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Interstate 405 (California)

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Interstate 405 marker

Interstate 405

San Diego Freeway
I-405 highlighted in red
Route information
Auxiliary route of I-5
Maintained by Caltrans
Length72.15 mi[1] (116.11 km)
NHSEntire route
Major junctions
South end I-5 in Irvine
Major intersections
North end I-5 in Sylmar
CountryUnited States
CountiesOrange, Los Angeles
Highway system
US 399 US 466

Interstate 405 (I-405, locally referred to as The 405[2]) is a major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in Southern California. The entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway. I-405 is a bypass auxiliary route of I-5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to Sylmar in the north.

I-405, heavily traveled by both commuters and freight haulers along its entire length, is the busiest and most congested freeway in the United States.[3][4] The freeway's annual average daily traffic between exits 21 and 22 in Seal Beach reached 374,000 in 2008, making it the highest count in the nation.[5] It has played a crucial role in the development of dozens of cities and suburbs along its route through Los Angeles and Orange counties. It also serves Los Angeles International Airport, Long Beach Airport, and Orange County's John Wayne Airport.

Route description[edit]

Orange County[edit]

The Bristol exit near South Coast Plaza and the Segerstrom Center for the Arts, with Saddleback in the background

I-405 begins at the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine in Orange County, splitting from its parent I-5 and inheriting that route's San Diego Freeway title; I-5 continues north as the Santa Ana Freeway. The freeway passes immediately south of the Irvine Spectrum Center mall before intersecting with State Route 133 (SR 133). It then continues through Irvine, passing north of the University of California, Irvine, and then along the northern boundary of John Wayne Airport. After passing the airport, the freeway enters Costa Mesa and has an interchange with SR 55. It passes South Coast Plaza before a partial interchange with SR 73, which serves as a partially-tolled bypass of I-405 between Costa Mesa and Laguna Niguel.

The freeway then travels through Fountain Valley and along the edges of Westminster and Huntington Beach before entering Seal Beach, where it begins to run concurrently with SR 22. It continues along the northern edge of Seal Beach, passing between Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach and Joint Forces Training Base - Los Alamitos, before SR 22 splits from I-405 and continues west while the freeway turns north. I-405 then intersects the southern end of I-605 before crossing the San Gabriel River and entering Los Angeles County.

Los Angeles County[edit]

I-405 enters Los Angeles County in the city of Long Beach. It passes to the north of California State University, Long Beach, and then along the south of Long Beach Airport. The freeway then intersects with I-710 before entering Carson (and crossing through a small sliver of the city of Los Angeles before reentering Carson). It passes near California State University, Dominguez Hills, and Dignity Health Sports Park, home of Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy. A weigh station for both directions is located in Carson between the Avalon Boulevard and Main Street exits.

The I-405 freeway as seen from a plane landing at Los Angeles International Airport

The freeway then intersects with I-110 as it briefly reenters the city of Los Angeles by passing through the Harbor Gateway, a strip of land connecting San Pedro to the rest of the city. I-405 then continues to roughly parallel the contour of the coastline as it passes through the South Bay communities of Torrance, Lawndale, Redondo Beach, Hawthorne, and El Segundo. The freeway then encounters I-105 on the southeastern corner of Los Angeles International Airport. It passes to the east of the airport, serving it with exits at the Imperial Highway and Century Boulevard.

I-405 next passes through Inglewood, coming near SoFi Stadium, home to the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League. It then passes through Westchester and Culver City where it meets SR 90, the Marina Freeway. It serves the Los Angeles neighborhoods of Mar Vista and West Los Angeles while passing a few miles east of Santa Monica, intersecting with I-10 in the process. The freeway continues into Westwood, passing just to the west of University of California, Los Angeles. It then passes the Getty Center as it ascends Sepulveda Pass through the Santa Monica Mountains.

I-405 near the interchange with the Ventura Freeway (US 101)

After cresting the mountains, I-405 descends into the San Fernando Valley, intersecting US Route 101 (US 101) in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles. The freeway then continues due north through the western part of the valley, passing east of Van Nuys Airport and California State University, Northridge. It intersects SR 118 in the Mission Hills area before ending in a merge with I-5 in Sylmar.

