The Internationale

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For the Billy Bragg album, see The Internationale (album). For the Brainiac EP, see Internationale (EP).
The Internationale
Internationalen-menander.jpg
Internationalen in Swedish.

International anthem of International Communist Movement
International Socialist Movement
International Anarchist Movement
International Democratic Socialist Movement
International Social Democratic Movement

Also known as L'Internationale (French)
Lyrics Eugène Pottier, 1871
Music Pierre De Geyter, 1888
Adopted 1890s
Music sample

"The Internationale" (French: L'Internationale) is a left-wing anthem. It has been a standard of the socialist movement since the late 19th century, when the Second International (now the Socialist International) adopted it as its official anthem. The title arises from the "First International", an alliance of workers which held a congress in 1864. The author of the anthem's lyrics, Eugène Pottier, attended this congress.

The original French refrain of the song is C'est la lutte finale / Groupons-nous et demain / L'Internationale / Sera le genre humain. (English: "This is the final struggle / Let us group together and tomorrow / The Internationale / Will be the human race."). "The Internationale" has been translated into many languages.

The Internationale has been celebrated by communists, socialists, anarchists, democratic socialists, and social democrats. It was also used by Republicans during the Spanish Civil War.[1]

Copyright[edit]

As Prof. Liulevicius observes "Its creators were embroiled in a decades-long struggle over the the copyright ownership of L'Internationale. This is something that didn't really mesh with the abolition of property that the anthem announced."[2] The original French words were written in June 1871 by Eugène Pottier (1816–1887, previously a member of the Paris Commune)[3] and were originally intended to be sung to the tune of "La Marseillaise".[4] Pierre De Geyter (1848–1932) set the poem to music in 1888.[5] His melody was first publicly performed in July 1888[6] and became widely used soon after.

In a successful attempt to save Pierre De Geyter's job as a woodcarver, the 6,000 leaflets printed by Lille printer Bolboduc only mentioned the French version of his family name (Degeyter). In 1904, Pierre's brother Adolphe was induced by the Lille mayor Gustave Delory to claim copyright, so that the income of the song would continue to go to Delory's French Socialist Party. Pierre De Geyter lost the first copyright case in 1914, but after his brother committed suicide and left a note explaining the fraud, Pierre was declared the copyright owner by a court of appeal in 1922.[7]

In 1972 Montana Edition owned by Hans R. Beierlein bought the rights for 5,000 Deutschmark, first for the territory of the West Germany, then East Germany, then worldwide. East Germany paid 20,000 DM every year for playing the music. Pierre De Geyter died in 1932, which means the copyright expired 2002.[8] The German text Luckhards is public domain since 1984.

As the "Internationale" music was published before 1 July 1909 outside the United States of America, it is in the public domain in the United States.[9] As of 2013, Pierre De Geyter's music is also in the public domain in countries and areas whose copyright durations are authors' lifetime plus 80 years or less.[10] Due to France's wartime copyright extensions (prorogations de guerre), SACEM claims that the music is still copyrighted in France until October 2017.[11]

As Eugène Pottier died in 1887, his original French lyrics are in the public domain. Gustave Delory once acquired the copyright of his lyrics through the songwriter G B Clement having bought it from Pottier's widow.[12]

Original lyrics[edit]

French lyrics Literal English translation
First stanza

Debout, les damnés de la terre
Debout, les forçats de la faim
La raison tonne en son cratère
C'est l'éruption de la fin
Du passé faisons table rase
Foule esclave, debout, debout
Le monde va changer de base
Nous ne sommes rien, soyons tout

Stand up, damned of the Earth
Stand up, prisoners of starvation
Reason thunders in its volcano
This is the eruption of the end.
Of the past let us make a clean slate
Enslaved masses, stand up, stand up.
The world is about to change its foundation
We are nothing, let us be all.

Chorus

 |: C'est la lutte finale

  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale

  Sera le genre humain :|
 |: This is the final struggle

  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|

Second stanza

Il n'est pas de sauveurs suprêmes
Ni Dieu, ni César, ni tribun
Producteurs, sauvons-nous nous-mêmes
Décrétons le salut commun
Pour que le voleur rende gorge
Pour tirer l'esprit du cachot
Soufflons nous-mêmes notre forge
Battons le fer quand il est chaud

There are no supreme saviours
Neither God, nor Caesar, nor tribune.
Producers, let us save ourselves,
Decree the common salvation.
So that the thief expires,
So that the spirit be pulled from its prison,
Let us fan our forge ourselves
Strike the iron while it is hot.

Chorus
Third stanza

L'État comprime et la loi triche
L'impôt saigne le malheureux
Nul devoir ne s'impose au riche
Le droit du pauvre est un mot creux
C'est assez, languir en tutelle
L'égalité veut d'autres lois
Pas de droits sans devoirs dit-elle
Égaux, pas de devoirs sans droits
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

The State oppresses and the law cheats.
Tax bleeds the unfortunate.
No duty is imposed on the rich;
The rights of the poor is an empty phrase.
Enough languishing in custody!
Equality wants other laws:
No rights without duties, she says,
Equally, no duties without rights.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|

Chorus
Fourth stanza

Hideux dans leur apothéose
Les rois de la mine et du rail
Ont-ils jamais fait autre chose
Que dévaliser le travail ?
Dans les coffres-forts de la bande
Ce qu'il a créé s'est fondu
En décrétant qu'on le lui rende
Le peuple ne veut que son dû.
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

Hideous in their apotheosis
The kings of the mine and of the rail.
Have they ever done anything other
Than steal work?
Inside the safeboxes of the gang,
What work had created melted.
By ordering that they give it back,
The people want only their due.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|

Chorus
Fifth stanza

Les rois nous saoulaient de fumées
Paix entre nous, guerre aux tyrans
Appliquons la grève aux armées
Crosse en l'air, et rompons les rangs
S'ils s'obstinent, ces cannibales
À faire de nous des héros
Ils sauront bientôt que nos balles
Sont pour nos propres généraux
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

The kings made us drunk with fumes,
Peace among us, war to the tyrants!
Let the armies go on strike,
Stocks in the air, and break ranks.
If they insist, these cannibals
On making heroes of us,
They will know soon that our bullets
Are for our own generals.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|

Chorus
Sixth stanza

Ouvriers, paysans, nous sommes
Le grand parti des travailleurs
La terre n'appartient qu'aux hommes
L'oisif ira loger ailleurs
Combien de nos chairs se repaissent
Mais si les corbeaux, les vautours
Un de ces matins disparaissent
Le soleil brillera toujours.
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

Workers, peasants, we are
The great party of labourers.
The earth belongs only to men;
The idle will go to reside elsewhere.
How much of our flesh have they consumed?
But if these ravens, these vultures
Disappear one of these days,
The sun will shine forever.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|

Chorus

Translations into other languages[edit]

The German version, Die Internationale, was used by East German anti-Stalinists in 1953 and again during the 1989 protests which toppled SED rule. When numerous East Germans were arrested for protesting the 40th anniversary celebrations for the GDR, several of them sang the hymn in police custody to embarrass their captors, and imply that they had abandoned the socialist cause they were supposed to serve.[citation needed]

Luckhardt's version, the standard German translation, of the final line of the chorus tellingly reads: "Die Internationale erkämpft das Menschenrecht". (The Internationale will win our human rights.) It was coupled with the chant: "Volkspolizei, steh dem Volke bei" (People's police, stand with the people!)[citation needed]

The Internationale in Chinese (simplified Chinese: 国际歌; traditional Chinese: 國際歌; pinyin: Guójìgē), literally the International Song, has several different sets of lyrics. One such version served as the de facto anthem of the Communist Party of China,[13] the national anthem of the Chinese Soviet Republic,[14] as well as a rallying song of the students and workers at the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[15]

Versions of the song in Indian languages, particularly Bengali and Malayalam, have existed since the time of colonial rule. It was translated into Bengali by the radical poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and subsequently by Hemanga Biswas. The Assamese version was translated by the poet Bishnu Rabha. The Malayalam version of the song has also existed since the 1950s with the translation of the song for the people of the Indian state of Kerala by actor and social activist Premji for the united Communist Party of India (CPI). In the 1980s, more translations appeared. Translations by Sachidanandan and Mokeri Ramachandran were sung by the activists of Janakeeya Samskarikavedi, an organisation connected with CPI(Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML). Translation by N. P. Chandrasekharan was for Students Federation of India (SFI), the student organisation associated with CPI(Marxist) (CPI(M) and published in the Student Monthly, the organ of SFI.[citation needed]

Nepali translations of the song have also been sung in Kathmandu and other parts of Nepal, and the song has been popularised by the Nepali Maoists.[citation needed]

Russian lyrics[edit]

Интернационал
English: The Internationale
Internatsional

National anthem of  Russian SFSR
 Soviet Union
CPSU

Lyrics Arkady Yakovlevich Kots, 1902
Music Pierre De Geyter, 1888
Adopted 1918 (as anthem of Russian SFSR)
1922 (as anthem of Soviet Union)
Relinquished 1944
Music sample

The Russian version was initially translated by Aron Kots (Arkady Yakovlevich Kots) in 1902 and printed in London in Zhizn, a Russian émigré magazine. The first Russian version consisted of three stanzas (as opposed to six stanzas in the original French lyrics, and based on stanzas 1, 2 and 6) and the refrain. After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the text was slightly re-worded to get rid of "now useless" future tenses - particularly the refrain was reworded (the future tense was replaced by the present, and the first person plural possessive pronoun was introduced). In 1918, the chief-editor of Izvestia, Yuri Steklov, appealed to Russian writers to translate the other three stanzas and in the end, the song was expanded into six stanzas.[16] In 1944, the Soviet Union adopted the "Hymn of the Soviet Union" as its national anthem. Prior to that time, the "Internationale" served as the principal musical expression of allegiance to the ideals of the October Revolution and the Soviet Union (the "Internationale" continued to be recognized as the official song of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the post-1919 Soviet version is still used by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation). The full song is as follows:

Russian translation Latin alphabet transliteration Literal English translation
First stanza

Вставай, проклятьем заклеймённый,
Весь мир голодных и рабов!
Кипит наш разум возмущённый
И в смертный бой вести готов.
Весь мир насилья мы разрушим
До основанья, а затем
Мы наш, мы новый мир построим, —
Кто был ничем, тот станет всем.

Припев (×2):

 Это есть наш последний
  И решительный бой;
  С Интернационалом
  Воспрянет род людской!

Vstavay, proklyat′yem zakleymyonny,
Ves′ mir golodnykh i rabov!
Kipit nash razum vozmushchyonnyy
I v smertnyy boy vesti gotov.
Ves′ mir nasil′ya my razrushim
Do osnovan′ya, a zatem
My nash, my novyy mir postroim, —
Kto byl nichem, tot stanet vsem.

Pripev (×2):

 Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitel′nyy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy!

Stand up, ones who are branded by the curse,
All the world's starving and enslaved!
Our outraged minds are boiling,
Ready to lead us into a deadly fight.
We will destroy this world of violence
Down to the foundations, and then
We will build our new world.
He who was nothing will become everything!

Chorus (×2):

 This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up!

Second stanza

Никто не даст нам избавленья:
Ни бог, ни царь и не герой!
Добьёмся мы освобожденья
Своею собственной рукой.
Чтоб свергнуть гнёт рукой умелой,
Отвоевать своё добро, —
Вздувайте горн и куйте смело,
Пока железо горячо!

Припев (×2)

Nikto ne dast nam izbavlen′ya:
Ni bog, ni tsar′ i ne geroy!
Dob′yomsya my osvobozhden′ya
Svoyeyu sobstvennoy rukoy.
Chtob svergnut′ gnyot rukoy umeloy,
Otvoyevat′ svoyo dobro, —
Vzduvayte gorn i kuyte smelo,
Poka zhelezo goryacho!

Pripev (×2)

No one will grant us deliverance,
Not god, nor tsar, nor hero.
We will win our liberation,
With our very own hands.
To throw down oppression with a skilled hand,
To take back what is ours —
Fire up the furnace and hammer boldly,
while the iron is still hot!

Chorus (×2)

Third stanza

Довольно кровь сосать, вампиры,
Тюрьмой, налогом, нищетой!
У вас — вся власть, все блага мира,
А наше право — звук пустой !
Мы жизнь построим по-иному —
И вот наш лозунг боевой:
Вся власть народу трудовому!
А дармоедов всех долой!

Припев (×2)

Dovol′no krov′ sosat′, vampiry,
Tyur′moy, nalogom, nishchetoy!
U vas — vsya vlast′, vse blaga mira,
A nashe pravo — zvuk pustoy!
My zhizn′ postroim po-inomu —
I vot nash lozung boyevoy:
Vsya vlast′ narodu trudovomu!
A darmoyedov vsekh doloy!

Pripev (×2)

You've sucked enough of our blood, you vampires,
With prison, taxes and poverty!
You have all the power, all the blessings of the world,
And our rights are but an empty sound!
We'll make our own lives in a different way —
And here is our battle cry:
All the power to the people of labour!
And away with all the parasites!

Chorus (×2)

Fourth stanza

Презренны вы в своём богатстве,
Угля и стали короли!
Вы ваши троны, тунеядцы,
На наших спинах возвели.
Заводы, фабрики, палаты —
Всё нашим создано трудом.
Пора! Мы требуем возврата
Того, что взято грабежом.

Припев (×2)

Prezrenny vy v svoyom bogatstve,
Uglya i stali koroli!
Vy vashi trony, tuneyadtsy,
Na nashikh spinakh vozveli.
Zavody, fabriki, palaty —
Vsyo nashim sozdano trudom.
Pora! My trebuyem vozvrata
Togo, chto vzyato grabezhom.

Pripev (×2)

Contemptible you are in your wealth,
You kings of coal and steel!
You had your thrones, parasites,
At our backs erected.
All the factories, all the chambers —
All were made by our hands.
It's time! We demand the return
Of that which was stolen from us.

Chorus (×2)

Fifth stanza

Довольно королям в угоду
Дурманить нас в чаду войны!
Война тиранам! Мир Народу!
Бастуйте, армии сыны!
Когда ж тираны нас заставят
В бою геройски пасть за них —
Убийцы, в вас тогда направим
Мы жерла пушек боевых!

Припев (×2)

Dovol′no korolyam v ugodu
Durmanit′ nas v chadu voyny!
Voyna tiranam! Mir Narodu!
Bastuyte, armii syny!
Kogda zh tirany nas zastavyat
V boyu geroyski past′ za nikh —
Ubiytsy, v vas togda napravim
my zherla pushek boyevykh!

Pripev (×2)

Enough of the will of kings
Stupefying us into the haze of war!
War to the tyrants! Peace to the people!
Go on strike, sons of the army!
And if the tyrants tell us
To fall heroically in battle for them —
Then, murderers, we will point
The muzzles of our cannons at you!

Chorus (×2)

Sixth stanza

Лишь мы, работники всемирной
Великой армии труда,
Владеть землёй имеем право,
Но паразиты — никогда!
И если гром великий грянет
Над сворой псов и палачей, —
Для нас всё так же солнце станет
Сиять огнём своих лучей.

Припев (×2)

Lish′ my, rabotniki vsemirnoy
Velikoy armii truda,
Vladet′ zemlyoy imeyem pravo,
No parazity — nikogda!
I yesli grom velikiy gryanet
Nad svoroy psov i palachey, —
Dlya nas vsyo tak zhe solntse stanet
siyat′ ognyom svoikh luchey.

Pripev (×2)

Only we, the workers of the worldwide
Great army of labour,
Have the right to own the land,
But the parasites — never!
And if the great thunder rolls
Over the pack of dogs and executioners,
For us, the sun will forever
Shine on with its fiery beams.

Chorus (×2)

English lyrics[edit]

The traditional British version of The Internationale is usually sung in three verses, while the American version, written by Charles Hope Kerr with five verses, is usually sung in two.[17][18] The American version is sometimes sung with the phrase "the internationale", "the international soviet", or "the international union" in place of "the international working class". In English renditions, "Internationale" is sometimes sung as /ɪntərnæʃəˈnæli/ rather than the French pronunciation of [ɛ̃tɛʁnasjɔnal(ə)].

Billy Bragg was asked by Pete Seeger to sing the Internationale with him at the Vancouver Folk Festival in 1989. Bragg thought the traditional English lyrics were archaic and unsingable (Scottish musician Dick Gaughan[19] and former Labour MP Tony Benn[20] disagreed), and composed a new set of lyrics.[21] The recording was released on his album The Internationale along with reworkings of other socialist songs. A full, six-stanza translation can be found on the Wikisource page on The Internationale.

British Translation Billy Bragg's Revision[22] American version
First stanza

Arise, ye workers from your slumber,
Arise, ye prisoners of want.
For reason in revolt now thunders,
and at last ends the age of cant!
Away with all your superstitions,
Servile masses, arise, arise!
We'll change henceforth the old tradition,
And spurn the dust to win the prize!
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race.

Stand up, all victims of oppression,
For the tyrants fear your might!
Don't cling so hard to your possessions,
For you have nothing if you have no rights!
Let racist ignorance be ended,
For respect makes the empires fall!
Freedom is merely privilege extended,
Unless enjoyed by one and all.
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal
  Unites the human race.

Arise, ye prisoners of starvation!
Arise, ye wretched of the earth!
For justice thunders condemnation:
A better world's in birth!
No more tradition's chains shall bind us;
Arise, ye slaves, no more in thrall!
The earth shall rise on new foundations:
We have been nought, we shall be all!
  'Tis the final conflict;
  Let each stand in his place.
  The International working class
  Shall be the human race!
  'Tis the final conflict;
  Let each stand in his place.
  The International working class
  Shall be the human race!

Second stanza

No more deluded by reaction,
On tyrants only we'll make war!
The soldiers too will take strike action,
They'll break ranks and fight no more!
And if those cannibals keep trying,
To sacrifice us to their pride,
They soon shall hear the bullets flying,
We'll shoot the generals on our own side.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race.

Let no one build walls to divide us,
Walls of hatred nor walls of stone.
Come greet the dawn and stand beside us,
We'll live together or we'll die alone.
In our world poisoned by exploitation,
Those who have taken, now they must give!
And end the vanity of nations,
We've but one Earth on which to live.
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal
  Unites the human race.

We want no condescending saviors
To rule us from a judgment hall;
We workers ask not for their favors;
Let us consult for all.
To make the thief disgorge his booty
To free the spirit from its cell,
We must ourselves decide our duty,
We must decide, and do it well.
  'Tis the final conflict;
  Let each stand in his place.
  The International working class
  Shall be the human race!
  'Tis the final conflict;
  Let each stand in his place.
  The International working class
  Shall be the human race!

Third stanza

No saviour from on high delivers,
No faith have we in prince or peer.
Our own right hand the chains must shiver,
Chains of hatred, greed and fear.
E'er the thieves will out with their booty,
And to all give a happier lot.
Each at his forge must do their duty,
And we'll strike the iron while it's hot.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race.

And so begins the final drama,
In the streets and in the fields.
We stand unbowed before their armour,
We defy their guns and shields!
When we fight, provoked by their aggression,
Let us be inspired by life and love.
For though they offer us concessions,
Change will not come from above!
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal
  Unites the human race.

Toilers from shops and fields united,
The union we of all who work:
The earth belongs to us, the workers,
No room here for the shirk.
How many on our flesh have fattened!
But if the noisome birds of prey
Shall vanish from the sky some morning,
The blessed sunlight still will stay.
  'Tis the final conflict;
  Let each stand in his place.
  The International working class
  Shall be the human race!
  'Tis the final conflict;
  Let each stand in his place.
  The International working class
  Shall be the human race!

Chinese versions[edit]

Qu Qiubai's version[edit]

The most common and official Chinese version is the de facto anthem of the Communist Party of China.[23] It was first translated on 15 June 1923 from the Russian version by Qu Qiubai (Chinese: 瞿秋白),[24] a leader of the Communist Party of China in the late 1920s. His translation has transliterated the Internationale as Yīngtènàxióngnài'ěr (simplified Chinese: 英特纳雄耐尔; traditional Chinese: 英特納雄耐爾) when singing the phrase in Standard Chinese. When the Chinese Soviet Republic was established in 1931, it was decided to be its national anthem.[25] As he was executed by the Kuomintang in 1935, his Chinese translation is in the public domain wherever the duration of copyright is an author's lifetime plus up to 70 years, including Chinese-speaking Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan (lifetime plus 50 years in these places), and Singapore (lifetime plus 70 years). The three Chinese lyrics roughly correspond to the three Russian lyrics by Arkady Yakovlevich Kots and the first, second, and sixth French lyrics by Eugène Pottier. The fourth and fifth stanzas are not used in the official Chinese version and the PRC forbids the use of them in public performances of the song.

The song was a rallying anthem of the demonstrators at the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, and was repeatedly sung both while marching to the Square and within the Square.

...many hundreds of people (not only students) appeared on the street. They ran after the trucks and shouted protest slogans. A few stones were thrown. The soldiers opened fire with live ammunition. The crowd threw themselves on the ground, but quickly followed the convoy again. The more shots were fired, the more the crowd got determined and outraged. Suddenly they started singing the Internationale; they armed themselves with stones and threw them towards the soldiers. There were also a few Molotov cocktails and the last truck was set on fire.[26]

Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Literal English translation
First stanza

起來,饑寒交迫的奴隸,
起來,全世界受苦的人!
滿腔的熱血已經沸騰,
要為真理而鬥爭!
舊世界打個落花流水,
奴隸們起來起來!
不要說我們一無所有,
我們要做天下的主人!

這是最後的鬥爭,
團結起來到明天,
英特納雄耐爾
就一定要實現。

起来,饥寒交迫的奴隶,
起来,全世界受苦的人!
满腔的热血已经沸腾,
要为真理而斗争!
旧世界打个落花流水,
奴隶们起来起来!
不要说我们一无所有,
我们要做天下的主人!

这是最后的斗争,
团结起来到明天,
英特纳雄耐尔
就一定要实现。

Qǐlái, jīhánjiāopò de núlì,
Qǐlái, quánshìjiè shòukǔ de rén!
Mǎnqiāng de rèxuè yǐjīng fèiténg,
Yào wèi zhēnlǐ ér dòuzhēng!
Jiù shìjiè dǎ gè luòhuāliúshuǐ,
Núlìmen, qǐlái!, qǐlái!
Bú yào shuō wǒmen yìwúsuǒyǒu,
Wǒmen yào zuò tiānxià de zhǔrén.

Zhè shì zuìhòu de dòuzhēng,
Tuánjié qǐlái, dào míngtiān,
Yīngtènàxióngnài'ěr
Jiù yídìng yào shíxiàn.

Arise, slaves afflicted by hunger and cold,
Arise, suffering people all over the world!
The blood which fills my chest has boiled over,
We must struggle for truth!
The old world shall be destroyed
Arise, slaves, arise!
Do not say that we have nothing,
We shall be the masters of the world!

This is the final struggle,
Unite together towards tomorrow,
The Internationale
Shall certainly be realised.

Second stanza

從來就沒有什麼救世主,
也不靠神仙皇帝。
要創造人類的幸福,
全靠我們自己!
我們要奪回勞動果實,
讓思想衝破牢籠。
快把那爐火燒得通紅,
趁熱打鐵才能成功!

這是最後的鬥爭,
團結起來到明天,
英特納雄耐爾
就一定要實現。

从来就没有什么救世主,
也不靠神仙皇帝。
要创造人类的幸福,
全靠我们自己!
我们要夺回劳动果实,
让思想冲破牢笼。
快把那炉火烧得通红,
趁热打铁才能成功!

这是最后的斗争,
团结起来到明天,
英特纳雄耐尔
就一定要实现。

Cónglái jiù méiyǒu shénme jiùshìzhǔ,
Yě bú kào shénxiān huángdì.
Yào chuàngzào rénlèi de xìngfú,
Quán kào wǒmen zìjǐ.
Wǒmen yào duóhuí láodòng guǒshí,
Ràng sīxiǎng chōngpò láolóng.
Kuài bǎ nà lúhuǒ shāo de tōnghóng,
Chènrèdǎtiě cái néng chénggōng.

Zhè shì zuìhòu de dòuzhēng,
Tuánjié qǐlái, dào míngtiān,
Yīngtènàxióngnài'ěr
Jiù yídìng yào shíxiàn.

There has never been any saviour of the world,
Nor deities, nor emperors on which to depend.
To create Humankind's happiness
We must entirely depend on ourselves!
We shall retake the fruits of our labour,
And let the mind burst free from its prison cell.
Let the flames in the furnace burn red-hot,
For only when the iron is hot will we succeed in forging it!

This is the final struggle,
Unite together towards tomorrow,
The Internationale
Shall definitely be realised.

Third stanza

是誰創造了人類世界?
是我們勞動群眾。
一切歸勞動者所有,
哪能容得寄生蟲!
最可恨那些毒蛇猛獸,
吃盡了我們的血肉。
一旦把他們消滅乾淨,
鮮紅的太陽照遍全球!

這是最後的鬥爭,
團結起來到明天,
英特納雄耐爾
就一定要實現。

是谁创造了人类世界?
是我们劳动群众。
一切归劳动者所有,
哪能容得寄生虫!
最可恨那些毒蛇猛兽,
吃尽了我们的血肉。
一旦把他们消灭干净,
鲜红的太阳照遍全球!

这是最后的斗争,
团结起来到明天,
英特纳雄耐尔
就一定要实现。

Shì shéi chuàngzào liǎo rénlèi shìjiè?
Shì wǒmen láodòng qúnzhòng.
Yíqiè guī láodòngzhě suǒyǒu,
Nǎnéng róngde jìshēngchóng!
Zuì kěhèn nàxiē dúshéměngshòu,
Chījìn liǎo wǒmen de xuèròu.
Yídàn bǎ tāmen xiāomiè gānjìng,
Xiānhóng de tàiyáng zhào biàn quánqiú.

Zhè shì zuìhòu de dòuzhēng,
Tuánjié qǐlái, dào míngtiān,
Yīngtènàxióngnài'ěr
Jiù yídìng yào shíxiàn.

Who is it that created the world of humankind?
It is us, the masses.
Everything is for workers,
How can parasites be accommodated!
The most detestable are those poisonous snakes and savage beasts
Eating up our flesh and blood.
Exterminate them all at once,
The red sun will shine all over the globe!

This is the final struggle,
Unite together towards tomorrow,
The Internationale
Shall definitely be realised.

Note that the lyrics above were translated from the first, second and sixth (last) stanza of the French original.

National Revolutionary Army version[edit]

When commemorating the 55th anniversary of the Paris Commune on 18 March 1926, the National Revolutionary Army printed a music sheet with three lyrics of the Internationale in Chinese, roughly corresponding to the first, second, and sixth French lyrics by Eugène Pottier. When singing refrain twice after each lyric, the Internationale is transliterated first as Yīngtè'ěrlāxióngnà'ěr (Chinese: 英特爾拉雄納爾) and second as Yīngtè'ěrnàxióngnà'ěr (Chinese: 英特爾納雄納爾).

Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Literal English translation

起來飢寒交迫的奴隸,
起來全世界上的罪人!
滿腔的熱血已經沸騰,
作一最後的戰爭!
舊世界打他落花流水,
奴隸們起來起來!
莫要說我們一錢不值,
我們要做天下的主人!

(副歌)

這是最後的爭鬥,
團結起來到明天,
英特爾拉雄納爾
就一定要實現。
這是最後的爭鬥,
團結起來到明天,
英特爾納雄納爾
就一定要實現。

起来饥寒交迫的奴隶,
起来全世界上的罪人!
满腔的热血已经沸腾,
作一最后的战争!
旧世界打他落花流水,
奴隶们起来起来!
莫要说我们一钱不值,
我们要做天下的主人!

(副歌)

这是最后的争斗,
团结起来到明天,
英特尔拉雄纳尔
就一定要实现。
这是最后的争斗,
团结起来到明天,
英特尔纳雄纳尔
就一定要实现。

Qǐlái, jīhánjiāopò de núlì,
Qǐlái, quánshìjiè shàng de zuìrén!
Mǎnqiāng de rèxuè yǐjīng fèiténg,
Zuòyí zuìhòude zhànzhēng!
Jiù shìjiè dǎ tā luòhuāliúshuǐ,
Núlìmen, qǐlái, qǐlái!
Mò yào shuō wǒmen yìqiánbùzhí,
Wǒmen yào zuò tiānxià de zhǔrén.

(Fùgē)

Zhè shì zuìhòu de zhēngdòu,
Tuánjié qǐlái dào míngtiān,
Yīngtè'ěrlāxióngnà'ěr
Jiù yídìng yào shíxiàn.
Zhè shì zuìhòu de zhēngdòu,
Tuánjié qǐlái dào míngtiān,
Yīngtè'ěrnàxióngnà'ěr
Jiù yídìng yào shíxiàn.

Arise, slaves afflicted by hunger and cold,
Arise, persecuted all over the world!
The blood which fills my chest has boiled over,
Make one last war!
The old world, it shall be destroyed.
Arise, slaves, arise!
Do not say that we are worth nothing,
We shall be the masters of the world!

(Refrain)

This is the final struggle,
Unite together towards tomorrow,
The Internationale
Shall certainly be realised.
This is the final struggle,
Unite together towards tomorrow,
The Internationale
Shall certainly be realised.

(二) (二) (Èr) Second stanza

從來沒有什麼救世主,
不是神仙也不是皇帝。
更不是那些英雄豪傑,
全靠自己救自己!
要殺盡那些强盜狗命,
就要有犧牲精神。
快快的當這爐火通紅,
趁火打鐵才能够成功!

(副歌)

从来没有什么救世主,
不是神仙也不是皇帝。
更不是那些英雄豪杰,
全靠自己救自己!
要杀尽那些强盗狗命,
就要有牺牲精神。
快快的当这炉火通红,
趁火打铁才能够成功!

(副歌)

Cónglái méiyǒu shénme jiùshìzhǔ,
Búshì shénxiān yĕ búshì huángdì.
Gèng búshì nàxiē yīngxióng háojié,
Quán kào zìjǐ jiù zìjǐ!
Yào shājìn nàxiē qiángdào gǒumìng,
Jiù yào yǒu xīshēng jīngshén.
Kuàikuài de dāngzhè lúhuǒ tōnghóng,
Chènhuǒdǎtiě cái nénggòu chénggōng!

(fùgē)

There has never been any saviour of the world,
Nor deities, nor emperors.
Not even those heroes,
Entirely depend on ourselves to save ourselves!
To fully kill those bandits' crestless lives
Requires sacrificing spirit.
Quickly, while this furnace burns red-hot,
For only when the iron is fired will we succeed in forging it!

(Refrain)
(三) (三) (Sān) Third stanza

誰是世界上的創造者?
只有我們勞苦的工農。
一切只歸生產者所有,
哪裡容得寄生虫!
我們的熱血流了多少,
只把那殘酷惡獸。
倘若是一旦殺滅盡了,
一輪紅日照遍五大洲!

(副歌)

谁是世界上的创造者?
只有我们劳苦的工农。
一切只归生产者所有,
哪里容得寄生虫!
我们的热血流了多少,
只把那残酷恶兽。
倘若是一旦杀灭尽了,
一轮红日照遍五大洲!

(副歌)

Shéi shì shìjièshàng de chuàngzàozhě?
Zhǐyǒu wǒmen láokǔ de gōngnóng.
Yíqiè zhǐ guī shēngchǎnzhě suǒyǒu,
Nǎlǐ róngde jìshēngchóng!
Wǒmen de rèxuè liúle duōshǎo,
Zhǐ bǎ nà cánkù èshòu.
Tǎngruòshì yídàn shāmiè jìnliǎo,
Yìlún hóngrì zhào biàn wǔdàzhōu.

(fùgē)

Who is the creator of the world?
Only us, hard working labours and farmers.
Everything is for producers only,
Where can parasites be accommodated!
How much hot blood of ours have bled,
Only to handle that cruel and evil monster.
If it is someday fully killed,
A red sun will shine all over the five continents!

(Refrain)

Shen Baoji's version[edit]

The third, fourth, and fifth French stanzas are not sung in Chinese in the above two versions of Qu and the National Revolutionary Army. Chinese translator Shen Baoji (simplified Chinese: 沈宝基; traditional Chinese: 沈寶基, 1908–2002) has made a complete Chinese translation, published in 1957, of all six French stanzas,.[27] Shen's translation has transliterated the Internationale as Yīngdāi'ěrnàxī'àonà'ěr (simplified Chinese: 因呆尔那西奥纳尔; traditional Chinese: 因呆爾那西奧納爾) in the stanzas, different from the transliterations of Qu and the National Revolutionary Army. As the Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China grants individuals copyright for their lifetime plus 50 years, Shen's translation is expected to remain copyrighted there until the end of 2052.

Non-Mandarin versions[edit]

In addition to the Mandarin version, the Internationale also has Cantonese[28] and Taiwanese[29] versions, occasionally used in Hong Kong and Taiwan. The word "Internationale" is not translated in either version.

Cultural influence[edit]

In literature[edit]

In music[edit]

Chinese rock band Tang Dynasty released a metal rock version of the song in 1991, which is still popular among Chinese youths and nationalists[citation needed] even to this day.

In film[edit]

  • The 1965 Propaganda Film The East Is Red concludes with a mass sing along at the play's final act.
  • The 1973 semi-autobiographical Federico Fellini film Amarcord set in 1930s Italy features a scene where one protagonist plays an instrumental gramophone recording of the Internationale over a loudspeaker within the bell tower of the town church in protest of Benito Mussolini and the ruling fascists. The fascists fire upon the loudspeaker and in a later scene interrogate and torture their captured suspect.
  • The 1974 film Sweet Movie, features two different versions of the melody, one being played in 6/8 time signature with an accordion, the other one, played in 4/4 at fast tempo with an organ.
  • In the 1993 film 'In the Heat of the Sun' (Yangguang canlan de rizi) by Chinese director Jiang Wen, the song plays loudly over a brutal scene where the main character, Ma Xiaojun, repeatedly beats an innocent victim to a state of bloodied unconsciousness. Set during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), the film's use of The Internationale, a song played at official events and at the end of the day's radio broadcast during this era, is intended to symbolise the hypocrisy of Maoist ideological rectitude. ([30])[31]
  • In the 1996 film, I'm Not Rappaport, written and directed by Herb Gardner, based on his Tony Award winning play, "The Internationale" can be heard in flashbacks, as well as accompanying the end credits.
  • In the 1997 film, Air Force One, inmates at a prison sing the song as General Ivan Radek, a communist terrorist leader, is released.
  • In the 1999 film Cradle Will Rock by Tim Robbins, Bill Murray's character Tommy Crickshaw sings one verse of the song (mostly from the "American Version" above) at the end. He's a ventriloquist at the end of his career, a man who once was a fiery radical, but who has now been reduced to a near nonentity. He can't even bring himself to sing it, so he sings it through his puppet.
  • In the 2009 American film, Capitalism: A Love Story, by director Michael Moore, singer Tony Babino sings a lounge version of the Internationale over the ending credits.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Internationale". PopMatters. 
  2. ^ Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, Ph.D. (28 December 2015). "Utopia and Terror in the 20th Century". The Teaching Company/University of Tennessee. Retrieved 2016-06-06. Its creators were embroiled in a decades-long struggle over the the copyright ownership of L'Internationale. This is something that didn't really mesh with the abolition of property that the anthem announced. 
  3. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. first paragraph. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  4. ^ David Walls, Sonoma State University. "Billy Bragg's Revival of Aging Anthems: Radical Nostalgia or Activist Inspiration?". 
  5. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. ninth paragraph. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  6. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. 11th paragraph. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  7. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  8. ^ "Ich habe die Kommunisten bezahlen lassen", Die Welt, Hans R. Beierlein, 2014-04-18.
  9. ^ Peter B. Hirtle. "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States". 
  10. ^ Year 1932 when Pierre De Geyter died, plus 80 years, would get to year 2012.
  11. ^ Vulser, Nicole (April 8, 2005). "Siffloter "L'Internationale" peut coûter cher". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved December 7, 2015. 
  12. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. 16th paragraph. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  13. ^ (Chinese) Xinhua Net: 瞿秋白:译词传谱国际歌
  14. ^ (Chinese) People's Daily: History of Chinese national anthems in a hundred years
  15. ^ Modern History Sourcebook: The Internationale
  16. ^ A.V. Lunacharskiy(ed). "The International (in Russian)". Fundamental'naya Elektronnaya Biblioteka. 
  17. ^ David Walls, Sonoma State University. "Billy Bragg's Revival of Aging Anthems: Radical Nostalgia or Activist Inspiration?". 
  18. ^ The Internationale in 82 languages
  19. ^ "I can see no more point in trying to 'modernise' it than I would in repainting the Cistine Chapel or rewriting Shakespeare's plays" Gaughan, Dick. "The Internationale". Dick Gaughan's Song Archive. 
  20. ^ Tony Benn (2014). A Blaze of Autumn Sunshine: The Last Diaries. Arrow Books. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-09-956495-9. 
  21. ^ From the Pete Seeger 90th Birthday Concert (Clearwater Concert) at Madison Square Garden, 5/3/09. "Billy Bragg - Internationale". Youtube. Retrieved Dec 1, 2010. 
  22. ^ Billy Bragg: Albums: The Internationale.
  23. ^ (Chinese) Xinhua Net: http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2008-01/28/content_7511238.htm
  24. ^ (Chinese) People's Daily: News on Chinese Communist Party
  25. ^ (Chinese) People's Daily: History of Chinese national anthems in a hundred years
  26. ^ Amnesty International, 30 August 1989. Preliminary Findings on Killings of Unarmed Civilians, Arbitrary Arrests and Summary Executions Since 3 June 1989, p.19
  27. ^ (Chinese)The inside story of the alteration of the Internationale translations
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ Braester, 258
  31. ^ Braester, Yomi (2001). "Memory at a standstill: 'street-smart history' in Jiang Wen's In the Heat of the Sun". Screen 42 (4): 350–362. 

External links[edit]