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Interstate 91

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Interstate 91 marker
Interstate 91
I-91 highlighted in red
Route information
Length290.37 mi[1] (467.31 km)
Major junctions
South end I-95 in New Haven, CT
North end A-55 at the Canadian border in Derby Line, VT
StatesConnecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont
CountiesCT: New Haven, Middlesex, Hartford
MA: Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin
VT: Windham, Windsor, Orange, Caledonia, Orleans
Highway system
  • Routes in Connecticut
State highways in Vermont
Route 89CT Route 94
I-90MA I-93
I-89VT I-93

Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of the region. The Interstate generally follows the course of the Connecticut River. Its southern end is in New Haven, Connecticut,[2] at Interstate 95. The northern end of the American-maintained road is in the village of Derby Line, Vermont, at the Canadian border. Past the Derby Line–Rock Island Border Crossing, the road continues as Quebec Autoroute 55. I-91 is the longest of three Interstate highways whose entire route is located within the New England states (the other two highways being I-89 and I-93) and is also the only primary (two-digit) Interstate Highway in New England to intersect all five of the other highways that run through the region. The largest cities along its route are New Haven, Connecticut; Hartford, Connecticut; Springfield, Massachusetts; Northampton, Massachusetts; Greenfield, Massachusetts; Brattleboro, Vermont; White River Junction, Vermont; and St. Johnsbury, Vermont in order from south to north.

Route description[edit]

  mi[3][4] km
CT 58.00 93.34
MA 54.90 88.35
VT 177.43 285.55
Total 290.33 467.24

I-91 is 290 miles (470 km) long and travels nearly straight north and south: 58 miles (93 km) in Connecticut, 55 miles (89 km) in Massachusetts, and 177 miles (285 km) in Vermont. I-91 parallels U.S. Route 5 (US 5) for all of its length, and many of the exits along I-91 provide direct or indirect access to the older highway. Much of the route of I-91 follows the Connecticut River, traveling from Hartford, Connecticut, northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont.[5][6][7]

I-91 in Hartford.
I-91 in Hartford, CT.


I-91 is the major north–south transportation corridor for the center of the state. It is the main route between the larger cities of New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts. As such, it is almost always heavily trafficked (especially during rush hour), and maintains at least three lanes in each direction through Connecticut except for a short portion in Hartford at the interchange with I-84, and another in Meriden at the interchange with Route 15. The three cities also serve as Connecticut's control points along its length of the Interstate.[8][9]

I-91 begins just east of downtown New Haven at an interchange with I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike), and Route 34. At the bottom of the ramp for exit 5, US 5 begins at the first of its many interchanges with the freeway.[10] Leaving New Haven, I-91 follows a northeastward trek into North Haven, where it meets the southern end of the Route 40 expressway.[11] It travels through the eastern part of Wallingford before entering the eastern part of the city of Meriden. In Meriden, about halfway between Hartford and New Haven, I-91 sees a complex set of interchanges with the Wilbur Cross Parkway (Route 15), the Route 66 expressway, and its first spur route, I-691.[10] I-691 provides a westward link to I-84 and the city of Waterbury.[10] Leaving Meriden, I-91 enters Middlesex County as it briefly travels through the western part of Middletown before entering Cromwell, where it has an interchange with the Route 9 expressway.[12][13]

It then enters Hartford County in the town of Rocky Hill, and then enters Wethersfield, meeting the southern end of the Route 3 expressway, which leads to Glastonbury and the Route 2 expressway via the Putnam Bridge over the Connecticut River. From there to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, I-91 parallels the river, never more than five miles (8.0 km) from its west bank.[14] I-91 then enters the Hartford city limits; in that city, it has a set of interchanges with US 5/Route 15 (Wilbur Cross Highway), which provides access from I-91 north to I-84 east, and from I-84 west to I-91 south via the Charter Oak Bridge.[15] I-91 then has an interchange with I-84, where all other transitions to and from I-84 take place. Before leaving the city limits, an HOV lane begins that has its own set of interchanges up to exit 38.[16]

I-91 then enters Windsor, and meets the western end of its other Connecticut spur route, I-291. At the Windsor–Windsor Locks town line, it meets the eastern terminus of the Route 20 expressway, which provides direct access to Bradley International Airport.[9] A couple of miles further north, I-91 crosses the Connecticut River on the Dexter Coffin Bridge into East Windsor. After traveling through East Windsor and Enfield, it crosses the state line,o at milepost 58, into Longmeadow, Massachusetts.[10]


