Internet art (often referred to as net art) is a form of digital artwork distributed via the Internet. This form of art has circumvented the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, delivering aesthetic experiences via the Internet. In many cases, the viewer is drawn into some kind of interaction with the work of art. Artists working in this manner are sometimes referred to as net artists.
Internet art can happen outside the technical structure of the Internet, such as when artists use specific social or cultural Internet traditions in a project outside it. Internet art is often—but not always—interactive, participatory, and multimedia-based. Internet art can be used to spread a message, either political or social, using human interactions.
The term Internet art typically does not refer to art that has been simply digitized and uploaded to be viewable over the Internet. This can be done through a web browser, such as images of paintings uploaded for viewing in an online gallery. Rather, this genre relies intrinsically on the Internet to exist, taking advantage of such aspects as an interactive interface and connectivity to multiple social and economic cultures and micro-cultures. It refers to the Internet as a whole, not only to web-based works.
Theorist and curator Jon Ippolito defined "Ten Myths" about Internet art in 2002. He cites the above stipulations, as well as defining it as distinct from commercial web design, and touching on issues of permanence, archivability, and collecting in a fluid medium.
History and context
Internet art is rooted in disparate artistic traditions and movements, ranging from Dada to Situationism, conceptual art, Fluxus, video art, kinetic art, performance art, telematic art and happenings.
In 1974, Canadian artist Vera Frenkel worked with the Bell Canada Teleconferencing Studios to produce the work String Games, the first artwork to use telecommunications technologies.
Media art institutions such as Ars Electronica Festival in Linz, or the Paris-based IRCAM (a research center for electronic music), would also support or present early Networked art. In 1997 the MIT List Center for the Arts hosted "PORT: Navigating Digital Culture," that included internet art in a gallery space and "time-based Interent projects." Artists in the show included Cary Peppermint, Prema Murthy, Ricardo Dominguez, and Adrianne Wortzel. In 2000 the Whitney Museum of American Art included net art in their Biennial exhibit. It was the first time that internet art had been included as a special category in the Biennial, and it marked one of the earliest examples of the inclusion of internet art in a museum setting. Internet artists included Mark Amerika, Fakeshop, Ken Goldberg, and ®™ark.
With the rise of search engines as a gateway to accessing the web in the late 1990s, many net artists turned their attention to related themes. The 2001 'Data Dynamics' exhibit at the Whitney Museum featured 'Netomat' (Maciej Wisniewski) and 'Apartment' (Marek Walczak and Martin Wattenberg, which used search queries as raw material. Mary Flanagan's 'The Perpetual Bed' received attention for its novel use of 3D nonlinear narrative space, or what she called "navigable narratives."   Her 2001 work in the Whitney Biennial, 'collection' collected items from hard drives around the world and displayed them in a 'computational collective unconscious.' Golan Levin's 'The Secret Lives of Numbers' (2000) visualized the "popularity" of the numbers 1 to 1,000,000 as measured by Alta Vista search results. Such works pointed to alternative interfaces and questioned the dominant role of search engines in controlling access to the net.
Nevertheless, the Internet is not reducible to the web, nor to search engines. Besides these unicast (point to point) applications, suggesting that there is some reference points, there is also a multicast (multipoint and uncentered) internet that has been explored by very few artistic experiences, such as the Poietic Generator. Internet art has, according to Juliff and Cox, suffered under the privileging of the user interface inherent within computer art. They argue that Internet is not synonymous with a specific user and specific interface, but rather a dynamic structure that encompasses coding and the artist's intention.
The emergence of social networking platforms, understood to be "web-based services that allow individuals to... construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system... articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and... view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system", facilitated a transformative shift in the distribution of internet art. Early online communities were organized around specific "topical hierarchies", whereas social networking platforms consist of egocentric networks, with the "individual at the center of their own community". Artistic communities on the Internet underwent a similar transition in the mid-2000s, shifting from Surf Clubs, "15 to 30 person groups whose members contributed to an ongoing visual-conceptual conversation through the use of digital media" and whose membership was restricted to a select group of individuals, to image-based social networking platforms, like Flickr, which permit access to any individual with an e-mail address. Internet artists make extensive use of the networked capabilities of social networking platforms, and are rhizomatic in their organization, in that "production of meaning is externally contingent on a network of other artists' content".
- Gretchen Andrew
- Mark Amerika
- Daniel García Andújar
- Luther Blissett
- Heath Bunting
- Vuk Cosic
- Andreas Heusser
- Olia Lialina
- Kamila B. Richter
- Gustavo Romano
- Alexei Shulgin
- Teo Spiller
- Ramona Andra Xavier
- Ippolito, Jon. "Ten Myths of Internet Art". VECTORS: Digital art of our time. New York: New York Digital Salon. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- Chandler, Annmarie; Neumark, Norie (2005). At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-03328-3.
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- White, Norman T. "Plissure du Texte". The NorMill. Retrieved September 21, 2010. (Unedited transcript including organizational discussion.)
- The Whitney Biennial 2000. See also "Now Anyone Can Be in the Whitney Biennial" in The New York Times (March 23, 2000), and "The Whitney Speaks: It Is Art" in Wired Magazine (March 23, 2000).
- Klink, Patrick (1999). "Daring Digital Artist". UB Today. Buffalo: The University at Buffalo. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- Flanagan, Mary (2000). "navigating the narrative in space: gender and spatiality in virtual worlds". Art Journal. New York: The College Art Association. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- Cotter, Holland (2002). "Never Mind the Art Police, These Six Matter". New York: The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- Toby Juliff, Travis Cox (2015). "The post-display condition of contemporary computer art" (PDF). eMaj. 8.
- Boyd, D. M.; N. B. Ellison (2007). "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 13 (1). Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Schneider, B. "From Clubs to Affinity: The Decentralization of Art on the Internet". 491. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Mirapaul, M "There May Be Money in Internet Art After All", The New York Times, 1999-05-13.
- Kate Armstrong, Jeremy Bailey & Faisal Anwar on Net Art in Canadian Art Magazine 
- Weibel, Peter and Gerbel, Karl (1995). Welcome in the Net World , @rs electronica 95 Linz. Wien New York: Springer Verlag. ISBN 3-211-82709-9
- Fred Forest 1998,¨Pour un art actuel, l'art à l'heure d'Internet" l'Harmattan, Paris
- Baranski Sandrine, La musique en réseau, une musique de la complexité ? Éditions universitaires européennes, mai 2010
- Barreto, Ricardo and Perissinotto, Paula. "the_culture_of_immanence". Archived from the original on 29 September 2010.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Baumgärtel, Tilman (2001). net.art 2.0 – Neue Materialien zur Netzkunst / New Materials towards Net art. Nürnberg: Verlag für moderne Kunst. ISBN 3-933096-66-9.
- Wilson, Stephen (2001). Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science and Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts : MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23209-X.
- Caterina Davinio 2002. Tecno-Poesia e realtà virtuali / Techno-Poetry and Virtual Realities, Sometti, Mantua (IT) Collection: Archivio della poesia del 900. Mantua Municipality. With English translation. ISBN 88-88091-85-8
- Stallabrass, Julian (2003). "Internet Art: the online clash of culture and commerce". Tate Publishing. ISBN 1-85437-345-5, ISBN 978-1-85437-345-8.
- Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "L’art à l’époque virtuel", in Frontières esthétiques de l’art, Arts 8, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2004
- Greene, Rachel (2004). "Internet Art". Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20376-8, ISBN 978-0-500-20376-7.
- Corby, Tom (2006). "Network Art: Practices and Positions". Routledge, ISBN 0-415-36479-5.
- WB05 e-symposium published as ISEA Newsletter #102 - ISSN 1488-3635 #102 
- Juliff, Toby & Cox, Travis. 'The Post-display condition of contemporary computer art.' eMaj #8 (April 2015) https://emajartjournal.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/cox-and-juliff_the-post-display-condition-of-contemporary-computer-art.pdf
- Ascott, R.2003. Telematic Embrace: visionary theories of art, technology and consciousness. (Edward A. Shanken, ed.) Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Roy Ascott 2002. Technoetic Arts (Editor and Korean translation: YI, Won-Kon), (Media & Art Series no. 6, Institute of Media Art, Yonsei University). Yonsei: Yonsei University Press
- Ascott, R. 1998. Art & Telematics: toward the Construction of New Aesthetics. (Japanese trans. E. Fujihara). A. Takada & Y. Yamashita eds. Tokyo: NTT Publishing Co.,Ltd.
- Fred Forest 2008. Art et Internet, Paris Editions Cercle D'Art / Imaginaire Mode d'Emploi
- Thomas Dreher: IASLonline Lessons/Lektionen in NetArt.
- Thomas Dreher: History of Computer Art, chap.VI: Net Art: Networks, Participation, Hypertext
- Monoskop (2010). Overview of 'surf clubs' phenomenon. 
- Art in the Era of the Internet, PBS Report
- ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Martín Prada, Juan, Prácticas artísticas e Internet en la época de las redes sociales, Editorial AKAL, Madrid, 2012, ISBN 978-84-460-3517-6
- Bosma, Josephine (2011) "Nettitudes - Let's Talk Net Art"  NAI Publishers, ISBN 978-90-5662-800-0
- Schneider, B. (2011, January 6). From Clubs to Affinity: The Decentralization of Art on the Internet « 491. 491. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from https://web.archive.org/web/20120707101824/http://fourninetyone.com/2011/01/06/fromclubstoaffinity/
- Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1). Retrieved March 14, 2011, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.
- Moss, Ceci. (2008). Thoughts on “New Media Artists v. Artists with Computers". Rhizome Journal. http://rhizome.org/editorial/2008/dec/3/thoughts-on-quotnew-media-artists-vs-artists-with-/
- Greene, Rachel. (2000) A History of Internet Art. Artforum, vol. 38.
- Bookchin, Natalie & Alexei Shulgin (1994-5). Introduction to net.art. Rhizome. http://rhizome.org/artbase/artwork/48530/.
- Atkins, Robert. (1995). The Art World (and I) Go Online. Art in America 83/2.
- Houghton, B. (2002). The Internet & art: A guidebook for artists. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-089374-9.
- Bosma, J. (2011). Nettitudes: Let's talk net art. Rotterdam: Nai Publishers. ISBN 978-90-5662-800-0.
- Daniels, D., & Reisinger, G. (2009). Net pioneers 1.0: Contextualizing early net-based art. Berlin: Sternberg Press. ISBN 978-1-933128-71-9.