Internet in Poland

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The Internet in Poland was used by 82% of the country's household (78% broadband) in 2017.[1]

Facts and figures[2][edit]

  • Top-level domain: .pl
  • Internet users: 25.0 million users, 21st in the world; 65.0% of the population, 19th in the world (2012).[3][4]
  • Fixed broadband: 6.4 million subscriptions, 17th in the world; 16.6% of the population, 54th in the world (2012).[3][5]
  • Wireless broadband: 18.9 million subscriptions, 16th in the world; 49.3% of the population, 33rd in the world (2012).[6]
  • Internet hosts: 13.3 million hosts, 12th in the world (2012).[7]
  • IPv4: 19.4 million addresses allocated, 21st in the world, 0.5% of the world total, 505.9 addresses per 1000 people (2012).[8][9]
  • The main reason for not having access to the Internet at home 70.6% of households indicated no need to use it[10]

The first analogue Internet connection was launched on September 26, 1990 and had a speed of 9600 bits per second. The Nuclear Physics Institute in Krakow on 19 November 1990 received the first IP address in Poland (192.86.14.0) assigned to it by United States Department of Defense. On November 20, 1990 CERN was sent the first e-mail to Poland and received it by this institute using the microVax II computer.[11]

Pricing[edit]

According to an OECD report, in September 2012 the price of Internet access in Poland ranged from $0.45 to $127.12 USD PPP per megabit per second of advertised speed. This places Poland in the middle of the pack on the low end (18th lowest out of 34 countries) and at the top on the high end (second highest behind New Zealand at $130.20). This compares with ranges of $0.40 to $23.25 for Germany, $0.40 to $12.35 for the Czech Republic, and $0.53 to $41.70 for the U.S.[12]

According to Eurostat, OECD and others, Internet access in Poland is among the most expensive in Europe. This is mostly caused by the lack of competitiveness and lack of know-how. New operators like Dialog and GTS Energis are making their own provider lines and offer more attractive and cheaper service. In February 2011, the Polish Office of Electronic Communication issued an order forcing the TPSA to rent 51% of their ADSL lines to other ISPs at 60% discount of their market pricing. As the result the prices are non-competitive, other ISP charge as TPSA making a guaranteed 40% profit, while TPSA has no incentive to lower its consumer prices, because it would result in lowering of wholesale prices as well.[citation needed]

ADSL[edit]

The most popular ADSL services for home users in Poland are Neostrada provided by TPSA and Net24 provided by Netia. Both provide download speeds in the range of 10 to 80 Mbit/s and upload speeds of 1 Mbit/s or more. Business users as well as some home users use Internet DSL TP also offered by TPSA.[citation needed]

Neostrada[edit]

ADSL service is offered by Neostrada.[citation needed]

Internet DSL TP[edit]

There is another ADSL option available, targeted mainly at business clients, called Internet DSL TP. The link availability is guaranteed plus offers static IP address(es) and a modem with Ethernet interface.[citation needed]

Net24[edit]

ADSL service called Net24, provided by TP's main competitor Netia. The service can be installed on ISDN lines.[citation needed]

Netia also offers ADSL (BiznesNet24) and SDSL (SuperNet24) subscriptions for business customers, which offer static IP address and higher speeds. Netia does not offer its own lines and depends on TPSA lines.[citation needed]

Multimo[edit]

ADSL service called Multimo, provided by GTS Energis for TP customers via Bit Stream Access.[citation needed]

DialNET DSL[edit]

ADSL service called DialNET DSL, provided by Dialog now bought by Netia.[13][citation needed]

Cable[edit]

Cable providers such as UPC, Multimedia, Vectra and ASTER offer triple play services.[citation needed]

UPC[edit]

As of 08/05/13, UPC has upgraded its "Fiber Power" internet service to higher speeds, offering internet with download speeds from 10 Mbit/s up to 250 Mbit/s, making UPC one of the fastest ISPs in Poland. The top tier - 250/20 Mbit/s - is limited to selected locations: Warsaw, Gdańsk, Katowice and Kraków. UPC wants to buy Multimedia (3 rd largest cable operator)[14]

ASTER[edit]

ASTER used to provide triple play to many cities in Poland, especially Warsaw and Kraków with speeds ranging from 1 Mbit/s to 120 Mbit/s.[citation needed]

On January 2, 2012, Aster merged with UPC.[15] As a result, every service was bumped into the higher tier and the daytime half speed throttling has been removed.

HETAN[edit]

HETAN provides stationary Internet via Satellite to whole Poland for private and business customers with speeds ranging from 10 Mbit/s to 20 Mbit/s in download and from 2 Mbit/s to 6 Mbit/s in upload. HETAN launched its services in August 2011, and is since then market leader in providing internet via KA-satellite services to private households and SME's in Poland. HETAN is largest Reseller of Tooway/Skylogic Services in Poland and does represent as well Hylass/Avanti.[citation needed]

KORBANK[edit]

KORBANK provides Triple Play, especially in FTTx or ETH technology. The firm allows subscribers to connect and use computer-based telecommunications networks using independent Internet connections boasting high quality and transmission capacity, digital telephony and new generation TV. Operations focus on Lower Silesia and Masovia regions, where telecommunications services are offered to both retail and business clients. KORBANK is also founder of the first in Europe IPTV Platform based on Unicast Protocol - AVIOS.[16]

Internet censorship and surveillance[edit]

The government does restrict access to the Internet by using a black registry of internet sites, the PiS party deems un lawful[disputed ], but there are no credible reports that it monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. The constitution guarantees freedom of expression and forbids censorship. Libel remains a criminal offense, but possible penalties were reduced in 2009.[17][18]

The law no longer prohibits most arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence[citation needed]; and the government does not always respect these prohibitions in practice[citation needed]. The law allows electronic surveillance for crime prevention[citation needed] and investigation[citation needed]. There is neither independent judicial review of surveillance activities[citation needed] nor any control over the use of information obtained by monitoring private communications[citation needed]. A number of government agencies[citation needed] have access to wiretap information.

During Civic Platform government[edit]

In early 2011, Internet censorship legislation that included the creation of a registry of blocked web sites was abandoned by the Polish Government, following protests and petitions opposing the proposal.[19][20][21]

In 2011 the Office for Electronic Communications reported that law enforcement agencies requested access to telecommunications data (including call logs, telephone location, and names registered to specific numbers) 1.8 million times, an increase of 500,000 over the number of requests in 2010.[18]

In January 2012, thousands protested Prime Minister Tusk's signing of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) establishing international standards for enforcing intellectual property rights, accusing it of facilitating Internet censorship.[17] And in February Tusk suspended ACTA's ratification because his government had made insufficient consultations before signing the agreement to ensure it was entirely safe for Polish citizens.[22]

In September 2012, the creator of the website Antykomor.pl that satirized President Komorowski was sentenced to 15 months of restricted liberty and 600 hours of community service for defaming the president.[17]

During Law and Justice government[edit]

Since the Law and Justice taking charge of the Polish Government, it enacted several laws, of which the anti terrorism laws, passed and enacted in 2016 allow blocking access to internet content deemed by the party[disputed ] as unlawful. There were several incidents of Polish police arresting IP addresses of people suspected of illegal activity against the state[citation needed],and other attempts have been made in blocking content that was critical of the right wing government[citation needed], however the Polish finance ministry had gained legal power to block the internet sites of people, corporations and others involved in illegal economic fraud unlicensed gambling, and offering services the PiS[disputed ] party or the Polish Roman Catholic church[disputed ] consider inappropriate or illegal, which lead to a creation of a black registry of sites that all telecoms and ISP's are obligated to block under heavy financial penalties. Traditionally the Polish Government views internet as a mere telecommunications medium, it also continues to promote rapid informatization of the Polish society, while adopting legal measures that allow to nationalize all parts of the IT infrastructure, including the electronic devices used to access the internet. With the re appeal of the net neutrality by FCC in the US, the PiS government moved more openly towards limiting access only to content approved by the party[disputed ], thought the Finance ministry officially backed down from trying to establish another central black registry of unlawful domains and services[citation needed], that would greatly increase the types of sites and services that could be blocked by the party,they could gain this ability by default due to the new EU Copy right bill that is being discussed in the European parlament, of which the PiS party is a strong public opponent of.[disputed ].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ www.ideo.pl, ideo -. "Społeczeństwo informacyjne w Polsce w 2017 roku". stat.gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  2. ^ www.ideo.pl, ideo -. "Społeczeństwo informacyjne w Polsce w 2016 roku". stat.gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  3. ^ a b Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012", Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
  4. ^ "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
  5. ^ "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  6. ^ "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  7. ^ "Internet hosts", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  8. ^ Select Formats Archived 2009-05-13 at the Wayback Machine., Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
  9. ^ Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
  10. ^ www.ideo.pl, ideo -. "Społeczeństwo informacyjne w Polsce w 2016 roku". stat.gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  11. ^ https://popul.ifj.edu.pl/historia/36/zobacz.html
  12. ^ "Broadband subscription price ranges per megabit per second of advertised speed, with line charges, September 2012, USD PPP", spreadsheet, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 9 July 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  13. ^ "Netia Blog - Kupiliśmy Telefonię Dialog i Crowley Data Poland". Netia Blog. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  14. ^ https://www.money.pl/gospodarka/wiadomosci/artykul/upc-multimedia-polska-przejecie,189,0,2264509.html
  15. ^ "Połączenie z Aster | UPC Polska". Upc.pl. 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
  16. ^ AVIOS, KORBANK.
  17. ^ a b c "Poland", Freedom in the World 2013, Freedom House. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  18. ^ a b "Poland", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 2 April 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  19. ^ "Security Question 2 in Country Report: Poland", BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard, Business Software Alliance, 22 February 2012
  20. ^ "Government stopped from preparing ‘illegal’ anti-internet piracy legislation", Polskie Radio, 2 March 2012
  21. ^ "Polish Government Feels Urge to Regulate Internet", Marcin Sobczyk, Wall Street Journal, 16 March 2011
  22. ^ "ACTA's EU future in doubt after Polish pause". ZDNet UK. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.

External links[edit]