I-91 extends 55 miles (89 km) through the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts paralleling the Connecticut River.[17] I-91 serves as the major transportation corridor through three Massachusetts counties, linking the cities of Springfield, Northampton, and Greenfield.[17] These three cities serve as the control cities listed on guide and mileage signs, along with Brattleboro, Vermont beginning with the first northbound conventional mileage sign (63 miles (101 km)) in Longmeadow.[3]

In Springfield, I-91 has an interchange with I-291 at exit 8, a 5.44-mile-long (8.75 km) spur going eastbound connecting with the Massachusetts Turnpike, for travelers going either east toward Boston or west toward Albany, New York.[18][19] North of Springfield, I-91 briefly enters Chicopee where there is an interchange with the spur of I-391 at exit 12 before turning westward to cross the Connecticut River into West Springfield. I-391 provides direct access to Holyoke center, while I-91 continues on the western side of the river.[13]

Just after the river crossing, exit 14 is a major interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) before entering the city of Holyoke where exit 15 is located. Just after exit 16 U.S. Route 202, I-91 goes from three lanes to two lanes in each direction to the Vermont state line.[13] After a short exit-less stretch, I-91 enters Northampton, passing the Northampton Airport and an oxbow lake. The towns of Hadley and Amherst, home to the main campus of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, are accessible from I-91 exits in Northampton via Route 9.[13]

Continuing north, I-91 enters Hatfield, and where it begins a straight section—nearly six miles (9.7 km) without a bend in the road. Several exits provide access to US 5 and Route 10 in Hatfield and Whately before entering Deerfield.[20] I-91 has two exits in Greenfield. At exit 26, the southern end of its overlap with Route 2, there is a rest area and visitor information center for Franklin County.[21] At exit 27, also in Greenfield, is the northern end of its overlap with Route 2 where access to that road is provided via a directional T-interchange, and exit and entry ramps on the left side of southbound I-91. Exit 28 in Bernardston is the last exit in Massachusetts. Beyond exit 28, I-91 continues for about five miles (8.0 km) more before crossing into Vermont.[3]

Massachusetts is the only state traversed by I-91 where another numbered highway is concurrent with the Interstate (in this case, US 5, for a one-half mile (800 m) spur near the Springfield-Longmeadow town line and Route 2, for approximately three miles (4.8 km) in Greenfield).[22]


I-91 travels along the eastern border of Vermont and serves as a major transportation corridor for eastern Vermont and western New Hampshire. Many exits along Vermont's length of I-91 feature New Hampshire towns on the guide signs (for example, exit 3, which lists Brattleboro and Keene, as the points of access). The length of I-91 within Vermont is 177 miles (285 km) and has two lanes in each direction the entire way from the Massachusetts state line at Guilford to Derby Line at the Canadian border (nearly two-thirds of I-91's length) with 29 Vermont interchanges. The highway's rural character and long distances between exits in Vermont are in stark contrast to its south, where exits are more frequent and the road carries four lanes of traffic in each direction at some points. The major control cities in Vermont are Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport. When entering northbound I-91 at exit 28 in Derby, the control city sign is for Canada. Of these destinations, only Newport is a city, although the other towns are sizable. In general, the road parallels its predecessor, US 5.[23][24][25]

I-91 enters Vermont in the town of Guilford. Just before exit 1 in Brattleboro is the Vermont Welcome Center in Guilford. The first three Vermont exits (northbound) serve the town of Brattleboro. At exit 1, northbound Route 5 provides access to stores and a small industrial area before reaching the south end of the town's center, where a bridge crosses the Connecticut River into Hinsdale, New Hampshire via NH 119. Exit 2 (VT 9) provides access to the western village of the town (West Brattleboro), then continues west to Marlboro, Wilmington, and Bennington. Brattleboro's main retail strip is located at and just south of the exit 3 trumpet interchange and traffic circle. Following VT 9 eastward, one can reach Keene, New Hampshire in 15 miles (24 km).[26][27]

After exit 3, I-91 heads north to travel through the communities of Dummerston, Putney, Westminster, North Westminster, Bellows Falls, Springfield, Weathersfield, Windsor, Hartland, North Hartland and White River Junction. White River Junction, listed as a control city on mileage signs as far south as Greenfield, Massachusetts, is where I-91 and I-89 meet and provide access to many points in Vermont and New Hampshire, at exit 10.[28]

