When the brain suffers severe trauma it begins to swell inside the skull. If the brain swelling goes undetected and is not treated the brain becomes deprived of oxygen-rich blood and "starves". This secondary injury causes permanent brain damage. As ICP monitoring allows doctors to determine how much swelling the brain has sustained, cerebrospinal fluid can be drained accordingly in order to prevent oxygen deprivation.
In the United States surveys conducted in 1995, 2000 and 2006 have shown that since 1995 (the year the TBI Guidelines were published) ICP Monitoring rose from 32% to 78% in 2005.
^Ghajar, J; Hariri, RJ; Narayan, RK; Iacono, Laura A.; Firlik, Katrina; Patterson, Russel H. (1995), "Survey of critical care management of comatose, head-injured patients in the United States", Crit. Care Med, 23 (3), pp. 560–567, doi:10.1097/00003246-199503000-00023
^Hersdorffer, DC; Ghajar, J; Iacono, Laura (2002), "Predictors of Compliance with the Evidence-Based Guidelines for Traumatic Brain Injury Care: A Survey of United States Trauma Centers", J Trauma, 52 (6), pp. 1202–1209, doi:10.1097/00005373-200206000-00031
^Hersdorffer, DC; Ghajar, J (2007), "Marked improvement in adherence to traumatic brain injury guidelines in United States trauma centers", J Trauma, 63 (4), pp. 841–848, doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318123fc21, PMID18090015