I-405 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System[6] and is part of the National Highway System,[7] a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.[8] The entire freeway is known as the San Diego Freeway, and parts of it are less commonly known as the Sepulveda Freeway (after Sepulveda Boulevard).[9]

The view from the Getty Center, south of the Sepulveda Pass, looking east, south, and west. I-405 can be seen at the center.

Express lanes[edit]

High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes along I-405 between SR 73 in Costa Mesa and the OrangeLos Angeles county line opened on December 1, 2023. This was part of the I-405 Improvement Project that started construction in March 2018. The project included converting the existing high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, with them closing in November to test the tolling equipment. In addition, two lanes in each direction were added in each direction, one toll lane and one general purpose lane, making the upgrade from five to seven lanes in each direction.[10][11][12]

As of December 2023, the HOT lanes are a 24/7 service. Solo drivers are tolled using a congestion pricing system based on the real-time levels of traffic. For two-person carpools, they would be charged the posted toll during weekday peak hours between 6:00 am and 10:00 am and between 3:00 pm and 8:00 pm and weekend peak hours between 1:00 pm and 6:00 pm; no toll would charged during off-peak hours until 3+12 years after their opening. Carpools with three or more occupants are not charged. All tolls are collected using an open road tolling system, and therefore there are no toll booths to receive cash. Each vehicle using the HOT lanes is required to carry a FasTrak Flex transponder, with its switch set to indicate the number of the vehicle's occupants (1, 2, or 3 or more). Solo drivers may also use the FasTrak standard tag without the switch. Drivers without any FasTrak tag will be assessed a toll violation regardless of whether they qualified for free.[13]

Traffic congestion[edit]

I-405 in Sepulveda Pass

The freeway is one of the busiest freeways in the nation and is the busiest freeway in California.[10] The freeway's congestion problems have led to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at "four or five" miles per hour (6.4 or 8.0 km/h), or because drivers had spent "four or five" hours to travel anywhere. Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 mph (8.0 km/h) are routinely recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, and its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway (US 101) and with the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) each consistently rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the US.[citation needed] As a result of these congestion problems, delays passing through the entirety of Greater Los Angeles using this bypass route instead of merely using the primary route I-5 through Downtown Los Angeles may be present.

I-405 is the only major north–south freeway in the densely populated areas between West Los Angeles and Downtown Los Angeles, crossing the Santa Monica Mountains and connecting the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin. It is also a major connection for traffic en route to either the Port of Los Angeles, the Port of Long Beach, Los Angeles International Airport, or SoFi Stadium. By 2040, this corridor is estimated to increase by 35 percent and travel times reduced by 75 percent.[10][dubiousdiscuss] The freeway's West Los Angeles section is the subject of annual gridlock photos and videos taken during the Thanksgiving holiday weekend, most often from an aerial view.[14]

Another parallel freeway was proposed to connect the valley and basin (the Laurel Canyon Freeway or La Cienega Freeway) but has faced upper-class and NIMBY homeowner opposition.[15] Despite four years of construction disruptions and billions of dollars of public money, Los Angeles Times commentary claims traffic with the lane expansions is actually just as bad or worse.[16]

Unlike some of the other major travel corridors in the region (such as I-5 which parallels the LOSSAN Corridor), I-405 has no rail-based public transit which parallels it along the west side of Orange and Los Angeles counties. There is a proposal for a Sepulveda Transit Corridor which would parallel I-405 through Sepulveda Pass, one of the major bottlenecks on the route, which would ease congestion by providing an alternative to driving.


State Route 7 marker

State Route 7

LocationPalos Verdes PeninsulaNew Pine Creek
1955 map of the planned Interstates in the Los Angeles area; present-day I-405 roughly corresponds to the 1955 proposed route through the western regions of the area.
Civil engineers Marilyn Jorgenson Reece (left) and Carol Schumaker, at the Reece-designed I-10/I-405 interchange, 1964

I-405 was approved as a chargeable Interstate (in other words, an Interstate financed with federal funds) in 1955. The Division of Highways originally requested I-9 for the corridor, while the Santa Ana Freeway would be I-11;[17] I-3 was later requested in April 1958 before the Division of Highways agreed to use I-405.[18][19] Construction began in 1957 with the first section,[citation needed] mostly north of Los Angeles International Airport, which was completed in 1961 and initially signed as SR 7.[citation needed] The 5.7-mile (9.2 km) section through Sepulveda Pass was dedicated on December 21, 1962, and cost $20 million to construct. It was designed with a maximum grade of 5.5 percent and required the relocation of Sepulveda Boulevard and the Mulholland Highway, which was moved 1.1 miles (1.8 km) to the south along a new 579-foot-long (176 m) bridge over the freeway.[20][21] Additional sections west of Alameda Street were completed in 1962 and 1963, creating 41.8 miles (67.3 km) of continuous freeway.[22]