North of the interchange with I-89, I-91 continues towards St. Johnsbury and travels through Wilder and Norwich. It enters Orange County, Vermont, passing through Thetford, Fairlee, Bradford, Newbury and Wells River. It continues into the Caledonia County communities of Barnet, and Waterford, before coming to its next major intersection in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, at the northern terminus of Interstate 93, providing access to the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Greater Boston area. Along this stretch of highway between White River Junction and Saint Johnsbury, towns in Grafton County, New Hampshire on the other side of the river can also be easily accessed. Just after exit 19, there are three exits for St. Johnsbury, including a major intersection with US 2. Along westbound US 2, the capital of Vermont, Montpelier, is eventually reached from I-91, although I-89 provides Montpelier with immediate Interstate access.[29][30]

I-91 continues northward, now following the Passumpsic River valley. It travels through Vermont's Northeast Kingdom region and the town of Lyndon. Two exits in Lyndon serve the village of Lyndonville and Lyndon State College. After exit 24, I-91 departs Route 5, which it had been closely paralleling since the Massachusetts state line. I-91 follows the valley of Miller Run,[31][a] and there are no convenient services until Barton at exit 25.[32]

The interstate proceeds through Sheffield. Here it reaches the highest point on the road, just north of mile marker 150 on Sheffield Heights, elevation 1,856 feet (566 m).[33]

After leaving the Heights, it enters Orleans County and follows the Barton River valley north with exits in Barton, Orleans, and Derby. Exit 29 is the final U.S. exit on I-91 just after mile marker 177 at Derby Line. Beyond the exit ramp, northbound motorists enter Canada Customs at Stanstead, Quebec, and continue into Canada on Autoroute 55 through the Eastern Townships.[34][27]

As with Connecticut and Massachusetts, US 5 closely parallels I-91 for their entire lengths in Vermont. While paralleling I-91 in Vermont, US 5 is never concurrent with the freeway, but remains its own two-lane road, except for a portion in White River Junction where it is a four-lane divided surface arterial.[35][36]

Traffic and the population of each successive town tend to diminish as the road proceeds northward. The average daily traffic count for 2015 in Vermont were—St. Johnsbury (34,000), Lyndon (17,900), Barton (13,500), and Derby (Canadian border) (10,300).[37]


A limited-access highway replacement for US 5 was planned at the federal level starting in 1944. A 1953 Massachusetts plan was funded by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, along with spur I-291 (but not I-391). The Vermont section of I-91 was built in stages from 1958 to 1965.[38] In Massachusetts from Bernardston to Northampton, I-91 follows an abandoned right-of-way of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. To support plans for urban renewal along the "low value" waterfront, the highway crossed the Connecticut River to parallel active NYNHH railroad tracks on the Springfield side of the river, bypassing West Springfield, Massachusetts and Agawam, Massachusetts. Later, this path was perceived as cutting off the city from the river, restricting further commercial development. By 1960, a few miles in Massachusetts were completed, starting from the Connecticut and Vermont state lines. Massachusetts construction was completed from 1960s to 1970.[39]

In the 1950s-1970s, there were plans to extend I-91 to Wading River, Long Island from its existing terminus in New Haven, Connecticut via a crossing of the Long Island Sound (see "Unbuilt Long Island extension" below).[40] Vermont completed its last sections of I-91 in 1978.[41]

Starting in the 1990s, several rest areas were downgraded in Vermont, increasing distances between facilities. In 2008, Vermont closed the Springfield–Rockingham rest areas because of suspected use by drug abusers. In 2009, the northbound rest area in Hartford was closed, creating a 90-mile (145 km) gap in on-highway facilities. At the present time, there exist two intermediate rest areas with facilities in each direction, in addition to a welcome center at each end of the state. Several parking areas remain open.[42]

In the early 1990s after the I-284 project was canceled, the exit 44 interchange in East Windsor, Connecticut, was altered as it was designed to be part of the freeway. After alterations, exit 44 connected to Route 5 for all traffic to get on and off. As a result, exit 43 was shut down and closed in that same time frame. Exit 43 was a northbound exit/southbound entrance on State Route 510/Main Street in East Windsor, which was about 1,050 feet (320 m) away from exit 44.

After the September 11 attacks, a seldom-staffed temporary border patrol checkpoint was installed near White River Junction, Vermont, about 100 miles (160 km) from the Canadian border.[43]

In 2005, the Massachusetts Highway Department completed a rebuild of on- and off-ramps in Springfield, to reduce accidents caused by weaving near the tightly spaced exits.[39]

Impact in Springfield[edit]

Interstate 91 in 1969, just after completion of the viaduct which would separate Springfield from the Connecticut River, St. Joseph's Church and the Campanile can be seen in the foreground, as well as an incomplete Tower Square

