Interneuron

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Interneuron
Anatomy and physiology of animals A reflex arc.jpg
A spinal interneuron (relay neuron) forms part of a reflex arc
Details
Location Nervous system
Identifiers
MeSH A08.663.358
Code TH H2.00.06.1.00058
NeuroLex ID Intrinsic neuron role
Dorlands
/Elsevier
i_10/12455676
Anatomical terminology

An interneuron (also called relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron or local circuit neuron) is one of the three classifications of neurons found in the human body. Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS). They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations,[1] and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons, and relay interneurons.[2] Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information.[3] Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions.[3] The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision making.

Interneurons in the Central Nervous System[edit]

When contrasted with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the neurons of the CNS, including the brain, are all interneurons. Interneurons in the CNS are primarily inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine. However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine.

In 2008, a nomenclature for the features of GABAergic cortical interneurons was proposed, called Petilla terminology.[4]

Interneurons of the spinal cord[edit]

Interneurons of the cortex[edit]

  • Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons
  • CCK-expressing interneurons
  • VIP-expressing interneurons
  • SOM-expressing interneurons

Interneurons of the cerebellum[edit]

Interneurons of the striatum[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whittington, M.A; Traub, R.D; Kopell, N; Ermentrout, B; Buhl, E.H (2000). "Inhibition-based rhythms: Experimental and mathematical observations on network dynamics". International Journal of Psychophysiology 38 (3): 315–36. doi:10.1016/S0167-8760(00)00173-2. PMID 11102670. 
  2. ^ Carlson, Neil R. (2013). Physiology of Behavior (11th ed.). Pearson Higher Education. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-205-23939-9. 
  3. ^ a b Kandel, Eric; Schwartz, James; Jessell, Thomas, eds. (2000). Principles of Neural Science (4th ed.). New York City, New York: McGraw Hill Companies. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8385-7701-1. 
  4. ^ Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Alonso-Nanclares, Lidia; Anderson, Stewart A.; Barrionuevo, German; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Burkhalter, Andreas; Buzsáki, György; Cauli, Bruno; Defelipe, Javier; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fregnac, Yves; Freund, Tamas F.; Gardner, Daniel; Gardner, Esther P.; Goldberg, Jesse H.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; Hestrin, Shaul; Karube, Fuyuki; Kisvárday, Zoltán F.; Lambolez, Bertrand; Lewis, David A.; Marin, Oscar; Markram, Henry; Muñoz, Alberto; Packer, Adam; Petersen, Carl C. H.; Rockland, Kathleen S. et al. (2008). "Petilla terminology: Nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex". Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9 (7): 557–68. doi:10.1038/nrn2402. PMC 2868386. PMID 18568015. 
  5. ^ Tepper, James M.; Koós, Tibor (1999). "Inhibitory control of neostriatal projection neurons by GABAergic interneurons". Nature Neuroscience 2 (5): 467–72. doi:10.1038/8138. PMID 10321252. 
  6. ^ Zhou, Fu-Ming; Wilson, Charles J.; Dani, John A. (2002). "Cholinergic interneuron characteristics and nicotinic properties in the striatum". Journal of Neurobiology 53 (4): 590–605. doi:10.1002/neu.10150. PMID 12436423. 
  7. ^ English, Daniel F; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Stark, Eran; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Buzsáki, György; Deisseroth, Karl; Tepper, James M; Koos, Tibor (2011). "GABAergic circuits mediate the reinforcement-related signals of striatal cholinergic interneurons". Nature Neuroscience 15 (1): 123–30. doi:10.1038/nn.2984. PMC 3245803. PMID 22158514. 
  8. ^ Ibanez-Sandoval, O.; Tecuapetla, F.; Unal, B.; Shah, F.; Koos, T.; Tepper, J. M. (2010). "Electrophysiological and Morphological Characteristics and Synaptic Connectivity of Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Expressing Neurons in Adult Mouse Striatum". Journal of Neuroscience 30 (20): 6999–7016. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5996-09.2010. PMID 20484642. 
  9. ^ a b Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Tepper, James M. (2010). "Heterogeneity and Diversity of Striatal GABAergic Interneurons". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 4. doi:10.3389/fnana.2010.00150.