The highway was renumbered to I-405 during the 1964 state highway renumbering.[citation needed] The Orange County portion of the San Diego Freeway took 13 years to construct, with the first section opening in 1958;[23] The final section of I-405, 8 miles (13 km) leading to I-5 in Irvine, was dedicated on December 6, 1968, and opened to traffic in January 1969.[23][24]


A section of I-405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011, as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project.[25] Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as "Carmageddon" and "Carpocalypse", parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would severely impact traffic.[26][27] In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, and those who did travel by road arrived more quickly than on a normal weekend.[28] The Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991. Ridership was 50 percent higher than the same weekend in 2010 and 10 percent higher than the previous weekend ridership record, which occurred during the U2 360° Tour in June 2011.[29] The Los Angeles Times on Sunday, July 17, 2011, featured comments and images of people enjoying the moment next to the I-405 freeway with the free-flowing traffic.[30]

In response to JetBlue's offer of special flights between Hollywood Burbank Airport in Burbank and Long Beach Airport, a distance of only 29 miles (47 km), for $4.00,[31][32] a group of cyclists did the same journey in one and a half hours, compared to two and a half hours by plane (including a drive to the airport from West Hollywood 90 minutes in advance of the flight and travel time to the end destination).[33] There was also some debate about whether the Los Angeles area could benefit from car-free weekends regularly.[28]

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority then had full closure of a 10-mile (16 km) stretch of I-405 on the weekend of September 29–30, 2012, while construction crews worked to demolish a portion of the Mulholland Bridge.[34]

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, used the closure of I-405 to study particulate matter air pollution. The researchers took air samples before, during, and after the closure. The researchers found an 83-percent reduction in ultrafine particles, 55-percent reduction in fine particle matter, and 62-percent less black carbon.[35]

Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project[edit]

The $1-billion Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project added a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane and associated changes to freeway entrances, exits, and underpasses along a 10-mile (16 km) stretch through Sepulveda Pass between I-10 and US 101/Ventura Boulevard.[36] The project was completed as a design–build in contrast to the traditional design–bid–build used typically in infrastructure improvement. This section of I-405 was closed for a weekend in mid-July 2011 to demolish the Mulholland Drive Bridge, and a 10-mile (16 km) section was closed for the last weekend of September 2012.[25]

Jamzilla was the name for the I-405 closure on Presidents' Day weekend 2014. There were lane closures and complete closures on I-405 starting February 14 at 10:00 pm until February 18 at 6:00 am to pave and restripe the northbound lanes.[37]

On May 23, 2014, the 10-mile (16 km) HOV lane was opened to traffic.[38]


Aerial view from the north of I-405's interchange with I-105 near Los Angeles International Airport from directly above Arbor Vitae Street; the hills of the Palos Verdes Peninsula are visible in the distance

Manchester and Century Boulevard interchanges[edit]

Proposed changes between the Manchester and Century Boulevard interchanges in the city of Inglewood are to provide a new southbound onramp and a new northbound offramp for Arbor Vitae Street, to reconstruct and widened the Arbor Vitae Street over-bridge and replace the Century Boulevard overcrossing structure.[39] This work would reduce congestion on the approach to Los Angeles International Airport.[citation needed][dubiousdiscuss] Caltrans has not yet issued a start date for this work.

Sepulveda Pass express lanes[edit]

The HOVs lane that were constructed as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project are proposed to be upgraded to express lanes by 2028.[40]

Exit list[edit]

I-5 south (San Diego Freeway south) – San Diego
Southern terminus; El Toro Y; no access to I-5 north; I-5 exit 94A; San Diego Freeway continues as I-5 south; former US 101 south
0.721.161ALake Forest DriveNo northbound exit
1BBake ParkwayNo northbound exit
1CIrvine Center DriveSigned as exit 1 northbound

I-5 south
HOV access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
1.572.532 SR 133 (Laguna Freeway) to toll road – Laguna BeachNo northbound exit to SR 133 north; SR 133 exit 8
2.654.263Shady Canyon Drive / Sand Canyon Avenue
3.725.994Jeffrey Road / University Drive
5.398.675Culver Drive
6.6910.777Jamboree Road
7.5712.188 MacArthur Boulevard – John Wayne Airport
Costa Mesa8.5113.709A SR 55 (Costa Mesa Freeway)SR 55 north exit 6, south exits 6A-B; southbound access to SR 55 south is via exit 10

SR 55 north
HOV access only
9.2814.939BAnton Boulevard / Avenue of the Arts / Bristol StreetNorthbound signage
Bristol StreetSouthbound signage
405 Express LanesSouth end of express lanes; opened in December 2023[11][12]

SR 73 south (Corona del Mar Freeway) to SR 55 south (Costa Mesa Freeway) – San Diego via toll road
Southbound exit and northbound entrance

SR 73 south
Express Lanes access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance[11]
11South Coast Drive / Fairview Road / Susan Street / Harbor BoulevardNorthbound exit only
10.5917.0411AFairview RoadSigned as part of exit 11 northbound
11BHarbor BoulevardSigned as part of exit 11 northbound
Fountain Valley12.2419.7012Euclid Street / Newhope Street / Ellis AvenueEllis Avenue not signed northbound; Newhope Street not signed southbound
13.5521.8114Brookhurst Street
14.5923.4815AWarner Avenue westNorthbound signage
Warner Avenue eastSouthbound signage
Fountain ValleyHuntington Beach
Westminster tripoint
14.9824.1115BMagnolia StreetNorthbound signage
Magnolia Street / Warner Avenue westSouthbound signage
Huntington BeachWestminster line16.3126.2516 SR 39 (Beach Boulevard) – Westminster, Huntington Beach
Westminster17.5228.2018Bolsa Avenue / Goldenwest Street
18.9330.4619Westminster Boulevard / Springdale StreetSpringdale Street not signed northbound
20.3332.7220Bolsa Chica RoadSouthbound exit and entrance only
WestminsterGarden Grove line20.5233.0221
SR 22 east (Garden Grove Freeway) / Valley View Street – Garden Grove
Southern end of SR 22 concurrency; southbound exit includes Garden Grove Boulevard and Valley View Street

SR 22 east
Express Lanes access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
Seal Beach22.4136.0722Seal Beach Boulevard / Los Alamitos BoulevardLos Alamitos Boulevard was former SR 35
SR 22 west – Long Beach
Northern end of SR 22 concurrency; northbound exit and southbound entrance; I-605 south exit 1A

I-605 north
Express Lanes access only; northbound exit and southbound entrance
SR 22 west (7th Street) – Long Beach
Southbound exit and northbound entrance; SR 22 east exit 2; I-605 south exit 1A
OrangeLos Angeles
county line
Seal BeachLong Beach
Los Alamitos tripoint
I-605 north (San Gabriel River Freeway)
Signed as exit 24 northbound; I-605 north exit 1A, south exits 1B-C; SR 22 exit 2
Seal BeachLong Beach line23.9538.54San Gabriel River
405 Express LanesNorth end of express lanes; opened in December 2023[11]
Los AngelesLong Beach24.4039.2724BStudebaker RoadSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
25.0640.3325Palo Verde Avenue
25.5941.1826AWoodruff AvenueNo southbound exit
26.1342.0526BBellflower BoulevardSigned as exit 26 southbound
27.2743.8927 SR 19 (Lakewood Boulevard) – Long Beach Airport
28.8346.4029Spring Street / Cherry Avenue – Signal HillSigned as exits 29A (south) and 29B (north)
Signal Hill29.3747.2729COrange Avenue
Signal HillLong Beach line29.8548.0430AAtlantic Avenue
Long Beach30.1148.4630BLong Beach BoulevardFormer SR 15
31.3750.4932APacific AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
31.8351.2332 I-710 (Long Beach Freeway) – Long Beach, PasadenaSigned as exits 32A (north) and 32B (south) northbound, and 32B (south) and 32C (north) southbound; I-710 exit 4
31.8751.2932CHughes Way / Santa Fe AvenueSigned as exit 32D southbound; Hughes Way not signed southbound
Carson32.5552.3833AAlameda Street (SR 47 south)
33.3353.6433BWilmington Avenue
34.3155.2234Carson Street
35.0056.3335Avalon BoulevardNorthbound exit to Avalon Boulevard south is via exit 34
36.3758.5336Main StreetNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
36.7459.1337A I-110 (Harbor Freeway) – San Pedro, Los AngelesSigned as exit 37 northbound; former US 6; I-110 exit 9
Los Angeles37.0159.5637BVermont AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
37.6060.5138ANormandie Avenue – Gardena
Los AngelesTorrance line38.1961.4638BWestern Avenue
Torrance39.2263.1239Crenshaw Boulevard
Artesia Boulevard to SR 91
Signed as exit 40A southbound; former SR 91
Lawndale40.6565.4240BRedondo Beach Boulevard – Redondo BeachSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
41.3666.5642A SR 107 (Hawthorne Boulevard) – Lawndale
LawndaleRedondo Beach line42.0167.6142BInglewood Avenue
Hawthorne42.9869.1743Rosecrans Avenue – Manhattan BeachSigned as exits 43A (east) and 43B (west) southbound
43.9970.8044El Segundo Boulevard – El Segundo
Lennox44.9572.3445A I-105 (Century Freeway) – El Segundo, NorwalkSigned as exit 45 southbound; serves Los Angeles International Airport; I-105 east exit 2, west exit 2B
44.9572.3445BImperial HighwaySouthbound exit is part of exit 46
Inglewood46.0074.0346 Century Boulevard – LAX Airport
47.1375.8547Manchester Boulevard / La Cienega Boulevard / Florence AvenueManchester Boulevard was former SR 42
Los Angeles48.0577.3348La Tijera Boulevard
48.3377.7849AHoward Hughes Parkway / Sepulveda BoulevardSigned as exit 49 southbound
Culver City49.2379.2349BSepulveda Boulevard / Slauson Avenue (SR 90 east)Northbound exit only; SR 90 exit 2
Culver CityLos Angeles line49.7079.9850AJefferson BoulevardSigned as exit 50B northbound
50B SR 90 (Marina Freeway) / Slauson Avenue – Marina del ReySigned as exit 50A northbound; no access from I-405 north to SR 90 east; SR 90 exit 2
Culver City50.9782.0351Culver Boulevard / Washington Boulevard
51.2282.4352Venice Boulevard (SR 187) / Washington Boulevard
Los Angeles52.9485.2053ANational BoulevardNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
53.3185.7953B I-10 (Santa Monica Freeway) – Santa Monica, Los AngelesSigned as exit 53 southbound; I-10 exits 3A-B
53.9686.8454Olympic Boulevard / Pico BoulevardSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; former SR 26
54.6387.9255A SR 2 (Santa Monica Boulevard)Former US 66
55BWilshire BoulevardSigned as exits 55B (east) and 55C (west) southbound
Los Angeles56.2790.5656Montana AvenueNorthbound exit only; demolished[45]
56.7791.3657ASunset BoulevardSigned as exit 57 southbound
57.0691.8357BMoraga DriveNorthbound exit and entrance
58.5494.2159Getty Center Drive
60.8097.8561Mulholland Drive / Skirball Center Drive
Sepulveda Pass, elevation 1,129 feet (344 m)[46]
62.78101.0363AVentura Boulevard / Sepulveda Boulevard / Valley Vista Boulevard
63.20101.7163B US 101 (Ventura Freeway) – Ventura, Los AngelesUS 101 exit 19A
64.06103.0964Burbank Boulevard
65.13104.8265Victory Boulevard – Van Nuys
66Sherman Way – Van Nuys AirportSigned as exits 66A (east) and 66B (west) northbound
67.53108.6868Roscoe Boulevard – Panorama City
68.51110.2669Nordhoff Street
70.03112.7070Devonshire Street – Granada Hills
70.62113.6571A SR 118 (Ronald Reagan Freeway) – Simi ValleySigned as exit 71 southbound; no southbound exit to SR 118 east or northbound entrance from SR 118 west; SR 118 east exit 42A, west exit 42B
71.01114.2871BSan Fernando Mission BoulevardNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
71.53115.1272Rinaldi Street – Mission Hills
I-5 north (Golden State Freeway) – Sacramento
Northern terminus; no access to I-5 south; I-5 exit 158
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also[edit]


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  3. ^ "U.S. Highways With the Most Traffic". Time For Kids. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011.
  4. ^ Santa Monica College Corsair News Article Archived August 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Office of Highway Policy Information (July 27, 2010). "Most Traveled Urban Highways Average Annual Daily Traffic". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved January 26, 2013. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  6. ^ "Article 2 of Chapter 2 of Division 1". California Streets and Highways Code. Sacramento: California Office of Legislative Counsel. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  7. ^ Federal Highway Administration (March 25, 2015). National Highway System: Los Angeles, CA (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
  8. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  9. ^ California Department of Transportation; California State Transportation Agency (January 2021). 2020 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California (PDF). Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. pp. 94, 335, 341. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2022.
  10. ^ a b c "5 Things You Should Know About The I-405 Improvement Project | Iteris, Inc". www.iteris.com. January 29, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d "405 Express Lanes". Orange County Transportation Authority. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  12. ^ a b "New 405 Freeway lanes opening set for Dec. 1". The Orange County Register. October 23, 2023. Retrieved November 4, 2023.
  13. ^ "How to drive the Express Lanes". 405expresslanes.com. Orange County Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 1, 2023.
  14. ^ Grad, Shelby (November 27, 2019). "How 405 Freeway gridlock became the iconic image of an L.A. Thanksgiving". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 29, 2023.
  15. ^ "Crossroads of Confusion". Los Angeles Times. March 20, 1998. p. 2. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
  16. ^ Hall, Carla (December 2, 2014). "Four ways the 405 freeway project has not made your life better". Los Angeles Times.
  17. ^ Interstate Highway System Adjusted and Approved by Commissioner of Public Roads (Map). California State Department of Public Works, Division of Highways. May 1957. Los Angeles area inset.
  18. ^ McCoy, George T. (April 1, 1958). "Correspondence Concerning Route Numbering of the Interstate Urban Network". Letter to A. E. Johnson. Sacramento: American Association of State Highway Officials. Retrieved June 29, 2023 – via AASHTO Route Numbering Archive.
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  22. ^ Gnerre, Sam (December 6, 2021). "South Bay history: Piecing together the construction of the 405 Freeway through the South Bay". Daily Breeze. Retrieved June 29, 2023.
  23. ^ a b Sanders, Bob (January 12, 1969). "13-Year Job Completed on San Diego Freeway". Press-Telegram. p. B1. Retrieved June 29, 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ Hebert, Ray (December 9, 1968). "San Diego Freeway Now Reality". Los Angeles Times. part II, p. 1. Retrieved June 29, 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  25. ^ a b "Interstate 405: The 'Carmageddon', History, Myth and Trivia". International Business Times. July 16, 2011. During 53 hours of closure, the north side of the Mulholland Bridge will be demolished as part of the $1 billion Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project.
  26. ^ Gish, Judy (June 2011). "I-405 Summer Weekend Closure Planned". Inside Seven. California Department of Transportation District 7. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  27. ^ Gostar, Reza (June 9, 2011). "Carpocalypse: The Weekend the 405 Freeway Will Stand Still – Brentwood, California Patch". Brentwood.patch.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
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  37. ^ Groves, Martha (February 14, 2014). "Jamzilla lane closures on the 405 Freeway begin tonight". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  38. ^ "Carpool lane on North 405 Freeway opens". Los Angeles: KABC-TV. May 23, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  39. ^ District 7. "Interstate 405: On- and Off-Ramp Improvements at Arbor Vitae Street" (PDF). California Department of Transportation.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  40. ^ "I-405 Sepulveda Pass ExpressLanes Project". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  41. ^ a b "Interstate 405 Freeway Interchanges" (PDF). California Numbered Exit Uniform System. California Department of Transportation. March 17, 2020. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  42. ^ California Department of Transportation. "State Truck Route List". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (XLS file) on September 5, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  43. ^ "California Log of Bridges on State Highways: District 7" (PDF). Caltrans. October 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  44. ^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSHS, 2005 and 2006
  45. ^ "405 Freeway NB Montana Avenue Offramp Dies At 57". Los Angeles: KCBS-TV. November 24, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2014.
  46. ^ "Sepulveda Pass". Google Street View. Retrieved September 7, 2022.

External links[edit]

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