Intrinsic value (finance)
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In finance, intrinsic value refers to the value of a company, stock, currency or product determined through fundamental analysis without reference to its market value. It is also frequently called fundamental value. It is ordinarily calculated by summing the discounted future income generated by the asset to obtain the present value. It is worthy to note that this term may have different meanings for different assets.
The value of an option is the sum of its intrinsic and its time value.
Stocks are assumed to be equity instruments because they are supposed to represent ownership interest in the company. However, the 'equity' label is somewhat questionable. Class C common stocks for example, do not have any voting rights or dividend privileges. They are still considered equity instruments by finance professionals, but shareholders are not entitled to the earnings of the underlying company and lack the right to voice an opinion.
In valuing equity, securities analysts may use fundamental analysis—as opposed to technical analysis—to estimate the intrinsic value of a company. Here the "intrinsic" characteristic considered is the expected cash flow production of the company in question. Intrinsic value is therefore defined to be the present value of all expected future net cash flows to the company; it is calculated via discounted cash flow valuation. This is not a proven theorem or a validated theory, but a general assumption.
An alternative, though related approach, is to view intrinsic value as the value of a business' ongoing operations, as opposed to its accounting based book value, or break-up value. Warren Buffett is known for his ability to calculate the intrinsic value of a business, and then buy that business when its price is at a discount to its intrinsic value.
In valuing real estate, a similar approach may be used. The "intrinsic value" of real estate is therefore defined as the net present value of all future net cash flows which are foregone by buying a piece of real estate instead of renting it in perpetuity. These cash flows would include rent, inflation, maintenance and property taxes. This calculation can be done using the Gordon model.
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