Interstate 95

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Interstate 95 marker

Interstate 95
I-95 highlighted in red
Route information
Length1,908.48 mi[1] (3,071.40 km)
Existed1956–present
HistoryCompleted September 22, 2018[2]
Major junctions
South end US 1 in Miami, FL
 
North end Route 95 at the Houlton–Woodstock Border Crossing
Location
StatesFlorida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, District of Columbia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine
Highway system

Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main north–south Interstate Highway on the East Coast of the United States,[3] running from U.S. Route 1 (US 1) in Miami, Florida to the Houlton–Woodstock Border Crossing between Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The highway largely parallels the Atlantic coast and US 1, except for the portion between Savannah and Washington and the portion between Portland and Houlton, both of which follow a more direct inland route.

I-95 serves as the principal road link between the major cities of the Eastern Seaboard. Major metropolitan areas along its route include Miami, Jacksonville, Savannah, Florence, Fayetteville, and Richmond in the Southeast; Washington, Baltimore, Wilmington, Philadelphia, Newark, and New York City in the Mid-Atlantic States; and New Haven, Providence, Boston, Portsmouth, and Portland in New England (Charleston, South Carolina, Wilmington, North Carolina, and Norfolk-Virginia Beach, Virginia, the three major coastal metros bypassed by the highway's inland portion, are connected to I-95 by I-26, I-40, and I-64, respectively).

I-95 is one of the oldest routes of the Interstate Highway System.[2] Many sections of I-95 incorporated pre-existing sections of toll roads where they served the same right of way.[4] Until 2018, there was a gap in I-95's original routing in Central New Jersey caused by the cancellation of the Somerset Freeway. An interchange between the Pennsylvania Turnpike and I-95 was completed in September 2018; this allowed I-95 to be re-routed along New Jersey's Pearl Harbor Memorial Turnpike Extension into Pennsylvania, creating a continuous Interstate route from Maine to Florida for the first time.[2]

With a length of 1,908 miles (3,071 km), I-95 is the longest north–south Interstate and the sixth-longest Interstate Highway overall.[1] I-95 passes through 15 states (as well as a brief stretch in the District of Columbia while crossing the Potomac River)--more than any other Interstate. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, only five of the 96 counties or county equivalents along its route are completely rural,[5] while statistics provided by the I-95 Corridor Coalition suggest that the region served is "over three times more densely populated than the U.S. average and as densely settled as much of Western Europe".[6] According to the Corridor Coalition, I-95 serves 110 million people and facilitates 40 percent of the country’s gross domestic product.[7]

Route description[edit]

Lengths
  mi[1] km
FL 382.15 615.01
GA 112.00 180.25
SC 198.76 319.87
NC 181.36 291.87
VA 178.73 287.64
DC 0.11 0.18
MD 110.01 177.04
DE 23.43 37.71
PA 44.25 71.21
NJ 88.99 143.22
NY 23.50 37.82
CT 111.57 179.55
RI 42.36 68.17
MA 91.95 147.98
NH 16.11 25.93
ME 303.20 487.95
Total 1,908.48 3,071.40
End of I-95 southbound at US 1 in Miami, Florida
I-95 express lane near Miami, Florida
Northbound I-95 at the interchange with I-16 near Savannah, Georgia
I-95 bridge over Lake Marion, Santee, South Carolina; the old bridge (on the left) was abandoned and converted to a fishing pier, but is now closed even to pedestrian traffic.
Northbound I-95 at its interchange with I-40 near Benson, North Carolina, c. 2009. This interchange has since been renovated.
Woodrow Wilson Bridge carrying I-95/I-495 across the Potomac River, Washington, DC
I-95 northbound at Washington Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland
I-95 southbound on the Delaware Turnpike south of Wilmington, Delaware
I-95 southbound at the interchange with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Bristol Township, Pennsylvania
I-95 splits into the Eastern and Western Spurs of the NJ Turnpike
A view of I-95 (Bruckner Expressway) from the overpass at Westchester Avenue, Bronx, New York
End of I-95 northbound at US–Canadian border
1955 plans for the Interstate Highway System

Florida[edit]

I-95 begins at U.S. Route 1 just south of downtown Miami and travels along the state's east coast, passing through Ft. Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, the Gold Coast, Treasure Coast, Space Coast, Daytona Beach, Port Orange, Saint Augustine, and Jacksonville before entering the U.S. state of Georgia near the city of Brunswick. This portion of the highway was notably featured in the film Flight of the Navigator when the spaceship flew along the highway towards Miami.[8] In Miami and Ft. Lauderdale, SunPass Express lanes pass over the highway.

