine isn't recognised by the two main Croatian allies, United States and European Union, so if Croatian government decided to recognise Palestine it would threaten very good relations with its allies; 2. Situation in the Middle East is complicated and there is no guarantee that there would be peace and further existence of the Jewish state if Israeli eventually withdraws.||Yes||EU|
|11||Denmark||Denmark is a strong supporter of the Palestinian state-building agenda, advocating EU support to the Palestinian Authority's two-year deadline for the establishment of the necessary foundations for a viable state; a plan which expired in August 2011. During the campaign for the 2011 elections, the opposition party argued that Denmark should recognise the State of Palestine. Foreign Minister Lene Espersen, however, warned that such a unilateral decision could have "more negative than beneficial" consequences, and stressed the need co-ordinate policy with the EU.||Yes||EU; Denmark–Palestine relations|
|12||Eritrea||President Isaias Afewerki has stated that his government does not recognise Palestine. In October 2010, he stated, "Israel needs a government, we must respect this. The Palestinians also need to have a dignified life, but it can not be the West Bank or Gaza. A two-state solution will not work. It's just to fool people. Israelis and Palestinians living in the same nation will never happen for many reasons. One option that may work is a Transjordan. Israel may be left in peace and the Palestinian and Jordanian peoples are brought together and can create their own nation". In his address to the UN General Assembly in 2011, Afewerki stated that "Eritrea reaffirms its long-standing support to the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and an independent, sovereign state. It also upholds the right of Israel to live in peace and security within internationally recognized boundaries." On 29 November 2012, Eritrea voted in favour of a resolution to make Palestine non-member observer state at the UN.||Yes|
|13||Estonia||During a meeting with Riyad al-Malki in June 2010, Foreign Minister Urmas Paet confirmed that Estonia supports the right to self-determination for the Palestinian people as well as a two-state solution. Officials stated that the government would not adopt a position regarding the United Nations bid until the final wording of the resolution was published.||Yes||EU|
|14||Fiji||Fijian policy on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict is largely based on United Nations resolutions. In 2011, it was reported that Fiji's vote on Palestine's membership at the United Nations may have been the subject of classified communications passed between the Fijian and Vanuatuan governments.||No|
|15||Finland||Finland supports a two-state solution to the conflict. In October 2014, president Sauli Niinistö said that Finland would not follow Swedish decision in recognising the State of Palestine.||Yes||EU|
|16||France||According to President Nicolas Sarkozy, "France supports the solution of two nation states living side-by-side in peace and security, within safe and recognised borders." In May 2011, Sarkozy said that if peace talks with Israel had not resumed by September, he would recognise the State of Palestine as part of its bid at the United Nations. This echoed statements made in March by Nabil Shaath, who claimed to have received a promise from France that it would recognise in September a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders. According to Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu, however, Sarkozy had said that France's support would require the Palestinians to recognise Israel as the state of the Jewish people. This was confirmed in July, when Foreign Minister Alain Juppé stated that any solution to the conflict would require the recognition of "the nation-state of Israel for the Jewish people, and the nation-state of Palestine for the Palestinian people." This broke with the European Union's traditional position, which adamantly opposes any mention of Israel as a Jewish state. Sarkozy later went full-circle on this policy, reportedly saying that the idea of a Jewish state was "silly". In August, Sarkozy stressed the importance of a united EU position on the September initiative, and proposed a compromise where the State of Palestine would be given observer status instead of full membership. The proposal, which was to prevent a split among members of the EU, included a promise from Paris and other members that they would vote for the resolution. In October 2014, France's foreign minister said France would recognise a Palestinian state even if peace talks with Israel fails. On 2 December 2014 the French National Assembly approved a non-binding motion calling on the government to recognising Palestine.||Yes||EU, UNSC (permanent)|
|17||Germany||In April 2011, Chancellor Angela Merkel labelled the Palestinian bid for recognition a "unilateral step", and stated unequivocally that Germany will not recognise a Palestinian state without its prior acceptance by Israel. "Unilateral recognitions therefore definitely do not contribute to achieving this aim ... This is our stance now and it will be our stance in September. There needs to be mutual recognition, otherwise it is not a two-state solution". She also reaffirmed her government's commitment to see an agreement reached as soon as possible. "We want a two-state solution. We want to recognise a Palestinian state. Let us ensure that negotiations begin. It is urgent".||Yes||EU|
|18||Greece||President Karolos Papoulias has stated that Greece ultimately supports the creation of a Palestinian state alongside Israel. Under previous governments, Greece garnered a reputation as a staunch supporter of the Palestinian cause. Within the wider Arab–Israeli conflict, Andreas Papandreou maintained a stronger stand against Israel than any other government in the European Community. Diplomatic relations were founded with the PLO in 1981, while relations with Israel were maintained only at the consular level until Greece's formal recognition of Israel in 1990 under Mitsotakis. Since the formation of current foreign policy under George Papandreou, Greece has seen a rapid improvement in relations with Israel, leading the media to mark the conclusion of Greece's pro-Palestinian era. However, in December 2015, Greece's parliament voted in favour of a motion requesting that the government recognize Palestine.||Yes||EU|
|19||Ireland||In January 2011, Ireland accorded the Palestinian delegation in Dublin to diplomatic status. A few months later, their Foreign Affairs Minister stated that Ireland would "lead the charge" in recognising Palestinian statehood, but that it would not come until the PNA was in full and sole control over the its territories. In October 2014, The Upper House of the Irish Parliament unanimously passed a motion calling on the Government to recognise the State of Palestine. In December 2014, the Dail Éireann (Ireland's lower house) followed suit.||Yes||EU|
|21||Italy||In May 2011 then Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said that Italy would not recognise a unilateral declaration of Palestinian statehood. At an event in Rome celebrating Israel's independence, Berlusconi pledged his country's support for Israel. "Italy has always stood by Israel, even within the framework of the EU when it opposed decisions that were unbalanced and unjust towards Israel." In June, he reiterated: "We do not believe that a unilateral solution can help peace, neither on the Palestinian side nor on the Israeli side. I believe peace can only be reached with a common initiative through negotiations." His position was shared by parliamentarians, who drafted a letter to the United Nations stating, "A premature, unilateral declaration of Palestinian statehood would not only undermine rather than resolve the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, but would constitute a standing affront to the integrity of the United Nations, international agreements, and international law." Nevertheless, at the same time, Italy upgraded the diplomatic status of the Palestinian delegation in Rome to a mission, similarly to what other EU countries were doing, giving the head of the delegation ambassadorial status. Moreover, on 31 October 2011, during the last weeks of Berlusconi's government, Italy did not oppose Palestine's UNESCO membership bid, and on 29 November 2012, during then Prime Minister Mario Monti's government, Italy voted in favour of UN Resolution 67/19, giving Palestine a non-member observer state status at the United Nations.||Yes||EU|
|22||Jamaica||Like other members of the Caribbean Community, Jamaica supports a two-state solution. In 2010, Prime Minister Bruce Golding expressed hope for "a just, lasting and comprehensive peace in the Middle East that guarantees the security of Israel and the unquestioned recognition of a Palestinian state."||No|
|23||Japan||Japan supports a two-state solution to the conflict, and is firmly committed to the establishment of a Palestinian state. In October 2007, a Japanese Justice Ministry official said "Given that the Palestinian Authority has improved itself to almost a full-fledged state and issues its own passports, we have decided to accept the Palestinian nationality". Responding to Israeli settlement activities in 2010, the Japanese government stated that it would not recognise any act that prejudges the final status of Jerusalem and the territories in the pre-1967 borders. Likewise, in January 2011, it declared that it would not recognise the annexation of East Jerusalem by Israel.||Yes|
|24||Kiribati||During the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in early September 2011, the foreign minister of Kiribati reportedly expressed support for the Palestinian position.||No|
|25||South Korea||The government of South Korea does not recognise the State of Palestine. However, South Korea established the representative office in Ramallah.||Yes|
|26||Latvia||Latvia supports a two-state solution to the conflict and provides development assistance to the Palestinian National Authority.||Yes||EU|
|27||Liechtenstein||Liechtenstein relies on Switzerland to carry out most of its foreign affairs. In January 2011, it co-sponsored a draft resolution guaranteeing the Palestinian people's right to self-determination, and stated that this right must be exercised with a view to achieving a viable and fully sovereign Palestinian state.||No|
|28||Lithuania||Like the rest of the European Union, Lithuania supports a two-state solution including an independent Palestinian state. Regarding the Palestinian push for United Nations membership, Foreign Minister Audronius Ažubalis stressed the importance of maintaining a unanimous and well-balanced EU position which encouraged both parties to resume peace talks.||Yes||EU|
|29||Luxembourg||In an interview with Foreign Minister Jean Asselborn in March 2011, The Jerusalem Post stated that Luxembourg was considered among the "least friendly" countries to Israel in the EU. Asselborn himself has been described as openly pro-Palestinian. In response to divisions within the EU regarding the Palestinians' September bid for UN membership, Asselborn reportedly urged the PNA to accept an upgrade in its observer status and not ask for membership. He insisted, "We cannot let the Palestinians leave New York at the end of the month with nothing", He referred to the positions of four members in particular that stood as an obstacle to the achievement of a common position, but that he "cannot agree to say no" to the Palestinian endeavour. He noted that securing the support of all EU nations would have been a great moral advantage for Palestine.||Yes||EU|
|30||Republic of Macedonia||According to Foreign Minister Nikola Poposki, stated, the Macedonian position will be built in accordance with the views of the European Union and its strategic partners.||No|
|31||Mexico||Mexico maintains a policy of supporting a two-state solution. Palestinian and Israeli officials expected Mexico to follow South American countries in recognising the State of Palestine in early 2011. Its position on the matter is seen as influential in Latin America, and therefore critical to both proponents and opponents. Opposition parties have urged the government to recognise a Palestinian state as part of the September initiative, putting down its hesitance to U.S. pressure.||Yes|
|32||Federated States of Micronesia||The FSM is a consistent supporter of Israel, especially in international resolutions, though this is due in part to its association with the United States. During the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in September 2011, the leader of the Micronesian delegation reportedly stated his country's solidarity with the Palestinian people's suffering and support for their right to self-determination. Regarding the PNA's endeavour to gain admission to the United Nations, however, the official stated that the agreements signed with the U.S. prevented the FSM from voting according to its government's wishes in cases where they conflicted with those of the U.S. In reference to Israel's continued development assistance to Micronesians, another diplomat noted, "We need Israeli expertise, so I don't see a change in our policy anytime soon."||No|
|33||Moldova||Moldova maintains a policy of neutrality in international affairs. It has expressed full support for the Quartet principles for the settlement of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which call for an independent Palestinian state.||Yes|
|34||Myanmar||Myanmar is one of only two members of the Non-Aligned Movement that has not recognised the State of Palestine, alongside Singapore. Former foreign affairs minister Win Aung stated in 2000 that Myanmar supports a two-state solution within internationally recognised borders.||No|
|35||Nauru||During the Pacific Islands Forum in early September 2011, Foreign Affairs Minister Kieren Keke confirmed his nation's solidarity with the Palestinian people and their right to self-determination. The PNA's foreign ministry published a statement prior to the summit claiming that most Pacific island nations would vote against a United Nations resolution regarding the Palestinian state.||No|
|36||Netherlands||In June 2011, Foreign Minister Uri Rosenthal stated that the request to admit Palestine at the United Nations would "not be supported by the Netherlands". He called instead for a resumption of negotiations: "We will continue to stress for a restart to direct negotiations." He insisted that a peace deal must be based "on an agreement between all parties", and that the Netherlands was opposed to anything done without the consent of both parties. Abbas highlighted the importance of the Dutch role in the peace process, precisely because it maintained close ties with Israel: "It doesn't disturb us at all. They play a very important role and the Palestinian people are very appreciative of their help."||Yes||EU|
|37||New Zealand||New Zealand support a two-state solution to the peace process. It also maintains a policy of not expressing explicit recognition of new states, preferring to imply recognition through actions rather than formal declarations. For Palestine, this would mean upgrading its accredited delegation to a diplomatic status. In early September 2011, Foreign Minister Murray McCully said that the government would not make a decision until the wording of the resolution was released. "We've got a reputation for being fair minded and even handed on this matter and all we can do is wait to see the words. He also told Riyad al-Malki that he had refused to give any pledges Israel to oppose to vote.||Yes|
|38||Norway||Norway upgraded the Palestinian mission in Oslo to an embassy in December 2010, and Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre called for the creation of a Palestinian state within the following year. In January 2011, Støre stated that, should negotiations with Israel fail to make progress by September, his country would recognise Palestine within the United Nations framework. Following a meeting with Abbas in July 2011, Støre claimed that it was "perfectly legitimate" for the Palestinians to seek a vote on recognition of statehood. "The fundamental Norwegian view is that a people have the right to use UN institutions to clarify questions about the legitimacy of their status in the world. We are opposed to denying this to the Palestinians". The minister withheld full commitment until the request was officially announced, after which, on 18 September, he confirmed that Norway would lend its support: "Norway will support this and is prepared to recognise a Palestinian state."||Yes|
|39||Panama||Panama has not indicated its position regarding a vote on statehood, and is reported to be undecided on the matter. President Ricardo Martinelli has a record of supporting Israel in UN resolutions, and has reportedly resisted pressure from other Latin American governments to recognise Palestine. The Central American Integration System (SICA) was expected to adopt a joint position on the issue at its summit on 18 August, but Panama insisted that discussion should retain a regional focus and the matter was not included on the final agenda. In early September, Foreign Minister Roberto Henriquez said that the government's decision would not be made public until its vote is cast, but added, "It is very important that the birth of this country and its recognition in the international forum is previously accompanied by a full peace agreement with its neighbour, Israel." On July 4, 2015, Panama's Vice President and Foreign Minister Isabel De Saint Malo de Alvarado said that her government is looking at ways to recognize the State of Palestine without affecting their "close relationship" with Israel.||No|
|40||Portugal||In February 2011, several parliamentary factions proposed resolutions calling on the government to recognise the State of Palestine. However, these were dismissed by the two majority parties, which insisted on a prior settlement acceptable to both Palestinians and Israelis. Foreign Minister Paulo Portas stated that Portugal supports the initiative to recognise Palestine, but that it must not forget the security of Israel: "We will do everything for Palestine, which deserves to have its state, and do nothing against Israel, which deserves to have its security." In December 2014, the Portuguese Parliament passed a resolution that is non-binding calling on the government to recognise Palestine as an independent state with 9 of 230 members opposing the measure.||Yes||EU|
|41||Saint Kitts and Nevis||Saint Kitts and Nevis is a member of the Caribbean Community, which strives to establish a co-ordinated foreign policy between its member states. In May 2011, the organisation's Foreign Council jointly reiterated its support for a two-state solution along internationally recognised borders. The council was chaired by Kittian Foreign Minister Sam Condor.||No|
|42||Samoa||Prime Minister Tuila'epa Sailele Malielegaoi has expressed support for a two-state solution to the conflict.||No|
|43||Singapore||Singapore has not recognised the State of Palestine and has not announced a position regarding a resolution. The island state has a strong relationship with Israel.||No|
|44||Slovenia||On 28 November 2014, the Foreign Policy Committee rejected a motion to immediately recognise Palestine, but approved an alternative motion requiring the government to submit a proposal to recognise Palestine to the National Assembly.||Yes||EU|
|45||Solomon Islands||Foreign Minister Peter Shannel Agovaka met Riyad al-Malki in early September at the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in Wellington. Agovaka reportedly confirmed his government's support for the self-determination of Palestinians and for the efforts of Palestine at the United Nations. He said that the possibility of recognising the State of Palestine would be considered in the next meeting of cabinet.||No|
|46||Spain||On 1 July 2011, the Spanish parliament passed a resolution urging its government to recognise the State of Palestine on the 1967 borders. Prior to this, Nabil Shaath had claimed in May that Spain intended to recognise the Palestinian state before September. In late July, Foreign Minister Trinidad Jiménez said that Spain supports the bid, but that it would not determine its position until the proposal is made official. In an interview with El País in August, Jiménez confirmed Spain's support: "We are working with the idea that there is a majority in the EU that will support moving forward with the recognition of Palestine." She added that it was the right time to do this, since it would give Palestinians much needed hope about their future state. On 20 November 2014, the Spanish parliament approved a non-binding motion calling on the government to recognise Palestine by a vote of 319-2.||Yes||EU|
|48||Tonga||In September 2011, following the summit of the Pacific Islands Forum in Wellington, the PNA's foreign ministry noted that it had made significant strides in its efforts to attain recognition from Tonga.||No|
|49||United Kingdom||In September 2011, Britain said it would recognise Palestine as a state, but only with non-member observer status, rather than full membership, at the United Nations. In October 2014, the UK House of Commons passed a symbolic non-binding Motion by a vote of 274 in favour to 12 against which called on the Government to recognise Palestine. Also in October 2014, the devolved government of Scotland called for recognition of Palestine as an independent state and for the UK to open an Embassy.||Yes||EU, UNSC (permanent); Palestine–United Kingdom relations.|
|50||United States||President Barack Obama declared U.S. opposition to the bid in his speech to the General Assembly, saying that "genuine peace can only be realised between Israelis and Palestinians themselves" and that "[u]ltimately, it is Israelis and Palestinians – not us – who must reach an agreement on the issues that divide them". Obama told Abbas that they would veto any United Nations Security Council move to recognise Palestinian statehood.||Yes||UNSC (permanent); Palestine–United States relations|
Not members of the UN
In March 1999, the European Union confirmed in the Berlin Declaration the Palestinian right to self-determination, including the right to a viable and peaceful sovereign Palestinian State. This right was declared "not subject to any veto". The EU supports a Palestinian state within the pre-1967 borders, with only minor modifications mutually agreed. Further, the EU advocates Jerusalem as the future capital of both Israel and Palestine.
|Yes||Palestine–European Union relations|
|—||Sovereign Military Order of Malta||Yes
The State of Palestine is a party to several multilateral treaties, registered with five depositaries: the United Kingdom, UNESCO, United Nations, the Netherlands and Switzerland. The ratification of the UNESCO conventions took place in 2011/2012 and followed Palestine becoming a member of UNESCO, while the ratification of the other conventions were performed in 2014 while negotiations with Israel were in an impasse.
|Depositary Country/organization||Depositary organ||Number of treaties||Examples||Date of first ratification/accession|
|Netherlands||Ministry of Foreign Affairs||1||Convention respecting the laws and customs of war on land||2 April 2014|
|Russia||1||Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||10 February 2015|
|Switzerland||Federal Council||7||Geneva Conventions and Protocols||2 April 2014|
|UNESCO||Director-General||8||Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage||8 December 2011|
|United Nations||Secretary-General||30||Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations
Statute of the International Criminal Court
|9 April 2014|
|United Kingdom||Foreign and Commonwealth Office||2||UNESCO Constitution
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
|23 November 2011|
In an objection of 16 May 2014, Israel informed the Secretary General of the United Nations that it did not consider that "Palestine" (parenthesis added by Israel) met the definition of statehood and that it's ratification had was "without effect upon Israel's treaty relations under the Convention". The United States and Canada lodged similar objections.
The State of Palestine is not generally recognized in the West (North America, Western Europe, and Australia).
- List of states with limited recognition
- Palestinian nationalism
- Proposals for a Palestinian state
- International recognition of Israel
- Either with the Palestinian National Authority, the Palestine Liberation Organization, or the State of Palestine. The institution is specified where known.
- Tessler, Mark (1994). A History of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict (2nd, illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 722. ISBN 978-0-253-20873-6. "Within two weeks of the PNC meeting, at least fifty-five nations, including states as diverse as the Soviet Union, China, India, Greece, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, Malta, and Zambia, had recognized the Palestinian state."
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Executive Board (12 May 1989). "Hundred and thirty-first Session: Item 9.4 of the provisional agenda, Request for the Admission of the State of Palestine to UNESCO as a Member State" (PDF). United Nations. pp. 18, Annex II. Retrieved 2010-11-15. The list contains 92 entries, including a number of states which no longer exist.
- UN General Assembly GA/11317. General Assembly Votes Overwhelmingly to Accord Palestine 'Non-Member Observer State' Status in United Nations. 29 November 2012.
- United Nations A/67/L.28 General Assembly. 26 November 2012.