During its construction in the 1960s, I-91 sliced through three Springfield neighborhoods: the North End, Metro Center, and the South End, which led to urban decay in the highway's vicinity. Despite being widely regarded as positive progress at the time it was built, by 2011, Springfield's portion of I-91 was perceived as disrupting the urban fabric of each riverfront neighborhood, while in effect amputating everything east of the highway—the majority of the city—from the Connecticut River, the Connecticut River Walk Park, and the Basketball Hall of Fame. However, I-91 was erected without tunnels, footbridges, and other paths leading to the riverfront, and thus continues to pose logistical problems for people getting to the riverfront, which in turn poses problems for businesses that would like to set up along Springfield's riverfront. The placement of I-91 has left Springfield's riverfront virtually undeveloped aside from the sliver of land surrounding the Basketball Hall of Fame.[44]

In 2010, the Urban Land Institute made recommendations for how Springfield might reconnect with its riverfront, in order to revitalize the area through urban renewal, suggesting the most cost-effective but also the most development-limiting strategy (constructing pathways beneath I-91). No decision has been reached regarding those recommendations.[45] As of 2011, academic and civic studies are still underway. Preliminary findings indicate that I-91's placement negatively impacts tourism in Springfield's Metro Center—the site of many of Springfield's historic, cultural, and entertainment venues. Springfield's most popular tourist attraction, the riverfront Basketball Hall of Fame, is separated from Metro Center by a 20-foot (6.1 m) stone wall, buttressing an elevated portion of the six-lane Interstate 91, and greatly discouraging travel between the two areas. Academic suggestions that involve the demolition of the current highway and moving it to a less obtrusive site in the city have been proposed, including the demolition of the highway and following the original path suggested, Riverdale Road, and, least obtrusive but still requiring a great deal of work, a plan to construct numerous walkways beneath the elevated highway to better integrate the neighborhoods with the waterfront despite the highway's presence.[46]

Unbuilt Long Island extension[edit]

A map showing the built segment of Interstate 91 (black) and the unbuilt southern extension to Long Island (red); the never-built extension would have traversed the unbuilt New Haven-Shoreham Bridge and an upgraded William Floyd Parkway.

Between the 1950s and 1970s, officials proposed extending I-91 across the Long Island Sound from its current terminus at the I-91/I-95 interchange in New Haven, Connecticut to Wading River, Long Island by means of a bridge over the Long Island Sound, as one of the many Long Island Sound Link proposals.[40] The extension would have continued southward from Wading River to the southern shore of Long Island by the existing William Floyd Parkway in central Suffolk County—which would have been updated to Interstate Highway standards. It would also provide easier access to New York City via the Long Island Expressway (I-495), as well as to The Hamptons via Sunrise Highway (NY 27). The various proposals for this never-built extension were ultimately dropped after a 1979 study of the concept.[47] Following this, officials proposed to connect the New Haven and ShorehamWading River areas by means of ferry service across the Long Island Sound—however, the plans to implement these cross-sound ferry services were ultimately mothballed, as well.[48]

Despite the cancellation of the bridge, many Long Islanders are still in favor of building one.[49] In 2000, a survey was conducted by News12 and Newsday, which found that the majority (63 percent) of Long Islanders were in support of such a project.[49]

In 2016, the proposal was again renewed by New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, as either a bridge or a tunnel.[49] However, these plans were also dropped, as announced by NYSDOT in 2018.[49]

Exit list[edit]

All interchanges in Massachusetts were to be renumbered to milepost-based numbers under a project scheduled to start in 2016. However, this project was indefinitely postponed until November 18, 2019, when the MassDOT confirmed that beginning in the middle of 2020 that the exit renumbering project will begin.[50][27] On March 1, 2021, MassDOT confirmed that the exit renumbering on I-91 will start on March 3, and it will last for two weeks. In 2020, Vermont added "milepoint exit" numbers to existing signs, essentially marking each interchange with two exit numbers.[citation needed]

StateCountyLocation[3][51]mi[3][4][52]kmOld exit
New exit
ConnecticutNew HavenNew Haven0.000.00 I-95 south – New York CityExit 48 on I-95 northbound (Connecticut Turnpike)
0.090.141MLK Boulevard (Route 34) – Downtown New HavenSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; eastern terminus of Route 34
I-95 north – New LondonIncludes direct entrance ramp from Wooster Street / Franklin Street
0.631.012Hamilton StreetNorthbound exit is accessible only from I-95 south; no southbound entrance
3Trumbull Street
1.302.094State StreetSouthbound exit (via Humphrey Street) and northbound entrance (shared with exit 3)
1.332.145 US 5 (State Street) – Fair HavenNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
6 US 5 / Willow Street / Blatchley AvenueNo northbound signage for US 5
7Ferry Street – Fair HavenSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
2.784.478 Route 17 (Middletown Avenue) / Route 80 – North Branford
North Haven4.817.749Montowese Avenue
6.6310.6710 Route 40 – Hamden, Cheshire, Mount CarmelAlso serves Quinnipiac University
7.7212.4211 US 5 / Route 22 – North HavenNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
8.5813.8112 US 5 (Washington Avenue)
Wallingford10.9417.6113 US 5 – Wallingford, North HavenAccess to Wharton Brook State Park via connector
12.3019.7914 Route 150 (Woodhouse Avenue) – WallingfordNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
13.2521.32 Route 150 / East Center Street (SR 738) – WallingfordSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
16.0125.7715 Route 68 – Yalesville, Durham
Meriden19.2230.9316East Main StreetSouthbound exit is via exit 17

Route 15 north (Berlin Turnpike) to I-691 / Route 66
Northbound exit and southbound entrance
19.7431.77 Route 15 south (Wilbur Cross Parkway) / East Main StreetSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
20.1132.3618 I-691 west / Route 66 east – Middlefield, Middletown, Meriden, WaterburyNorthbound exit serves Route 66 east only; southbound exit serves I-691 west only
20.7433.3819Baldwin Avenue / Preston AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
MiddlesexMiddletown23.1637.2720Country Club Road / Middle Street
Cromwell25.7441.4221 Route 372 – Cromwell, Berlin
22 Route 9 – New Britain, Middletown, Old SaybrookSigned as exits 22N (north) and 22S (south)
HartfordRocky Hill29.3947.3023
To Route 3 – Rocky Hill
Via West Street (SSR 411)
31.6750.9724 Route 99 – Wethersfield, Rocky Hill
25N Route 3 north – GlastonburySigned as exit 25 northbound; former proposed I-491 and part of formerly proposed I-86 extension
25S Route 3 south – WethersfieldSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
34.1354.9326Old WethersfieldNorthbound exit part of exit 25
27 Brainard Road / Airport Road (SR 530Ramps shared with Route 15 exit 87; northbound access via entrance to Route 15 north to exit 89
35.9757.8928 US 5 / Route 15 south (Berlin Turnpike) – Wethersfield, NewingtonNorthbound exit closed for construction through 2021
US 5 / Route 15 north to I-84 east – East Hartford, Boston
Northbound left exit and southbound entrance
37.5560.4329ACapitol AreaVia Whitehead Highway (SR 598); former proposed I-484; northbound left exit
38.3461.7030 I-84 east / Route 2 east – East Hartford, New LondonSouthbound left exit and northbound entrance; exits 51–52 on I-84
38.1861.4431State StreetNo northbound exit
38.4761.9132A I-84 west – Waterbury
32BTrumbull StreetNo entrance ramps
39.5563.65Leibert RoadSouthbound exit and northbound entrance for HOV only; southern terminus of HOV lanes
39.8664.1533Jennings Road
Windsor41.1466.2134 Route 159 (Windsor Avenue / North Main Street)
35 I-291 east – South Windsor, Manchester, Bissell Bridge
Route 218 – Windsor, Bloomfield
Signed as exits 35A (I-291) and 35B (Route 218); exits 1-2B on I-291
42.2267.95 Route 218 – WindsorNorthbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV only
43.5270.0436 Route 178 (Park Avenue) – Bloomfield
44.5071.6237 Route 305 (Bloomfield Avenue) – Windsor CenterAdditional northbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV lanes
45.9974.01 Route 75 – PoquonockNorthbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV only
38 Route 75 / Day Hill Road – Poquonock, WindsorSigned as exits 38A (Route 75) and 38B (Day Hill Road) southbound
Northern terminus of HOV lanes
Windsor Locks47.4476.3539&41Kennedy Road to Center StreetNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
48.2277.6040 Route 20 – Bradley International Airport
48.6278.2541&39Center StreetSouthbound exit only
To Route 159 – Windsor Locks
Connecticut River49.58–
Dexter Coffin Bridge
East Windsor50.3381.0044 US 5 south – East Windsor
51.0982.2245 Route 140 – Warehouse Point, Ellington
Enfield52.7484.8846 US 5 (King Street)
55.5789.4347 Route 190 – Hazardville, Somers, SuffieldSigned as exits 47E (east) and 47W (west)
56.1090.2848 Route 220 (Elm Street) – Thompsonville
57.7392.9149 US 5 (Enfield Street) – Longmeadow, Mass
Connecticut–Massachusetts line
MassachusettsHampdenSpringfield3.8366.173-1 US 5 south – Forest Park, LongmeadowSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; southern terminus of US 5 concurrency
3.6945.945-2 Route 83 south – Forest Park, East LongmeadowNo southbound exit; northbound entrance shared with exit 3
US 5 north to Route 57 / East Columbus Avenue – West Springfield, Agawam
Northern terminus of US 5 concurrency; no southbound signage for Columbus Avenue
4Broad Street / Main StreetNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
4.7227.599 Route 83 south (Main Street) – East LongmeadowSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
5.2538.45465Union Street / MGM Way – Downtown SpringfieldNo northbound signage for Union Street
5.9899.63875BHall of Fame Avenue – Downtown SpringfieldSouthbound exit and northbound entrance