Prior to 1987, a notable gap in the highway existed between West Palm Beach and Fort Pierce; I-95 traffic between those cities was diverted to Florida's Turnpike. Today, I-95 runs along a routing parallel to the turnpike.[9][10][11]

In the year 2010, more fatalities occurred along the Florida section of I-95 than on any other Interstate Highway in the country.[12]

Georgia[edit]

In Georgia, I-95 closely parallels the coastline, travelling primarily through marshlands a few miles from the shore. The route bypasses the cores of major coastal cities Brunswick and Savannah, routing traffic through the western sides of both cities' metro areas; it connects to the latter city by an intersection with I-16 before crossing into South Carolina. The exit numbers were converted from a sequential system to a mileage based system around the year 2000. I-95 in Georgia has the unsigned designation of State Route 405 (SR 405).[13]

The Carolinas[edit]

Entering South Carolina, I-95 diverts from its coastal route to a more inland route to the west. I-95 does not go near any major cities in South Carolina, with the largest city along its route being Florence, the tenth largest in the state. The rest of South Carolina can be accessed via other interstates that intersect I-95. It intersects I-26 near Harleyville, which provides access to Charleston, Columbia, and Upstate South Carolina. It also intersects I-20 at Florence, which also connects to Columbia and then on to Atlanta, Georgia. At the North Carolina border, I-95 passes the South of the Border roadside attraction.

In North Carolina, I-95 informally serves as the separation between the state's western piedmont and eastern coastal plain regions. The route intersects I-74 near Lumberton, I-40 near Benson, and Future I-87/US 64 near Rocky Mount. Several medium sized cities lie along I-95 in North Carolina, including (from south to north) Fayetteville, Wilson, and Rocky Mount. At Gaston, I-95 crosses into Virginia.

Mid-Atlantic region[edit]

I-95 enters the Mid-Atlantic region in Virginia and travels through the center of the densest and most populous urban region in the US. I-95 travels north-south through Virginia, passing through Petersburg, and follows the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike into downtown Richmond (where it is concurrent briefly with I-64) and from there it turns northeast as it enters Northern Virginia. In the Washington Metropolitan Area, it is concurrent with the Capital Beltway from the Springfield Interchange along with Interstate 495, before passing through the southernmost corner of the District of Columbia for about 0.11 miles (0.18 km) along the Woodrow Wilson Bridge[14] before entering Maryland near National Harbor.

In Maryland, I-95 goes northeast toward Baltimore, paralleling the older Baltimore-Washington Parkway. I-95 uses the Fort McHenry Tunnel to travel under Baltimore's Inner Harbor, and travels through Northeast Maryland along the John F. Kennedy Expressway, crossing into Delaware at Elkton.

Entering Delaware at Newark, I-95 follows the Delaware Turnpike east across Delaware until the large and complex I-495/I-295/US 202/DE 141 interchange in Newport and turns northeast through Wilmington skirting the west side of city before leaving Delaware in Claymont at the state's extreme northeastern corner.

Entering southeastern Pennsylvania near Marcus Hook, I-95 crosses Delaware County and the city of Chester, closely following the Delaware River. Entering Philadelphia near the Philadelphia International Airport, the freeway follows a large viaduct along the extreme eastern edge of Philadelphia's Center City, joining the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Bristol before entering New Jersey on the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge.

In New Jersey, I-95 follows the Pearl Harbor Memorial Turnpike Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike, joining the mainline Turnpike at exit 6. At the end of the Turnpike, I-95 turns east along its own freeway alignment and connects to New York City (and crosses into New York State) via the George Washington Bridge.[15]

I-95 in New York City comprises all or part several named expressways, including the Trans-Manhattan Expressway, the Cross Bronx Expressway, and the Bruckner Expressway as it crosses east-northeast across the boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx. Within this 15-mile (24 km) stretch, I-95 intersects I-87 in the South Bronx, which connects to Albany and Upstate New York, as well as several auxiliary interstates that provide access to other New York boroughs and to Long Island. Entering Westchester County in Pelham, I-95 then follows the New England Thruway northeast to Connecticut border at Port Chester, where it continues as the Connecticut Turnpike.[16]

Much of I-95 from Baltimore through to Connecticut is tolled, following the course of several turnpikes that pre-date the interstate highway system, as well as several other toll roads and toll bridges.

New England[edit]

I-95 enters New England in the state of Connecticut, where it closely follows state's southern coast. The direction through Connecticut is primarily east-west, and passes through the most densely populated part of the state, passing the cities of Stamford, Bridgeport (the state's most populous city), and New Haven. In New Haven, it intersects with I-91 as it passes into the more rural areas of the Lower Connecticut River Valley. I-95 leaves the Connecticut Turnpike at I-395 at the East Lyme/Waterford town line. I-95 next passes New London and Groton, before route curves northeast and leaving its close connection to the coast. It leaves Connecticut in the town of North Stonington.

I 95 enters Rhode Island in the town of Hopkinton, and connecting the quiet rural areas of the southwestern corner of the state with the more metropolitan region around the state capital, Providence, in the state's northeastern corner. It leaves Rhode Island in the town of Pawtucket.

Entering Massachusetts in Attleboro, I-95 heads northeast towards Boston. In Canton, southwest of Boston, it turns sharply to the west and begins a 37-mile long concurrency with Route 128, a beltway that traverses Boston's inner suburbs. At this point, I-93 has its southern terminus, and provides access to the city of Boston itself. I-95 intersects the Massachusetts Turnpike/I-90 at the Weston/Newton line and I-93 a second time at the tripoint of Woburn, Reading, and Stoneham. North of Boston, I-95 turns north in Peabody, while Route 128 continues east to Cape Ann. I-95 leaves Massachusetts in Salisbury.

I-95 enters New Hampshire in the town of Seabrook, following the pre-Interstate New Hampshire Turnpike and traversing the 18 miles (29 km)-long Seacoast Region and the historic city of Portsmouth where it leaves the state.

In Maine, it follows the Maine Turnpike, closely following the coast in a northeasterly direction until reaching Portland, the state's largest city. From there it turns northward to Augusta, where the Maine Turnpike ends while I-95 continues north to Palmyra, where it turns east to Bangor. From Bangor it turns north again to Smyrna and makes a final turn to the east, reaching the Houlton–Woodstock Border Crossing in Houlton. The road continues into the Canadian province of New Brunswick as Route 95.[17]

History[edit]

Many parts of I-95 were made up of toll roads that had already been constructed or planned, particularly in the northeast.[18] Many of these routes still exist today, but some have removed their tolls. Outside of Florida, all current I-95 toll facilities are compatible with the E-ZPass electronic payment system; in Florida, while I-95 can be driven toll-free, use of the '95 Express Managed Toll Lanes' requires a SunPass transponder.

The toll roads utilized as part of I-95 formerly included Florida's Turnpike, the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike (tolled until 1992), and the Connecticut Turnpike (tolled until 1985). Additionally, the Fuller Warren Bridge, spanning the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida, was tolled until the 1980s. Today, tolls remain on Maryland's Fort McHenry Tunnel and John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway, the Delaware Turnpike, the Pennsylvania Turnpike, the New Jersey Turnpike, New York's George Washington Bridge and New England Thruway, the New Hampshire Turnpike, and the Maine Turnpike.

Until 2018, a gap existed on I-95 within New Jersey. From Pennsylvania, I-95 entered the state on the Scudder Falls Bridge, and continued east to US 1 in Lawrence Township. Here, I-95 abruptly ended and transitioned into I-295. From New York, I-95 entered the state on the George Washington Bridge and followed the New Jersey Turnpike south to exit 6, ran along an extension of the turnpike, and ended on the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge at the Pennsylvania state line, where the route transitioned into I-276. This discontinuity was caused by the 1983 cancellation of the Somerset Freeway, a planned alignment of I-95 further inland from the turnpike. In order to close the gap, an interchange was constructed where I-95 crosses the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Bristol Township, Pennsylvania. After the first components of the interchange opened on September 22, 2018, I-95 was rerouted onto the Pennsylvania Turnpike, meeting up with where I-95 previously ended at the state line. This project closed the last remaining gap in the route.[2] The former section of I-95 between the Pennsylvania Turnpike and US 1 in Lawrence became an extension of I-295. The interchange with the Pennsylvania Turnpike will be expanded in the future, connecting northbound I-95 with the westbound turnpike, and the eastbound turnpike with southbound I-95.[19]

In the 21st century, several large projects between Richmond, Virginia, and New Jersey have aimed to decrease congestion along the corridor. The reconstruction of the Springfield Interchange in Northern Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., helped to ease traffic at the intersection of I-95, I-495, and I-395, and surrounding interchanges. The Springfield Interchange is one of the busiest highway junctions on the East Coast, serving between 400,000 and 500,000 vehicles per day. With the exception of HOT lanes on the Capital Beltway (I-495/I-95), this project was completed in July 2007.[20] A few miles to the east was another major project: the Woodrow Wilson Bridge replacement. The bridge carries I-95/I-495 over the Potomac River. The former Woodrow Wilson Bridge, which has since been demolished, was a six-lane bridge that was severely over-capacity. The new bridge is actually two bridges with a total of 12 lanes; five in each direction, with an additional lane in each direction for future use (rapid-bus or train). This project was completed with the 10 lanes opened on December 13, 2008, greatly reducing the traffic delays on the beltway. The lanes are divided into two thru-lanes and three local lanes in each direction. About 30 miles (48 km) north of the Wilson Bridge, and about 20 miles (32 km) south of Baltimore near Laurel, Maryland, construction on a large new interchange began in 2008, was scheduled for completion in late 2011, and opened to traffic on November 9, 2014, which connects I-95 to Maryland Route 200.

In 2006, the Virginia General Assembly passed SJ184, a resolution calling for an interstate compact to build a toll highway between Dover, Delaware, and Charleston, South Carolina, as an alternative to I-95 that would allow long-distance traffic to avoid the D.C. Metropolitan area.[21]

Federal legislation has identified I-95 through Connecticut as High Priority Corridor 65. A long-term multibillion-dollar program to upgrade the entire length of I-95 through Connecticut has been underway since the mid-1990s and is expected to continue through at least 2020. Several miles of the Connecticut Turnpike through Bridgeport were widened and brought up to Interstate standards. Work has shifted to reconstructing and widening 12 miles (19 km) of I-95 through New Haven, which includes replacing the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge. Environmental studies for reconstructing and widening 60 miles (97 km) of I-95 from New Haven to the Rhode Island state line are also progressing.

There are plans to expand the 1,054-mile (1,696 km) I-95 corridor from Petersburg, Virginia, to Florida through a U.S. multi-state agreement to study how to improve the corridor through widening and reconstruction, with the goal of reducing congestion and improving overall safety for years to come.[22]

I-95 from the South Carolina–Georgia line to the freeway's southern terminus in South Florida has been widened to a minimum of six lanes. The section from Jacksonville to the I-4 junction in Daytona Beach was expanded to six lanes in 2005. Projects begun in 2009, widening the roadbed in Brevard County from the SR 528 junction in Cocoa to Palm Bay, as well as in northern Palm Beach County. The last segments of I-95 in Florida to remain at only four lanes have now been upgraded, providing motorists with about five-hundred miles of continuous six-lane roadbed.

In 2009, state legislators representing Maine's Aroostook County proposed using federal economic stimulus funds to extend I-95 north to Maine's northernmost border community of Fort Kent via Caribou and Presque Isle.[23] The proposed route would parallel New Brunswick's four-lane, limited access Trans-Canada Highway on the U.S. side of the Canada–United States border. Legislators argued that extension of the Interstate would promote economic growth in the region.

Major intersections[edit]

Florida
US 1 in Miami
US 41 in Miami
Florida's Turnpike in Golden Glades
US 441 in Golden Glades
I-595 in Fort Lauderdale
US 98 in West Palm Beach
US 192 in Melbourne
I-4 in Daytona Beach
US 92 in Daytona Beach
I-295 in Jacksonville
US 90 in Jacksonville
I-10 / US 17 in Jacksonville
US 23 in Jacksonville
Georgia
US 17 / US 82 in Brunswick
US 84 near Midway
I-16 in Savannah
US 80 in Pooler
South Carolina
US 278 near Port Royal
US 15 near Orangeburg
US 21 in Yemassee
US 78 in St. George
US 178 near Bowman
I-26 near Harleyville
US 176 near Holly Hill
US 15 / US 301 in Santee
US 521 near Manning
US 378 near Turbeville
US 76 in Florence
I-20 in Florence
US 52 near Florence
North Carolina
US 301 / US 501 near Rowland
I-74 / US 74 near Lumberton
I-295 / US 13 in Eastover
US 421 in Dunn
I-40 in Benson
US 70 in Selma
I-795 / US 264 in Wilson
US 64 in Rocky Mount
US 158 in Roanoke Rapids
Virginia
US 58 in Emporia
I-295 near Petersburg
I-85 / US 460 in Petersburg
US 250 in Richmond
I-64 in Richmond
I-195 in Richmond
US 1 / US 301 in Richmond
US 17 in Fredericksburg
I-395 / I-495 in Springfield
District of Columbia
none
Maryland
I-295 near Forest Heights
US 50 near Glenarden
I-495 near Adelphi
I-895 near Baltimore
I-195 near Baltimore
I-695 near Baltimore
I-395 in Baltimore
US 40 in Baltimore
Delaware
I-295 / I-495 / US 202 in Newport
Pennsylvania
US 322 in Chester
I-476 in Ridley Township
I-76 in Philadelphia
I-676 / US 30 in Philadelphia
I-295 / I-276 / Penna Turnpike near Bristol
US 13 near Bristol
New Jersey
US 130 in Florence Township
N.J. Turnpike in Mansfield Township
US 206 in Bordentown Township
I-195 in Robbinsville Township
I-287 in Edison Township
G.S. Parkway / US 9 in Woodbridge Township
I-278 in Elizabeth
I-78 / US 1 / US 9 in Newark
I-280 in Kearny
US 46 in Ridgefield Park
I-80 in Teaneck Township
US 1 / US 9 / US 46 in Fort Lee
US 9W in Fort Lee
New York
US 9 in Manhattan
I-87 in The Bronx
I-278 / I-295 / I-678 in Throggs Neck
I-287 in Rye
Connecticut
US 7 in Norwalk
I-91 in New Haven
I-395 in East Lyme
Rhode Island
I-295 in Warwick
I-195 / US 6 in Providence
US 6 in Providence
US 44 in Providence
Massachusetts
I-295 in Attleboro
I-495 in Mansfield
I-93 / US 1 in Canton
I-90/Mass Pike in Weston
US 20 in Waltham
US 3 in Burlington
I-93 in Reading
I-495 in Amesbury
New Hampshire
US 4 / Spaulding Turnpike in Portsmouth
Maine
I-195 in Saco
I-295 near Portland
I-495 in Portland
US 202 in Augusta
US 201 in Fairfield
I-395 in Bangor
US 2 in Bangor
US 1 in Houlton
US 2 in Houlton
Route 95 in Houlton

Auxiliary routes[edit]

Interstate 95 has many auxiliary routes. They can be found in most states the route runs through; with exceptions being Georgia, South Carolina, and New Hampshire. Business routes also exist in both Georgia and North Carolina.

Florida
North Carolina
Virginia
District of Columbia
Maryland
Delaware, Pennsylvania, & New Jersey
New York
Connecticut, Rhode Island, & Massachusetts
Maine

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Staff (October 31, 2002). "Table 1: Main Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as of December 31, 2017". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Sofield, Tom (September 22, 2018). "Decades in the Making, I-95, Turnpike Connector Opens to Motorists". Levittown Now. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  3. ^ Montgomery, David & White, Josh (February 23, 2001). "128 Cars, Trucks Crash in Snow on I-95". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  4. ^ Samuel, Peter (December 10, 2010). "Penn Pike Moving—Very Slowly—To End Gap in I-95". TollRoadsNews. Archived from the original on December 13, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
  5. ^ El Nasser, Haya (June 27, 2004). "Small-Town USA Goes 'Micropolitan'". USA Today.
  6. ^ "I-95 Corridor Facts". I-95 Corridor Coalition. March 30, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
  7. ^ Griffin, Riley (August 20, 2018). "No Thanks to New Jersey, I-95 Is Finally Done 60 Years Later". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  8. ^ "Flight of the Navigator (1986)".
  9. ^ Google (June 8, 2009). "Southern Terminus of I-95 at Miami, Florida" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  10. ^ "I-95 'Missing Link' Okayed". Lakeland Ledger. April 19, 1973. p. 4A.
  11. ^ "Gap In I-95 To Close Saturday". Miami Herald. December 13, 1987. p. 1A.
  12. ^ Tom Barlow (July 13, 2010). "Most deadly times, places to drive". Walletpop.com. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
  13. ^ "Georgia's Interstate Exit Numbers". Georgia Department of Transportation. June 12, 2003. Archived from the original on February 15, 2004. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
  14. ^ "Miscellaneous Interstate System Facts". Federal Highway Administration. April 6, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  15. ^ "I-95/I-295 Signing Redesignation Project Overview". New Jersey Department of Transportation. February 21, 2018. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  16. ^ Google (September 22, 2018). "Interstate 95 in New York" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  17. ^ Google (September 22, 2018). "I-95 In New England" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  18. ^ Schleck, Dave (July 17, 2002). "Exceptions to the law allow I-90 tolls in some states". Daily Press. Newport News, Virginia. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  19. ^ "Pennsylvania Turnpike/Interstate 95 Interchange Project".
  20. ^ "Interstate 95 @ Interstate-Guide.com". Interstate Guide. Retrieved February 15, 2008.[self-published source]
  21. ^ "SJ 184 Interstate Route 95; Construction and Operation of Controlled-Access Highway as Alternative Thereto". Virginia Legislature. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011.
  22. ^ Drewes, Britt (February 3, 2009). "Five States and USDOT Partner to Improve Interstate 95 Through Corridor of the Future Program: Development Agreement Aims to Reduce Congestion, Increase Safety and Reliability" (Press release). Virginia Department of Transportation. CO-0903. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
  23. ^ "Aroostook Delegation Pushes for I-95 Extension". Bangor Daily News. April 10, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  24. ^ a b c New York State Department of Transportation (January 2017). Official Description of Highway Touring Routes, Bicycling Touring Routes, Scenic Byways, & Commemorative/Memorial Designations in New York State (PDF). Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  25. ^ a b Zupan, Jeffrey M.; Barone, Richard E.; Lee, Mathew H. (January 2011). "Upgrading to World Class: The Future of the New York Region's Airports" (PDF). Regional Plan Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  26. ^ Cliness, Francis X. (March 25, 1971). "Lower Manhattan Road Killed Under State Plan". The New York Times. p. 78. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  27. ^ Fowle, Farnsworth (October 23, 1968). "Van Wyck Roads Are Under Study: Better Use of Service Lanes Sought for Kennedy Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  28. ^ "Expressway Plans". Regional Plan News. Regional Plan Association (73–74): 1–18. May 1964. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  29. ^ Expressway Plans. Regional Plan Association. 1964. Retrieved April 19, 2018 – via nycroads.com.
  30. ^ New York State Highways (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally and Company. State of New York Department of Commerce. 1969.

Further reading[edit]

  • Evans, Mark T. (2015). Main Street, America: Histories of I-95 (Ph.D. dissertation). University of South Carolina.

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata