Internet in North Korea
Internet access is available in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), but only permitted with special authorization and primarily used for government purposes and by foreigners. The country has some broadband infrastructure, including fiber optic links between major institutions. However, online services for most individuals and institutions are provided through a free domestic-only network known as Kwangmyong, with access to the global Internet limited to a much smaller group.
Service providers and access
There is one ISP providing Internet connection in North Korea: Star Joint Venture Co., a joint venture between the North Korean government's Post and Telecommunications Corporation and Thailand-based Loxley Pacific. Star JV took control of North Korea's Internet address allocation on December 21, 2009. Prior to Star JV, Internet access was available only via a satellite link to Germany, or for some government uses through direct connections with China Unicom. Nearly all of North Korea's Internet traffic is routed through China.
Permission to access the Internet remains very tightly restricted; however, there has been a growing IT industry and gradually increasing access of the Internet within North Korea. In October 2010, the website of the Korean Central News Agency went live from a web server hosted in North Korea and accessible globally on a North Korean IP address, marking the country's first known direct connection to the Internet. Around the same time, on 9 October, journalists visiting Pyongyang for the Workers' Party's 65th anniversary celebrations were given access to a press room with full Internet connectivity. As of December 2014[update], there are officially 1,024 internet protocol addresses in North Korea, though The New York Times journalists David E. Sanger and Nicole Perlroth believe that the actual number may be higher. The total amount of internet users is estimated at no more than a few thousand. The ones who can access the Internet without limits are claimed to be high-ranking officials, members of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and government ambassadors. Kim Jong-il was said to have loved "surfing the net". According to Ofer Gayer, a security researcher of Incapsula, the country's total web traffic footprint has been less than that of the Falkland Islands. According to Joo Seong-ha, a The Dong-a Ilbo journalist and a North Korean defector, as of 2014, the government's intranet Kwangmyong has been used to limit the general public's global Internet usage, especially in hotels. Although available in most campuses, government has "strictly monitored the Internet usage." Many citizens of North Korea may be oblivious to the existence of the internet.
Since Apple Inc., Sony, and Microsoft are not allowed to distribute their products to North Korea, third-party companies have bought their products and been selling them as their own to customers. Very little is known about the electronics industry in North Korea due to the government's isolation policies.
On 19 September 2016, North Korea's nameserver – that contains information about all of the ".kp" websites – was misconfigured, allowing researchers to access and publish the domain names and some of the file data about the site, including zone information for .kp, co.kp, com.kp, edu.kp, gov.kp, net.kp, org.kp, and rep.kp, revealing that North Korea has only 28 websites.
Government use of the Internet
North Korean websites
There are about 30 websites, such as Uriminzokkiri, run by the DPRK government.[needs update?] South Korean police have identified 43 pro-North Korean websites that have foreign-based servers. The police report that these websites encourage hostile attitudes towards South Korea and Western countries, and portray the DPRK in a positive light. According to The Dong-a Ilbo, foreign-based websites include the following: Joseon Tongsin (Korean News Service) and Guk-jeonseon in Japan, Unification Arirang in China, Minjok Tongsin in the United States, and twelve new pro-North Korean websites have launched, including the "Korea Network". In August 2010, BBC News reported that an agency contracted by the North Korean government has fielded an official DPRK YouTube channel, Facebook and Twitter accounts for Uriminzokkiri. Both the Twitter and YouTube accounts are solely in Korean. The BBC reported, "In a recent Twitter post, the North Koreans said the current administration in South Korea was 'a prostitute' of the US", though this wording may be a poor translation into English. Among some of the content on the official website is an image of a US soldier being followed by two missiles, along with various other cartoons, pictures and text, with largely anti-US and anti-South Korean sentiment. In September 2007 the .kp top-level domain was created. It contains websites connected to the North Korean government.
In addition to propaganda sites, there are numerous websites connected to commercial activity. In 2002, North Koreans, in collaboration with a South Korean company, started a gambling site targeting South Korean customers (online gambling being illegal in South Korea), but the site has since been closed down. In late 2007, North Korea launched its first online shop, Chollima, in a joint venture with an unnamed Chinese company. In 2013, The Pirate Bay claimed to be operating out of North Korea after legal challenges forced it out of Sweden. The move was later revealed to be a hoax.
South Korean No Cut News has reported that the North Korean government trains computer hackers in Kim Chaek University of Technology and Kim Il-sung University to earn money overseas. A group of North Korean hackers based in Shenyang, China, developed and sold auto-programs (programs that allow player characters to earn experience and in-game currency while the player does none of the work) for an online game Lineage and a South Korea citizen was arrested in May 2011 for purchasing it.
In December 2014, North Korea was accused of a hack attack on Sony Pictures Entertainment. From December 19–21, North Korea experienced technical difficulties with Internet access. On December 22, North Korea suffered a complete Internet link failure, resulting in loss of Internet access from outside the country for which the United States is suspected. On December 23, nine hours after the outage, the country regained Internet access, albeit "partial and potentially unstable with other websites still inaccessible." On December 22–24, North Korea experienced seven more Internet outages, including two on December 23. On December 27, the country experienced an outage on Internet (the third time of the year) and a mobile network. A similar outage, lasting for one and a half days, occurred in March 2013.
South Korean Internet regulations
South Korean Internet users must comply with Trade Laws with North Korea (Article 9 Section 2) in which one needs to have the Ministry of Unification's approval to contact North Koreans through their websites.
IP address ranges
- 188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206
Despite North Korea's limited Internet access, the small pool of IP addresses has led to very conservative allocations. The Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, for example, had in 2012 just one IP address on the global Internet.
North Korea's telecommunications ministry is also the registered user of 256 China Unicom addresses. This pre-dates the activation of North Korea's own block, but as of 2014 it is still current:
- 220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.168
- North Korea (Korea, Democratic People's Republic of) – Asia Internet History Projects. Sites.google.com (2012-09-26). Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
- North Korea moves quietly onto the Internet. Computerworld (2010-06-10). Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
- Whois lookup for IP netblock 22.214.171.124/22
- He.net. "AS131279 Ryugyong-dong". he.net. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
- Pagliery, Jose (December 22, 2014). "A peek into North Korea's Internet". CNN. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "North Korea to offer mobile internet access". BBC. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Caitlin Dewey (26 February 2013). "Instagrams from within North Korea lift the veil, but only slightly". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "North Korea blocks access to Instagram". The Guardian. Associated Press. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Lee, Jean H. (2011-07-25). "North Korea's 'Digital Revolution' Under Way". Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- The new face of KCNA « North Korea Tech. Northkoreatech.org (2010-10-09). Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
- North Korea opens up Internet for national anniversary. Computerworld (2010-10-09). Retrieved on 2013-03-20.
- Cho (조), Min-jeong (민정) (2011-04-30). "北 웹사이트 접속 늘어…윈도XP 사용". Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- Sanger, David E.; Perlroth, Nicole (December 22, 2014). "North Korea Loses Its Link to the Internet." The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- Max Fisher (22 December 2014). "Yes, North Korea has the internet. Here's what it looks like.". Vox. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- Tae-jun Kang (August 14, 2014). "Wi-Fi Access Sparks Housing Boom in Pyongyang." The Diplomat
- Andrei Lankov (12 December 2007). "Surfing Net in North Korea". Korea Times. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- Satter, Raphael; Sullivan, Eileen (December 25, 2014). "North Korea outage a case study in online uncertainties." The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
- The Associated Press; Raphael Satter (24 December 2014). "Correction: NKorea-Mystery Outage Story". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "North Korea blocks Facebook, Twitter and YouTuber". The Associated Press. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "North Korea's baby steps for the Internet". PhysOrg.com. United Press International. 2005-08-30.
- Yoon, Jong-Koo (2004-09-08). "Police Announce 43 Active Pro-North Korean Websites". The Dong-a Ilbo.
- "North Korea creates Twitter and YouTube presence". BBC News. 2010-08-18.
- 《우리민족끼리》홈페지 Archived August 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Kelly Olson, "Elusive Web Site Offers N. Korean Goods", WTOPnews.com, February 4, 2008. Retrieved on April 27, 2008.
- Rodriguez, Salvador (March 6, 2013). "Pirate Bay North Korea move was a hoax", The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Lee (이), Dae-hui (대희) (2011-08-05). 北 '엘리트 해커' 사이버 외화벌이. Nocut News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Bae (배), Hye-rim (혜림) (2011-05-06). "北해커부대, '게임머니'S/W 팔아 외화벌이". Money Today (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-05-06.
- Ford, Dana (December 23, 2014). "North Korea's Internet back up after disruption." CNN. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "North Korea partially back online after internet collapse." BBC. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Slattery, Denis (December 28, 2014). "North Korea suffers nationwide Internet, 3G mobile network blackout." New York Daily News. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Choe, Cheol (2010-04-08). "北 인터넷사이트에 '댓글' 달면 어떻게 될까 (What Happens If You Post 'Reply' On North Korean Website)". No Cut News (in Korean). Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- "APNIC Whois Search (STAR-KP)". APNIC. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- One IP address for all of PUST « North Korea Tech. Northkoreatech.org (2012-08-20). Retrieved on 2013-03-20.