I-291 / US 20 east to I-90 Toll / Mass Pike east – Boston
Signed as exit 6B southbound;[54] I-90 only appears on northbound signage; exit 1 on I-291
6.67710.74697 US 20 west / Route 20A east – West Springfield, WestfieldNo southbound exit; signed as exits 7A (east) and 7B (west);[54] no southbound entrance from Route 20A
8 Route 116 (Main Street)Northbound exit and entrance
7.48112.040 US 20 west (Birnie Avenue) – West SpringfieldSouthbound exit only
Chicopee8.28913.340129 I-391 north – Chicopee, HolyokeSouthern terminus of I-391, exits 1A-B.
West Springfield9.17714.76913A10A US 5 north (Riverdale Street)
9.18414.78013B10B US 5 south – West Springfield
I-90 Toll / Mass Pike – Boston, Albany NY
Exit 45 on I-90 / Mass Pike.[55]
Holyoke12.39619.9491512Lower Westfield Road – Ingleside
14.21822.8821614 US 202 – Holyoke, South Hadley
15.18824.4431715 Route 141 – Holyoke, EasthamptonSigned as exits 15A (east) and 15B (west) northbound[54]
HampshireNorthampton22.81636.7191823 US 5 – Northampton, Easthampton
24.76039.8471925 Route 9 – Hadley, AmherstNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
26.01641.8692026 US 5 / Route 10 / Route 9 – Northampton, HadleySouthbound exit and northbound entrance
27.27743.8982127 US 5 / Route 10 – Hatfield
Hatfield29.93848.1812230 US 5 / Route 10 – North Hatfield, WhatelyNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
FranklinWhately32.30951.9962332 US 5 / Route 10 – Whately, North HatfieldSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
US 5 / Route 10 to Route 116 – Deerfield, Conway
No northbound entrance
Deerfield35.89157.7612536 Route 116 – Deerfield, ConwaySouthbound exit and northbound entrance
Greenfield43.01169.2192643 Route 2 west / Route 2A east – Greenfield Center, North AdamsSouthern terminus of Route 2 concurrency; also serves John W. Olver Transit Center, Mass MoCA, Shelburne Falls, Bridge of Flowers
45.75273.6312746 Route 2 east – BostonNorthern terminus of Route 2 concurrency
Bernardston50.36081.0472850 Route 10 – Bernardston, NorthfieldSigned as exits 50A (north) and 50B (south) northbound[54]
Massachusetts–Vermont line
US 5 to VT 142 – Brattleboro, Guilford
Also serves Vernon and Hinsdale, NH
9.09514.63728 VT 9 west – Brattleboro, BenningtonAlso serves Manchester via VT 30, Marlboro College, and Wilmington
11.55018.588311 US 5 / VT 9 east – Brattleboro, Keene NHAlso serves World Learning SIT Graduate Institute
Putney17.95228.891418 US 5 – PutneyAlso serves Landmark College
Town of Westminster28.61046.043528

