Internet in Thailand
This article needs to be updated.(June 2015)
Thailand obtained internet access in 1996 as the third country in South East Asia. Since then, the use of the Internet has become more popular in the cities and also more accessible to different areas in the country. 41 million people have regular access, just under 2/3rds of the population as of June 2016.According to a survey by Ookla in 2015, Thailand also has the 6th fastest Internet speed at 18.9 Mbit/s behind Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan and China.
Broadband Internet is readily available in most cities and towns, and now are expanding to many smaller villages and in the countryside. As the statistics have shown, the majority of Internet users in Thailand still rely on dial-up access. TOT operates a nationwide local rate number, 1222, allowing dialing to most Internet service providers. Dial-up prepaid Internet packs can be readily bought in convenience stores and other places. Subscribers of fixed telephone lines by True Corporation have access to dial up Internet by dialing a certain number and then being billed on their normal telephone bill.
The majority of broadband Internet access uses Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). Some areas are covered by Cable Modems and G.shdsl. Consumer broadband Internet bandwidth ranges from 2 Mbit/s to 50 Mbit/s (Up to 1 Gbit/s in some major cities especially Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Pattaya, Phuket). Medium and large businesses use Leased Lines or Ethernet Internet/MPLS where fiber optic cables link many office buildings in the central business district areas such as Sukhumvit, Silom and Sathorn areas to the Thailand Internet backbone. Universities have access to fast Internet access, including the Trans-Eurasia Information Network (TEIN2) research network.
A 3G UMTS/HSDPA network was launched in Bangkok and its vicinity in December 2009 with speed up to 7.2 Mbit/s on the 2100 MHz band. In the late 2011, Telephone Organization of Thailand released 3G on HSPA+ technology covering all areas in Bangkok with the speed of up to 42 Mbit/s. Major mobile network operators in Thailand also have released their 3G services at around the same time on the 850 MHz and 900 MHz bands with the same technology and connection speed. There are initiatives to offer mainstream FTTH (Fiber to the Home) providing bandwidth of up to 100 Mbit/s bundled with IPTV and VoIP. FTTH with speeds up to 30 Mbit/s is available in limited areas in major cities, including Bangkok, Phuket, Chiang Mai.
Thailand saw a rapid growth in the number of broadband users in 2005 with the initiation of unmetered broadband in 2004. There are 3,399,000 (2012) Internet hosts in Thailand being the highest in South East Asia.
Thais spend an average of 16 hours dedicated to internet time per week.
- 1 Internet Domain Names
- 2 Internet Backbones
- 3 Internet Service Providers
- 4 Internet Data Centers (IDC)
- 5 Internet censorship
- 6 Internet surveillance
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Internet Domain Names
- Country code top-level Domain (ccTLD): .th
- Second Level Domains
- .ac for Academic Institutions
- .co for Commercial Companies
- .in for Individuals or any others (from 2002)
- .go for Governmental Organizations
- .mi for Military Organizations
- .or for Registered Non-profit Organizations
- .net for officially registered Internet Service Providers
- Second Level Domains
|Month/Year||International Bandwidth (Gbit/s)||Domestic Bandwidth (Gbit/s)|
As of November 2009, Thailand had a total international Internet bandwidth of 106,787 Mbit/s. Thailand domestic Internet bandwidth was significantly higher at 607,526 Mbit/s. This is because of an increase in provision of local content. Internet users in Thailand typically get higher speeds in their connection to Thai content providers with very short pings of 5-50 ms, but a speed 70 percent or less for international connection with pings of 70-400 ms.
Demand for international bandwidth has increased dramatically due to the popularity of social networking services such as YouTube, Hi5, Twitter, Facebook and increased number of broadband Internet subscribers.
International Gateways (IP Transit)
There are 10 international Internet gateway operators in Thailand.
|BBConnect-IIG||BB Connect Internet Gateway||BB Connect|
|CAT-IIG||International Internet Gateway||CAT Telecom|
|CSL-IIG||CS Loxinfo International Internet Gateway||CS Loxinfo|
|DTAC-IIG||Total Access Communication International Internet Gateway||Dtac|
|JASTEL-IIG||JasTel International Internet Gateway||JasTel|
|Symphony-IIG||Symphony International Internet Gateway||Symphony Communication|
|AWN-IIG||AWN International Internet Gateway||Advanced Wireless Network|
|TCCT-IIG||TCCT International Internet Gateway||TCC Technology|
|TIG-IIG||True International Internet Gateway||True Internet|
|TOT-IIG||TOT International Internet Gateway||TOT|
True Corporation and Shin Corporation were granted Type II International Internet Gateway and Internet Exchange Service License from the NTC (National Telecommunication Committee) in 2005. CAT Telecom holds the largest share of the market.
Domestic Internet eXchange
- Advance Datanetwork Communication National Internet Exchange (ADC-NIX)
- BB Connect National Internet Exchange by BB Connect (BBConnect-NIX)
- CAT Telecom National Internet Exchange by CAT (CAT-NIX)
- CS Loxinfo National Internet Exchange (CSL-NIX)
- Symphony National Internet Exchange (Symphony-NIX)
- Super Broadband Network (SBN) Internet Exchange (SBN-NIX)
- TCCT National Internet Exchange by TCC Technology (TCCT-NIX)
- TOT National Internet Exchange by TOT (TOT-NIX)
- True Internet Gateway National Internet Exchange (TIG-NIX)
- JasTel National Internet Exchange (JASTEL-NIX)
- NECTEC IIR Public Internet Exchange (PIE, Research Only)
Internet eXchange Point
- CAT Telecom Internet Exchange (Also Known As: Thailand Internet Exchange: THIX)
- Symphony Internet Exchange (SYMC-IX)
- Bangkok Neutral Internet eXchange (BKNIX)
Before 2003, IIR Public Internet Exchange was the largest Internet exchange point in Thailand. As of August 2003, it is mandatory for all ISP to have a presence in the National Internet Exchange (CAT-NIX) operated by CAT Telecom. CAT-NIX, TIG-NIX, TOT-NIX and TTGN-NIX are primary Internet exchanges used by commercial Internet service providers. CAT-NIX is now the largest Internet eXchange point in Thailand with more than 100Gbit/s domestic bandwidth to all ISP. Links between different Internet exchanges are now setup, reducing domestic bandwidth costs.
The IIR Public Internet Exchange is now maintained by NECTEC and is used only for academic and research purposes. The only commercial Internet service provider connected to the IIR Public Internet Exchange is Internet Thailand.
Internet Service Providers
Rights to operate as an Internet service provider in Thailand are granted by the NTC (National Telecommunications Council).
Most of broadband Internet access in Thailand is offered through ADSL technology. Previously before 2002, broadband Internet access was offered at more than 25,000 Baht a month for a typical speed of 256 kbit/s. Later in 2002, TOT sparked a low-cost broadband Internet war that caused rapid growth in broadband Internet demands and has changed the way all the ISPs operate. With a ground-breaking price for an unlimited 256 kbit/s, TOT gained its popularity among online gamers in Thailand. However, TOT was unable to provide services to the majority of people in Bangkok due to the fact that half of the fixed line telephone system was operated by Telecom Asia Co.,Ltd (now known as True Corp) under a concession. At the same time, Asia InfoNet has started its own ADSL service with a "free online game airtime" strategy since they also operate Ragnarok Online, the most famous online game at that time. Outside of Bangkok, TT&T teamed up with CAT Telecom to provide unlimited 2 Mbit/s ADSL service after three months of operation.
It is commonly believed that the popularity of online gaming at that time was the ignition for the demands of broadband Internet in Thailand.
Most broadband Internet users in Thailand complain about the ISPs not being able to provide the speeds they promised. Many Internet service providers have high contention ratios on home ADSL packages, sometimes up to 1:50. There was also limited international bandwidth due to CAT Telecom being the sole provider of international Internet gateway, but this has improved since the liberalization of Internet gateway operations in 2005. At that time, most ISPs focus on expanding their domestic connections to accommodate online gaming demands. This led to a comeback of premium ADSL packages at a higher price point for premium home users and corporate customers. Although many users still argue that these packages will still not improve the international bandwidth availability for home users. Internet service providers are usually also criticized for throttling BitTorrent traffic.
Recently, there were dramatic increases in international bandwidth after the NTC authorized more ISPs to set up their own international Internet gateways to cope with the growth in demand for contents requiring higher bandwidth.
In early 2009, Jasmine International launched ADSL services under the '3BB' brand in major cities offering speeds up to 3 Mbit/s for 590 Baht. This prompted True Internet to expand their services to 8 Mbit/s from 5 Mbit/s and matched 3BB prices.