- "Palestinians win implicit U.N. recognition of sovereign state". Reuters. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- "UN makes Palestine nonmember state". 3 News NZ. 30 November 2012.
- Hillier, Tim (1998). Sourcebook on public international law. Routledge. pp. 128, 218. ISBN 978-1-85941-050-9.
- "Q&A: Palestinian bid for full membership at the UN". BBC.
- Sabasteanski, Anna (2005). Patterns of global terrorism 1985–2005: U.S. Department of State reports with supplementary documents and statistics 1. Berkshire. p. 47. ISBN 0-9743091-3-3.
- Boyle, Francis A. (1 September 2009). Palestine, Palestinians and International Law. Clarity Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-932863-37-X. "As I had predicted to the PLO, the creation of [a] Palestinian State was an instantaneous success. Palestine would eventually achieve de jure diplomatic recognition from about 130 states. The only regional hold-out was Europe and this was because of massive political pressure applied by the United States Government."
- Shashaa, Esam. "The state of Palestine". Palestine History. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- Charter of the League of Arab States (22 March 1945): Annex regarding Palestine; available at University of the Basque Country. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- See the following:
- Organisation of the Islamic Conference (13–16 March 1989). "Resolutions on Political, Legal and Information Affairs". The Eighteenth Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (Session of Islamic Fraternity and Solidarity). Retrieved 2010-11-29.
- Organisation of the Islamic Conference (13–16 March 1989). "Final Communique". The Eighteenth Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (Session of Islamic Fraternity and Solidarity). Retrieved 2010-11-29.
- Organisation of the Islamic Conference (28–30 May 2003). "Resolutions on Palestine Affairs". The Thirtieth Session of the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (Session of Unity and Dignity). United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. Retrieved 2010-11-29.
- United Nations Security Council; United Nations Department of Political and Security Council Affairs (2008). Repertoire of the practice of the Security Council. United Nations Publications. p. 759.
- Reut Institute (14 August 2004). "Act of Recognition of Statehood". Structure of the Political Process. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- Quigley, John (1990). Palestine and Israel: A Challenge to Justice. Duke University Press. p. 231.
- Quigley, John (2009). "The Palestine Declaration to the International Criminal Court: The Statehood Issue" (PDF). Rutgers Law Record (Newark: Rutgers School of Law) 35. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
- "Note of Information" (Press release). Government of Switzerland. 13 September 1989.
- Lewis, Paul (6 December 1989). "Arabs at U.N. Relax Stand on P.L.O.". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
- Crawford, James (1999), "Israel (1948–1949) and Palestine (1998–1999): Two Studies in the Creation of States", in Goodwin-Gil, G.S. and Talmon, S., The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie, New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, Oxford University Press, pp. 95–100, 110–115 "...Declaration was quite widely recognized by states, although often in equivocal terms."
- See for example:
- Boyle, Francis A. (1990). "Creation of the State of Palestine". European Journal of International Law (301). "Over 114 states have already recognized the newly proclaimed state of Palestine".
- Kurz, Anat N. (2005). Fatah and the Politics of Violence: the institutionalization of a popular struggle. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-84519-032-3. "117 UN member states recognized the declared State of Palestine ..."
- Quigley, John B. (30 December 2010). "Recognize Palestine now". McClatchy-Tribune (Youngstown News). Retrieved 2010-12-31. "With recognitions in recent weeks by Brazil and Argentina, some 105 states now formally recognize Palestine at the diplomatic level."
- Whitbeck, John V. (28 December 2010). "Palestine: recognising the state". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2010-12-29. "Coming soon after the similar recognitions by Brazil and Argentina, Bolivia's recognition brought to 106 the number of UN member states recognizing the State of Palestine, whose independence was proclaimed on November 15, 1988."
- See for example:
- Boyle, Francis A. (30 September 2010). "The Impending Collapse of Israel in Palestine". MWC News. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- Boyle, Francis A. (2 June 2010). "Israel is Committing Genocide in Gaza". Australia.to (Rogers Digital Media Group). Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- Staff writers (25 December 2010). "Ecuador latest Latin country to recognize Palestine". RFI. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- Mercier, Gilbert (26 December 2010). "Ecuador Joins Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay And Bolivia To Recognize Palestine". News Junkie Post. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- Ravid, B. (13 July 2011). "Palestinian envoy to UN: European states will recognize Palestine before September". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- Negotiations Affairs Department (July 2011). "Recognizing the Palestinian State on the 1967 border & Admission of Palestine as a Full Member of the United Nations" (PDF). Palestinian National Authority. p. 4. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Flower, K; Roth, R; Vaccarello, J; and Sweeney, F (26 September 2011). "U.N. Security Council to send Palestinian state bid to admissions committee". CNN (Cable News Network). Retrieved 2011-10-10.
- Chen, Joanna (28 August 2010). "Can Netanyahu Make Peace With the Palestinians?". The Daily Beast.
- McCarthy, Rory (14 June 2009). "Netanyahu backs an independent Palestinian state for first time". The Guardian.
- Pearce, David D. (12 February 1978). "Mideast Stakes Touch All Parts of the Globe". The Milwaukee Journal.
- Prusher, Ilene R. (15 November 2009). "Israel rejects Palestinian statehood bid via the UN". The Christian Science Monitor.
- UNGA, 14 October 1974; Resolution 3210 (XXIX). Invitation to the Palestine Liberation Organization (doc.nr.A/RES/3210 (XXIX))
- United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3236
- UNGA, 22 November 1974; Resolution 3237 (XXIX). Observer status for the Palestine Liberation Organization (doc.nr. A/RES/3237 (XXIX))
- UNGA, 15 December 1988; Resolution 43/177. Question of Palestine (doc.nr. A/RES/43/177)
- Gharib, Ali (2012-12-20). "U.N. Adds New Name: "State of Palestine"". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- Phillips, Leigh (17 November 2009). "EU rejects request to recognise independent Palestine". EUobserver.com. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
- Erekat, Saeb. The Eminence of September. Group 194.
- Vick, Karl (1 September 2011). "The Palestinians' Statehood Dilemma: Full U.N. Membership or Observer Status?". Time (Time Inc). Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Schell, Bernhard (31 July 2011). "UN will count 194 members if Palestine gets in". InDepthNews. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Sawafta, A. (14 July 2011). "Arabs to seek full Palestinian upgrade at UN". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- Staff writers (6 July 2011). "Arab League Requests Palestinian Statehood from U.N.". Palestine News Network. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- Ashkar, Alaa; Bannoura, Saed (9 September 2011). "UN Secretary-General Supports Full Palestinian Membership". IMEMC News (International Middle East Media Center). Retrieved 2011-09-09.
- Waked, Ali (7 December 2010). "Argentina, Uruguay recognize Palestinian state". Israel News (Yedioth Internet). Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- Ravid, Barak (4 July 2011). "Palestinians set up diplomatic 'war room' ahead of September vote on statehood". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Sherwood, Harriet (18 January 2011). "Dmitry Medvedev restates Russian support for Palestinian state". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Media agencies (26 August 2011). "China announces support for Palestinian UN statehood bid". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- Staff writers (31 January 2011). "African Union declares support for Palestine". Ma'an News Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
- "Non-Aligned movement confirms support for Palestinian statehood bid". Al Arabiya. Agence France-Presse. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
- Staff writers (18 July 2011). "Israeli minister says Palestinians losing UN bid". Almasry Alyoum. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Gruen, G.E. (1982). The Palestinians in perspective: implications for Mideast peace and U.S. policy. Institute of Human Relations Press, American Jewish Committee. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-87495-042-7.
- Medzini, Ronen (26 May 2011). "Palestinian UN bid: Israel's battle for Europe". Ynetnews (Yedioth Internet). Retrieved 2011-09-04.
- Ravid, Barak (28 August 2011). "UN envoy Prosor: Israel has no chance of stopping recognition of Palestinian state". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- Somfalvi, Attila (17 August 2011). "PA to soften UN statehood bid?". Ynetnews (Yedioth Internet). Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Keinon, Herb (24 April 2011). "EU split over UN recognition of Palestinian state". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Perry, Dan; Melvin, Don (26 May 2011). "Europe May Have Key Role in Palestinians’ UN Maneuver". CNS News (Cybercast News Service). Retrieved 2011-09-01.
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