To US 5 / VT 123 – Westminster, Bellows Falls, Walpole, NH
Rockingham35.20056.649635 US 5 / VT 103 – Rockingham, Rutland, Bellows FallsAlso serves Chester and Ludlow
WindsorSpringfield41.69067.094741 US 5 / VT 11 – SpringfieldAlso serves Charlestown, NH and the Fort at Number 4
Weathersfield51.37082.672851 VT 131 / US 5 / VT 12 – Ascutney, WindsorAlso serves Ludlow and Claremont, NH; Romaine Tenney Memorial Park at exit
Hartland60.45097.285960 US 5 / VT 12 – Hartland, WindsorAlso serves Woodstock and Killington
Hartford69.810112.3481069 I-89 – Concord, NH, Barre, MontpelierSigned as exits 69A (south) & 69B (north); formerly exits 10S-N; exits 1A-B northbound/1 southbound on I-89.
70.200112.9761170 US 5 – White River JunctionAlso serves VA Hospital
To US 5 – Wilder, White River Junction
Norwich74.830120.4271374 US 5 / VT 10A – Norwich, Hanover, NHAlso serves Montshire Museum of Science
VT 113 to US 5 – Thetford
Also serves Chelsea and Lyme, NH
Fairlee91.540147.3191591 US 5 – Fairlee, Orford, NHAlso serves Lake Morey and Lake Fairlee
VT 25 to US 5 – Bradford, Barre
Also serves Newbury and Piermont, NH
Town of Newbury110.340177.57517110
US 302 to US 5 – Wells River, Woodsville, NH
Also serves South Ryegate and Groton
To US 5 – Barnet, Peacham
Also serves West Barnet, Monroe, NH, McIndoe Falls, and East Ryegate
St. Johnsbury128.250206.39819128 I-93 south – Littleton, NHNorthern terminus of I-93, exits 11A-B on I-93; tri-stack interchange.
128.890207.42820129 US 5 – St. Johnsbury, Passumpsic
130.600210.18021130 US 2 – St. Johnsbury, MontpelierAlso serves Danville and Hardwick
To US 5 – St. Johnsbury
US 5 to VT 114 – Lyndonville, East Burke
Also serves Lyndon State College

VT 122 to US 5 / VT 114 – Sheffield, Burke, Lyndonville
Also serves Caledonia County Airport
VT 16 to US 5 – Barton, Glover
Also serves Hardwick and Crystal Lake
Irasburg tripoint
161.410259.76426161 US 5 / VT 58 – Orleans, IrasburgAlso serves Lake Willoughby and Jay

VT 191 to US 5 / VT 105 – Newport
Also serves Lake Memphremagog
172.400277.45128172 US 5 / VT 105 – Newport, Derby CenterAlso serves Seymour Lake and Lake Memphremagog
To US 5 – Derby Line
Last exit in the United States
177.432285.549Derby Line–Rock Island Border Crossing
A-55 north – SherbrookeContinuation into Quebec
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
A highway interchange with 6 roads visible with several cars on the road. A building is on the left side of the interchange.
I-91 looking north in Downtown Hartford at the I-84 interchange. The Bulkeley Bridge is visible to the right.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Miller Run feeds southeast into the Passumpsic River.