In mid-2009, 3BB offers minimum speed 4 Mbit/s for 590 Baht and expand their services from 8 Mbit/s to 10 Mbit/s 1,490 Baht / month, prompting True Internet to temporarily offer free upgrades for current 8 Mbit/s users to 12 Mbit/s. All of Maxnet's customers were also transferred to 3BB as part of the TT&T debt rehabilitation plan proposed by the debt holders. As of October 2009, True offers speeds up to 16 Mbit/s.
TOT and ADC have a local loop unbundling agreement allowing for ADC to provide ADSL services on TOT phone lines. Since most telephone wires in major cities are still on poles and not underground, there is no limit to how many phone lines can enter a building. This has prompted for many Internet service providers to offer DSL services without any phone services. A new wire is simply run to the premises requiring the service, bypassing the need for any further local loop unbundling agreements.
Despite the improvement of the internet in Thailand, there are still network issues. Mostly on the topic of the network latency. The delay on the network itself proved to be unhealthy to the growing competitive online games. Players are claimed to have network issues which cause them the game. Thus, hindering the potential of the growing eSports communities.
|ISP Name||Technology||Speed||Additional Information|
|AIS Fibre||VDSL2, FTTH, Leased Line||Up to 1 Gbit/s||10 million FTTH homepass in 2016|
|True Internet||ADSL2+, VDSL2, Cable Modem, G.shdsl/SDSL, Leased Line, MPLS, FTTH||Up to 1 Gbit/s, ||True uses both CAT IIG and its own international gateway.|
|3BB||ADSL2+ (Converted to VDSL), VDSL2, Leased Line, FTTH(Currently available in some areas)||30 Mbit/s, 50 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s ||Jasmine International used to be joint with TT&T and operated under the name "Maxnet". Now operates under the name "3BB". (Three Broadband).|
|TOT||ADSL2+, Leased Line, FTTH(Available in some areas)||6 Mbit/s, 9 Mbit/s, 13 Mbit/s, 20 Mbit/s, 30 Mbit/s, 50 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s||TOT offers FTTH (Fiber to the home) package in Phuket with the speed up to 30Mbit/s. TOT is expanding their broadband Internet services in provincial areas where it owns almost all fixed line telephone infrastructure.|
|CAT Telecom||ADSL, G.shdsl/SDSL, Cable, Leased Line, FTTH||4 Mbit/s, 10 Mbit/s, 50Mbp/s, 100Mbit/s, 1Gbit/s||It has teamed up with some local cable television providers to provide broadband via cable up to 10 Mbit/s.|
|KSC Internet||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line||owned by True Corporation but branded for the upper-end market. Founded in 1994 as a joint venture between Internet Knowledge Center Co., Ltd. (IKSC) and the Communications Authority of Thailand (CAT), KSC was the first commercial Internet service provider (ISP) in Thailand.|
|CS Loxinfo||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line, Fiber, MPLS||Up to 1Gbit/s||Part of InTouch Group. Corporate-customer focused with SME broadband options. Services cover Bangkok and provincial areas. Bangkok downtown area customers are also offered high-speed CSL-Symphony Gigabit Ring access options.|
|KIRZ||IPLC, Leased Line, Metro Ethernet, FTTx||10Mbit/s,100Mbit/s,1Gbit/s,10Gbit/s||KIRZ offer a variety of services to customers through our data centers and over our fiber-optic networks, including video, high-speed internet, advanced voice and KIRZ Secure digital protection solutions. Working with trusted partners, KIRZ Business Edge offers communications solutions to small, medium, and large businesses.|
|TT&T||ADSL||TT&T no longer operates as an ISP due to the company's recent restructuring and debt rehabilitation plan. All of the previous TT&T and Maxnet Internet customers were transferred to 3BB.|
|Buddy Broadband||ADSL||Operated by Advance Datanetwork Communications (ADC), part of Shin Corporation telecommunications conglomerate. Buddy Broadband (commonly known as BuddyBB) is offering Internet access only through ADSL technology. Unlike other ISPs, BuddyBB has integrated its Internet service with IPTV service. The other difference is that BuddyBB has only the connection speed of 2 Mbit/s but with only 256 kbit/s for international connections for its cheapest package. Higher-end packages have higher international connection speeds. Full BuddyBB service with IPTV is only available in Bangkok and nearby provinces, however, it also operate its ADSL Internet service in major cities such as Chiang Mai and Phuket with different packages and pricing through resellers. As of January 2012, they offer speeds up to 8 Mbit/s in Bangkok and Chiang Mai.|
|Internet Thailand||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line||First commercial ISP in Thailand|
|Pacnet||Dial-up, ADSL, G.shdsl/SDSL, Leased Line, Ethernet||Focuses on corporate customers|
|Jasmine Internet||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line||Not to be confused with Jasmine International|
|ISSP||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line|
|Samart||Dial-up, ADSL, G.shdsl/SDSL, Leased Line|
|A-Net||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line|
|Otaro/InterNetwork||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line|
|Proen Internet||Dial-up, ADSL, Leased Line|
|Far East Internet|
|Thai-Fi||G.shdsl/SDSL, Leased Line, Cable||4 Mbit/s, 5 Mbit/s, 8 Mbit/s, 10 Mbit/s, 12 Mbit/s, 16Mbit/s ||Thai-Fi is the registered trademark of JCMR Co., Ltd., a Thai company founded in 2003 by US and Thai citizens which provides wireless network design, installation, configuration, security, and maintenance to apartment, condominium, and office buildings, offices, hotels, caf้es, restaurants, individual residences and businesses using 802.11 technology.|
|TCC Technology||Fiber,MPLS,Leased Line|
|ISP Name||Technology||Speed||Additional Information|
|Advance Info Service (AIS)||UMTS/HSDPA/HSPA/HSPA+ 3.9G, 4G LTE/ LTE-A||Up to 42 Mbit/s, 4G Up to 400 Mbit/s||HSPA+ is currently operated on the 2100 MHz band. AIS Won 4G 1800 MHz 4G LTE is currently operated on the 1800 MHz, LTE Advance Run On 1800 MHz/2100 MHz/900 MHz|
|CAT Telecom||3G UMTS/HSDPA/HSPA/HSPA+ 3.9G||Up to 42 Mbit/s||Coverage is 77 provinces on the 850 MHz band.|
|DTAC||GPRS, EDGE, UMTS/HSDPA/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE 3.9G 4G||Up to 42 Mbit/s, 4G Up to 126 Mbit/s||Mobile Internet services recently underwent heavy rebranding as 'DTAC Internet'. UMTS/HSDPA 3.9G is available nationwide on the 850 MHz and 2100 MHz band. Currently, LTE is available in Bangkok metropolitan area utilizing 1800 MHz / 2100 MHz band.|
|i-Kool 3G||HSDPA 3.5G||Up to 7.2 Mbit/s||UMTS/HSDPA 3.5G coverage is Bangkok and vicinity on the 2100 MHz band. Currently offering 3G services on TOT 3G's network. The network is run and operated by Loxley.|
|Mojo 3G||HSDPA 3.5G||Up to 7.2 Mbit/s||UMTS/HSDPA 3.5G coverage is Bangkok and vicinity on the 2100 MHz band. Currently offering 3G services on TOT 3G's network. The network is run and operated by Mconzult.|
|TOT||UMTS/HSDPA/HSPA/HSPA+ 3.9G, Wi-Fi||Up to 42 Mbit/s||UMTS/HSDPA 3.9G coverage is Bangkok and vicinity on the 2100 MHz band|
|TrueMove||GPRS, EDGE||Up to 256 kbit/s||True has the largest coverage of over 15,000 Wi-Fi hotspots in Bangkok. This boost has been coupled with the Bangkok Green Wifi project, covering many outdoor areas on main roads.|
|RealMove/Truemove H Universal Communication (TrueMove-H)||UMTS/HSDPA/HSPA/HSPA+ 3.9G 4G LTE/ LTE-A, Wi-Fi||Up to 42 Mbit/s, LTE Up to 150 Mbit/s, LTE Advance Up to 225 Mbit/s.||True is the first 4G mobile operator in Thailand Truemove H Won 900 MHz and 1800 MHz 4G LTE is currently operated on the 2100 MHz 4G 900 MHz and 1800 MHz is planned|
|168 3G||3G UMTS/HSDPA/HSPA/HSPA+ 3.9G||Up to 42 Mbit/s||UMTS/HSDPA 3.5G coverage is 77 provinces on the 850 MHz band. Currently offering 3G services on CAT 3G's network.|
Note: For 3G, Only CAT, Hutch, TOT and its MVNOs are considered as legally commercial service. In 2012, The National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) held an auction and approved 2100 MHz licenses to 3 operators (Advanced Wireless Network of Advanced Info Service (AIS), DTAC Network of Total Access Communication (DTAC), and Real Future of True Corp) and 3G service under 2100 MHz is expected to operate by Q2 of 2013.
Internet Data Centers (IDC)
This section lists the commercial Internet data centers in Thailand.
|CAT Internet Data Center (Bangkok)||CAT Telecom Tower, Charoen Krung Road||Bangkok|
|CAT Internet Data Center (Chiang Mai)||CAT Customer Service Center||Chiang Mai|
|CAT Internet Data Center (Khon Kaen)||CAT Customer Service Center||Khon Kaen|
|CAT Internet Data Center (Phuket)||CAT Customer Service Center||Phuket|
|CSLoxinfo Internet Data Center||CAT Telecom Tower, Charoen Krung Road||Bangkok|
|CSLoxinfo Internet Data Center||Cyber World Tower (4th floor), Ratchadaphisek Road (MRT : Cultural Center)||Bangkok|
|CSLoxinfo Internet Data Center||The Cloud Building, Ratchada-Ramindhra Road (Ready for service : May 2014)||Bangkok|
|Internet Thailand Public Company Limited||Thai Summit Tower (10th floor) on New Petchaburi Road||Bangkok|
|ISSP Internet Data Center||CAT Telecom Tower, Charoen Krung Road||Bangkok|
|ISPIO (NIPA) Internet Data Center||CAT Telecom Tower (4th floor)||Bangkok|
|KIRZ Data Center||Queen Sirikit National Convention Center||Bangkok|
|Nettree Internet Data Center||CAT Telecom Tower (4th floor), Charoen Krung Road||Bangkok|
|Pacnet Data Center||CAT Telecom Tower (20th floor), Charoen Krung Road||Bangkok|
|SiamIDC||CAT Telecom Tower (4th floor)||Bangkok|
|TCC Technology Internet Data Center (Amata Nakorn)||Amata Service Center, Bangna-Trad Road||Chonburi|
|TCC Technology Internet Data Center (Bangna)||TCIF Tower, Bangna-Trad Road||Bangkok|
|TCC Technology Internet Data Center (Empire Tower)||Empire Tower, Sathorn Road||Bangkok|
|TOT Internet Data Center (Chaengwattana)||TOT headquarter, Chaengwattana Road||Bangkok|
|TOT Internet Data Center (Krung Kasem)||TOT Central Office, Krung Kasem Road||Bangkok|
|TOT Internet Data Center (Laem Chabang)||TOT Central Office||Chonburi|
|TOT Internet Data Center (Hat Yai)||TOT Central Office||Songkhla|
|True Internet Data Center (True Tower)||True Tower, Ratchadaphisek Road||Bangkok|
|True Internet Data Center (MTG)||Muang Thong Thani||Pathum Thani|
|Win Internetwork (By Proen Internet)/OTARO Gigabit Data Center||CAT Telecom Tower (4th floor)||Bangkok|
Thailand is on Reporters Without Borders list of countries under surveillance in 2011. Thailand's Internet Freedom status is rated "Not Free" in the Freedom on the Net 2011 report by Freedom House, which cites substantial political censorship and the arrests of bloggers and other online users.
Single Internet gateway
The cabinet under Gen Prayut Chan-o-cha, the junta leader and prime minister, on 30 June 2015 gave a green light to Thailand's Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT) and relevant agencies to move forward with plans to implement a Thai single gateway internet before the end of the 2015 fiscal budget. The plan to reduce internet gateways was initially proposed by Pol Gen Somyot Poompanmoung, the chief of the Royal Thai Police, as a single gateway system makes it easier for state authorities to monitor, filter, delete, and intercept information on the internet that the authorities deem inappropriate. Currently (2015), there are about 10 international internet gateway operators in Thailand. The MICT has been ordered to report the progress on the plan to the cabinet before the end of September 2015.
Critics point out that from a "...systems point of view, having a single gateway and a single point of failure is a bad idea." They go on to say that, "The people of Thailand can kiss a fast internet goodbye purely from technical incompetence, not to mention all the monitoring, censoring and deep packet inspection the military want. Would VPN and encryption be outlawed? That would be a logical next step."
On 30 September 2015, Thai netizens expressed their opposition to the single gateway plan by launching DDoS attacks against government websites, thereby bringing the websites down for hours. Those who joined the attacks referred to their action as a civil disobedience. But they were threatened with years in jail by Thai police. Hundreds of thousands of people have also signed a petition against the single gateway plan. Despite heavy opposition, Thai authorities said they still push ahead with the plan.
According to the NGO Privacy International in a September 2016 report, "The Thai military government has counted on its police force to monitor online speech in order to curb dissent. But beyond the police force itself, the ruling military government has empowered networks of citizens whom it encourages to denounce those who post online content considered contrary to government policies." Following the May 2014 coup led by General Prayut, there was a sharp increase in online surveillance carried out by the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), the ruling junta. An updated Computer Crime Act in 2014 gave police broad powers to monitor online commentary, particularly social networking applications such as Facebook. In the two years since the coup, 527 people have been arrested, 167 tried in military court, and 68 charged with lèse majesté. Conviction on a charge of lèse majesté can carry a jail sentence of up to 15 years. Of the 68 cases in which people have been charged, 21 involved content posted on Facebook.
The "Cyber Scout" program was originally established in 2010 by the Thai Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT)—since renamed the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society. The program became moribund shortly thereafter, but was revived by the NCPO following their coup d'etat. The aim of the Cyber Scouts is to encourage the "ethical and responsible use of information and communication technology" among youngsters and to create a network of young volunteers to monitor online content that could be deemed a threat to national security and the monarchy.
In December 2016, the junta-appointed Thai National Legislative Assembly (NLA) passed an amendment to the 2007 Computer Crime Act that has been called, "...a grab bag of the worst provisions of the worst internet laws in the world, bits of the UK's Snooper's Charter, America's Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, and the dregs of many other failed laws." Thai officials claim the changes protect people's rights from being violated on social and digital media while enhancing the digital economy. In a Bangkok Post editorial urging that the NLA reject the amendment, it noted that, "When the government first set out to revise the Computer Crime Act last year, it pledged that the change will not violate people's rights and freedoms. The resulting draft amendment shows anything but an attempt to maintain the promise. The NLA must vote it down." It passed unanimously.
This article uses citations without providing full publisher and source details. (May 2017)
- Thailand: Rapid Growth in Broadband Use Archived 2007-12-18 at the Wayback Machine.
- CIA World Factbook: Internet Hosts
- Maierbrugger, Arno (25 June 2013). "Thais prefer internet over telly, study says". Inside Investor. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- NECTEC IIR Current Internet Map
- NECTEC IIR Current Internet Map
- ISP List by CAT Telecom
- Internet Enemies, Reporters Without Borders, Paris, March 2011
- "Country Report: Thailand" Archived 2011-12-18 at the Wayback Machine., Freedom on the Net 2011, Freedom House, 18 April 2011
- "Thailand's Massive Internet Censorship", Pavin Chachavalpongpun, Asia Sentinel, 22 July 2010
- Chongkittavorn, Kavi (2015-10-12). "Thailand's single gateway is an abyss". The Nation. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- Editor2 (2015-09-23). "Thai authorities to step up surveillance via 'single internet gateway'". Pratchathai English. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Sombandaraksa, Don (2015-09-23). "General Happiness orders Great Firewall of Thailand". telecomasia.net. Questex Media. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Angry Thai Internet users 'bring down ICT website'". The Nation. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
- "Police threaten hackers of government websites with 5 years in jail | Prachatai English". prachatai.org. Retrieved 2015-10-01.
- "Thai government websites hit by denial-of-service attack - BBC News". Retrieved 2015-10-01.
- Sullivan, Boris. "Single Internet gateway project sparks Thai Netizens Uproar". Retrieved 2015-10-01.
- "Thai authorities still push ahead with single gateway internet plan | Prachatai English". prachatai.org. Retrieved 2015-10-01.
- Blum-Dumontet, Eva (20 September 2016). Friends, Followers, Police Officers, and Enemies: Social Surveillance in Thailand. London: Privacy International. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Gilbert, David (20 September 2016). "Thailand's government is using child 'Cyber Scouts' to monitor dissent". Vice News. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "CYBER SCOUT". C C D K M. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "About Us". Cyber Scout Thailand. Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "An unofficial translation of the Computer Crime Act". Prachatai English. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- Doctorow, Cory (21 December 2016). "Thailand's military-appointed Assembly unanimously passes an internet law combining the world's worst laws". Boing Boing. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- Corben, Ron (20 December 2016). "Amended Computer Crime Laws Spark Protests in Thailand". VOA News. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "Computer bill deeply flawed" (Editorial). Bangkok Post. 16 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "Thai junta passes controversial cyber-crime law". Phys.org. 16 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.