  1. ^ Federal Highway Administration (October 31, 2002). "Table 1: Main Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
  2. ^ Google (June 8, 2009). "New Haven, CT" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e Planning Division (2012). "Route Selection Page". Massachusetts Route Log Application. Massachusetts Department of Transportation. I-91 NB. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Policy, Planning and Intermodal Development Division Traffic Research Unit (May 2013). 2012 (Route Log) AADTs for State Highways (PDF). Montpelier: Vermont Agency of Transportation. pp. 4–5. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  5. ^ "Background Information on the Interstate". Town of Berlin, Connecticut. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  6. ^ Rogers, Barbara (2003). Massachusetts Off the Beaten Path: A Guide to Unique Places. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 9780762726059. Retrieved August 19, 2019 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Fodor's91 New England. Fodor's Travel Publications. 2003. p. 359. ISBN 9780679019367. Retrieved August 19, 2019 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Boyle, Doe (2011). Fun with the Family Connecticut: Hundreds of Ideas for Day Trips with the Kids. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7627-6879-0. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ a b Bureau of Planning and Research (August 1984). I-91 Reconstruction from Hartford to Enfield; I-291 Construction from Windsor to Manchester: Environmental Impact Statement. [Wethersfield, CT]: [Connecticut Department of Transportation]. p. 49. OCLC 53099516. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ a b c d "Highway Log" (PDF). Connecticut Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  11. ^ Connecticut Department of Transportation. "ConnDOT: Nighttime Installation of Rumble Strips on Route 40 in North Haven and Hamden and I-91 in Wallingford". Connecticut Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  12. ^ Google (August 10, 2018). "Route 9 Interchange" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d "Interchanges" (PDF). Boston region Metropolitan Planning Organization. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  14. ^ "Interstate Route I-91 Corridor Planning Study" (PDF). Pioneer Valley Planning Commission. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  15. ^ Connecticut Department of Transportation. "Department of Transportation Event Detail". The State of Connecticut. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  16. ^ "I-84 HOV Lanes-Hartford, Connecticut – Advancing Mobility – Research – CMAQ – Air Quality – Environment – FHWA". The Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Olia, Maria (2013). Insiders' Guide to Massachusetts. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4930-0163-7. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google Bools.
  18. ^ cite web |title =I-91 Springfield viaduct project ahead of schedule |url = |access-date = August 10, 2018|publisher=Greenfield Recorder|
  19. ^ Fay, Tony (April 8, 2016). "Cone Zone Alert: Interstate 91 Exit 8". WWLP. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  20. ^ Google (August 10, 2018). "I-91 to 40 Old State Rd" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  21. ^ "Service Plaza Locations". Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  22. ^ "Concurrent Roads" (PDF). Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  23. ^ Google (August 13, 2019). "Interstate 91 in Vermont" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  24. ^ Tree, Christina; Foulds, Diane E. (2009). Explorer's Guide Vermont. The Countryman Press. ISBN 9780881508482. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  25. ^ Tree, Christina; Hamm, Christine; Imbrie, Katherine (2010). Explorer's Guide New Hampshire. The Countryman Press. ISBN 9780881508413. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  26. ^ Google (August 13, 2019). "Vermont Border to Franklin Pierce Highway" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  27. ^ a b c "Vermont I-91 Exits" (PDF). Vermont Transportation. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  28. ^ Google (August 15, 2018). "I-91 to I-91" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  29. ^ Halvorsen, Lisa; O'Brien, Pat Goudey; Tree, Christina (2018). Explorer's Guide Vermont (Fifteenth ed.). The Countryman Press. ISBN 9781682681671. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  30. ^ Google (August 13, 2019). "White River Junction to St. Johnsbury" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  31. ^ "Passumpsic River Valley" (PDF). Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  32. ^ "Trucker's Exit Guide to Interstate 91" (PDF). Trucker Guide Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  33. ^ "Highest Elevation on I-91 - Sheffield, Vermont - Elevation Signs on". Waymarking. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  34. ^ Google (August 15, 2018). "I-91 to 1 Autoroute 55" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  35. ^ Inc, Fodor's Travel Publications (2004). Fodor's Where to Weekend Around Boston, 1st Edition. Fodor's Travel Publications. p. 197. ISBN 9781400013012. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  36. ^ Google (August 15, 2018). "I-91 to 1 Autoroute 55 Route 5 Parallel" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  37. ^ "Interstate 91 Traffic Statistics" (PDF). Vermont Agency of Transportation. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  38. ^ "Building of Vermont section". Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  39. ^ a b "I-91 Springfield: MassDOT answers your questions about Interstate 91 reconstruction". Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  40. ^ a b Madden, Steve. "Spanning the Sound". Newsday. Archived from the original on July 10, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2015.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  41. ^ Division for Historic Preservation (n.d.). "Vermont History Timeline". Vermont Agency of Commerce and Community Development. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  42. ^ "Drugs, Sex Force Rest Stop Closure". Rutland Herald. Associated Press. December 10, 2008. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
  43. ^ American Civil Liberties Union of Vermont (n.d.). "Border Patrol Stops". American Civil Liberties Union of Vermont. Archived from the original on February 13, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  44. ^ The Republican Editorials (February 26, 2010). "Editorial: Tapping Potential of Springfield's Riverfront". MassLive. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  45. ^ Office of Planning and Economic Development (2008). "River's Landing Project". City of Springfield, MA. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  46. ^ Fay, Tony (January 29, 2016). "Long term solutions: What could become of I-91 in Springfield?". WWLP News. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  47. ^ Stannard, Charles (May 14, 2002). "The Bridge That Never Was: Cable Flap Brings To Mind Sound-Crossing Controversy". Hartford Courant. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
  48. ^ Anderson, Steve. "William Floyd Parkway". NYCRoads. Retrieved March 18, 2010.[self-published source]
  49. ^ a b c d "Shoreham-New Haven Bridge (I-91, unbuilt)". NYCRoads. Retrieved July 25, 2020.[self-published source]
  50. ^ Commonwealth of Massachusetts (2015). "Bid Solicitation FAP# HSIP-002S(874) Exit Signage Conversion to Milepost-Based Numbering System along Various Interstates, Routes and the Lowell Connector". COMMBUYS. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
  51. ^ Division of Policy, Planning and Intermodal Development. "General Highway Maps". Vermont Agency of Transportation. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  52. ^ Connecticut Department of Transportation Bureau of Policy and Planning Data Inventory and Statewide Coordination Division of Systems Information (December 31, 2014). Highway Log: Connecticut State Numbered Routes And Roads as of December 31, 2014 (PDF). Hartford: Connecticut Department of Transportation. pp. 163–172. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  53. ^ "Exit Numbers and Names: Route I-91 (Longmeadow to Bernardston)". Massachusetts Department of Transportation. 2014. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  54. ^ a b c d e "I-91 Renumbering" (PDF). Massachusetts Department of Transportation. December 5, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  55. ^ "I-90 Renumbering" (PDF). Massachusetts Department of Transportation. December 5, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2019.

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata