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Iñupiaq language

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Uqausiq/Uqausriq Iñupiatun,
Qanġuziq/Qaġnuziq/Qanġusiq Inupiatun
Native toUnited States, formerly Russia; Northwest Territories of Canada
RegionAlaska; formerly Big Diomede Island
Ethnicity20,709 Iñupiat (2015)
Native speakers
1,250 fully fluent speakers (2023)[1]
Early forms
Latin (Iñupiaq alphabet)
Iñupiaq Braille
Official status
Official language in
Alaska,[2] Northwest Territories (as Uummarmiutun dialect)
Language codes
ISO 639-1ik
ISO 639-2ipk
ISO 639-3ipk – inclusive code
Individual codes:
esi – North Alaskan Iñupiatun
esk – Northwest Alaska Iñupiatun
Iñupiaq dialects and speech communities
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
iñuk / nuna
"person" / "land"
Dual: Iñupiak
CountryIñupiat Nunaat

Iñupiaq or Inupiaq (/ɪˈnpiæk/ ih-NOO-pee-ak, Inupiaq: [iɲupiaq]), also known as Iñupiat, Inupiat (/ɪˈnpiæt/ ih-NOO-pee-at), Iñupiatun or Alaskan Inuit, is an Inuit language, or perhaps group of languages, spoken by the Iñupiat people in northern and northwestern Alaska, as well as a small adjacent part of the Northwest Territories of Canada. The Iñupiat language is a member of the Inuit-Yupik-Unangan language family, and is closely related and, to varying degrees, mutually intelligible with other Inuit languages of Canada and Greenland. There are roughly 2,000 speakers.[3] Iñupiaq is considered to be a threatened language, with most speakers at or above the age of 40.[4] Iñupiaq is an official language of the State of Alaska, along with several other indigenous languages.[5]

The major varieties of the Iñupiaq language are the North Slope Iñupiaq and Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq dialects.

The Iñupiaq language has been in decline since contact with English in the late 19th century. American territorial acquisition and the legacy of boarding schools have created a situation today where a small minority of Iñupiat speak the Iñupiaq language. There is, however, revitalization work underway today in several communities.


The Iñupiaq language is an Inuit language, the ancestors of which may have been spoken in the northern regions of Alaska for as long as 5,000 years. Between 1,000 and 800 years ago, Inuit migrated east from Alaska to Canada and Greenland, eventually occupying the entire Arctic coast and much of the surrounding inland areas. The Iñupiaq dialects are the most conservative forms of the Inuit language, with less linguistic change than the other Inuit languages.[citation needed]

In the mid to late 19th century, Russian, British, and American colonists made contact with Iñupiat people. In 1885, the American territorial government appointed Rev. Sheldon Jackson as General Agent of Education.[6] Under his administration, Iñupiat people (and all Alaska Natives) were educated in English-only environments, forbidding the use of Iñupiaq and other indigenous languages of Alaska. After decades of English-only education, with strict punishment if heard speaking Iñupiaq, after the 1970s, most Iñupiat did not pass the Iñupiaq language on to their children, for fear of them being punished for speaking their language.

In 1972, the Alaska Legislature passed legislation mandating that if "a [school is attended] by at least 15 pupils whose primary language is other than English, [then the school] shall have at least one teacher who is fluent in the native language".[7]

Today, the University of Alaska Fairbanks offers bachelor's degrees in Iñupiaq language and culture, while a preschool/kindergarten-level Iñupiaq immersion school named Nikaitchuat Iḷisaġviat teaches grades PreK-1st grade in Kotzebue.

In 2014, Iñupiaq became an official language of the State of Alaska, alongside English and nineteen other indigenous languages.[5]

In 2018, Facebook added Iñupiaq as a language option on their website.[8] In 2022, an Iñupiaq version of Wordle was created.[9][10]


There are four main dialect divisions and these can be organized within two larger dialect collections:[11]

  • Iñupiaq
    • Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq is spoken on the Seward Peninsula. It has a possible Yupik substrate and is divergent from other Inuit languages.
      • Qawiaraq
      • Bering Strait
    • Northern Alaskan Iñupiaq is spoken from the Northwest Arctic and North Slope regions of Alaska to the Mackenzie Delta in Northwest Territories, Canada.
      • Malimiut
      • North Slope Iñupiaq
Dialect collection[11][12] Dialect[11][12] Subdialect[11][12] Tribal nation(s) Populated areas[12]
Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq Bering Strait Diomede Iŋalit Little Diomede Island, Big Diomede Island until the late 1940s
Wales Kiŋikmiut, Tapqaġmiut Wales, Shishmaref, Brevig Mission
King Island Ugiuvaŋmiut King Island until the early 1960s, Nome
Qawiaraq Teller Siñiġaġmiut, Qawiaraġmiut Teller, Shaktoolik
Fish River Iġałuiŋmiut White Mountain, Golovin
Northern Alaskan Iñupiaq Malimiutun Kobuk Kuuŋmiut, Kiitaaŋmiut [Kiitaaġmiut], Siilim Kaŋianiġmiut, Nuurviŋmiut, Kuuvaum Kaŋiaġmiut, Akuniġmiut, Nuataaġmiut, Napaaqtuġmiut, Kivalliñiġmiut[13] Kobuk River Valley, Selawik
Coastal Pittaġmiut, Kaŋiġmiut, Qikiqtaġruŋmiut[13] Kotzebue, Noatak
North Slope / Siḷaliñiġmiutun Common North Slope Utuqqaġmiut, Siliñaġmiut [Kukparuŋmiut and Kuuŋmiut], Kakligmiut [Sitarumiut, Utqiaġvigmiut and Nuvugmiut], Kuulugruaġmiut, Ikpikpagmiut, Kuukpigmiut [Kañianermiut, Killinermiut and Kagmalirmiut][13][14]
Point Hope[15] Tikiġaġmiut Point Hope[15]
Point Barrow Nuvuŋmiut
Anaktuvuk Pass Nunamiut Anaktuvuk Pass
Uummarmiutun (Uummaġmiutun) Uummarmiut (Uummaġmiut) Aklavik (Canada), Inuvik (Canada)

Extra geographical information:

Bering Strait dialect:

The Native population of the Big Diomede Island was moved to the Siberian mainland after World War II. The following generation of the population spoke Central Siberian Yupik or Russian.[12] The entire population of King Island moved to Nome in the early 1960s.[12] The Bering Strait dialect might also be spoken in Teller on the Seward Peninsula.[15]

Qawiaraq dialect:

A dialect of Qawiaraq is spoken in Nome.[15][12] A dialect of Qawariaq may also be spoken in Koyuk,[12] Mary's Igloo, Council, and Elim.[15] The Teller sub-dialect may be spoken in Unalakleet.[15][12]

Malimiutun dialect:

Both sub-dialects can be found in Buckland, Koyuk, Shaktoolik, and Unalakleet.[15][12] A dialect of Malimiutun may be spoken in Deering, Kiana, Noorvik, Shungnak, and Ambler.[15] The Malimiutun sub-dialects have also been classified as "Southern Malimiut" (found in Koyuk, Shaktoolik, and Unalakleet) and "Northern Malimiut" found in "other villages".[15]

North Slope dialect:

Common North Slope is "a mix of the various speech forms formerly used in the area".[12] The Point Barrow dialect was "spoken only by a few elders" in 2010.[12] A dialect of North Slope is also spoken in Kivalina, Point Lay, Wainwright, Atqasuk, Utqiaġvik, Nuiqsut, and Barter Island.[15]


Iñupiaq dialects differ widely between consonants used. However, consonant clusters of more than two consonants in a row do not occur. A word may not begin nor end with a consonant cluster.[15]

All Iñupiaq dialects have three basic vowel qualities: /a i u/.[15][12] There is currently no instrumental work to determine what allophones may be linked to these vowels. All three vowels can be long or short, giving rise to a system of six phonemic vowels /a aː i iː u uː/. Long vowels are represented by double letters in the orthography: ⟨aa⟩, ⟨ii⟩, ⟨uu⟩.[15] The following diphthongs occur: /ai ia au ua iu ui/.[15][16] No more than two vowels occur in a sequence in Iñupiaq.[15]

The Bering strait dialect has a fourth vowel /e/, which preserves the fourth proto-Eskimo vowel reconstructed as */ə/.[15][12] In the other dialects, proto-Eskimo */e/ has merged with the closed front vowel /i/. The merged /i/ is referred to as the "strong /i/", which causes palatalization when preceding consonant clusters in the North Slope dialect (see section on palatalization below). The other /i/ is referred to as "the weak /i/". Weak and strong /i/s are not differentiated in orthography,[15] making it impossible to tell which ⟨i⟩ represents palatalization "short of looking at other processes which depend on the distinction between two i's or else examining data from other Eskimo languages".[17] However, it can be assumed that, within a word, if a palatal consonant is preceded by an ⟨i⟩, it is strong. If an alveolar consonant is preceded by an ⟨i⟩, it is weak.[17]

Words begin with a stop (with the exception of the palatal stop /c/), the fricative /s/, nasals /m n/, with a vowel, or the semivowel /j/. Loanwords, proper names, and exclamations may begin with any segment in both the Seward Peninsula dialects and the North Slope dialects.[15] In the Uummarmiutun dialect words can also begin with /h/. For example, the word for "ear" in North Slope and Little Diomede Island dialects is siun whereas in Uummarmiutun it is hiun.

A word may end in any nasal sound (except for the /ɴ/ found in North Slope), in the stops /t k q/ or in a vowel. In the North Slope dialect if a word ends with an m, and the next word begins with a stop, the m is pronounced /p/, as in aġnam tupiŋa, pronounced /aʁnap tupiŋa/[15]

Very little information of the prosody of Iñupiaq has been collected. However, "fundamental frequency (Hz), intensity (dB), loudness (sones), and spectral tilt (phons - dB) may be important" in Malimiutun.[18] Likewise, "duration is not likely to be important in Malimiut Iñupiaq stress/syllable prominence".[18]

North Slope Iñupiaq[edit]

For North Slope Iñupiaq[11][15][19]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals m n ɲ ŋ ɴ
Stops p t c [18] k q ʔ[a]
Fricatives voiceless f s ʂ x χ h
voiced v ʐ[b] ɣ ʁ
Lateral voiceless ɬ 𝼆[c]
voiced l ʎ
Approximant j
  1. ^ The phoneme /ʔ/ might not exist.
  2. ^ Recent learners of the language, and heritage speakers are replacing the sound /ʐ/ (written in Iñupiaq as "r") with the American English /ɹ/ sound with which it is similar.[18]
  3. ^ The sound /𝼆/ might actually be /ɬʲ/.

The voiceless stops /p/ /t/ /k/ and /q/ are not aspirated.[15] This may or may not be true for other dialects as well.

/c/ is derived from a palatalized and unreleased /t/.[15]



Two consonants cannot appear together unless they share the manner of articulation (in this case treating the lateral and approximant consonants as fricatives). The only exception to this rule is having a voiced fricative consonant appear with a nasal consonant. Since all stops in North Slope are voiceless, a lot of needed assimilation arises from having to assimilate a voiceless stop to a voiced consonant.

This process is realized by assimilating the first consonant in the cluster to a consonant that: 1) has the same (or closest possible) area of articulation as the consonant being assimilated to; and 2) has the same manner of articulation as the second consonant that it is assimilating to. If the second consonant is a lateral or approximant, the first consonant will assimilate to a lateral or approximant if possible. If not the first consonant will assimilate to a fricative. Therefore:

IPA Example
/kn/ → /ɣn/
or → /ŋn/


"to put boots on"









kamigniaqtuq or kamiŋniaqtuq

he will put the boots on

Kamik + niaq + te → {kamigniaqtuq or kamiŋniaqtuq}

{"to put boots on"} + "will" + "he" → {he will put the boots on}

/qn/ → /ʁn/
or → /ɴ/ *


"to study"










he will study

iḷisaq + niaq + tuq → iḷisaġniaqtuq

{"to study"} + "will" + "he" → {he will study}

/tn/ → /nn/


"to run"










he will run

aqpat + niaq + tuq → aqpanniaqtuq

{"to run"} + "will" + "he" → {he will run}

/tm/ → /nm/


"to stand up"




"when he"


When he stood up

makit + man → makinman

{"to stand up"} + {"when he"} → {When he stood up}

/tɬ/ → /ɬɬ/


"to stand"




"by ---ing"


standing up, he ...

makit + łuni → makiłłuni

{"to stand"} + {"by ---ing"} → {standing up, he ...}

* The sound /ɴ/ is not represented in the orthography. Therefore the spelling ġn can be pronounced as /ʁn/ or /ɴn/. In both examples 1 and 2, since voiced fricatives can appear with nasal consonants, both consonant clusters are possible.

The stops /t̚ʲ/ and /t/ do not have a corresponding voiced fricative, therefore they will assimilate to the closest possible area of articulation. In this case, the /t̚ʲ/ will assimilate to the voiced approximant /j/. The /t/ will assimilate into a /ʐ/. Therefore:

IPA Example
/t̚ʲɣ/ → /jɣ/






"it is said that"


it is said that squirrels

siksriit + guuq → siksriiyguuq

"squirrels" + {"it is said that"} → {it is said that squirrels}

/TV/ → /ʐv/


"to run"






race track

aqpat + vik → aqparvik

{"to run"} + "place" → {race track}

(In the first example above note that <sr> denotes a single consonant, as shown in the alphabet section below, so the constraint of at most two consonants in a cluster, as mentioned above, is not violated.)

In the case of the second consonant being a lateral, the lateral will again be treated as a fricative. Therefore:

IPA Example
/ml/ → /ml/
or → /vl/


"(of) the woman"





aġnamlu or aġnavlu

and (of) the woman

aġnam + lu → {aġnamlu or aġnavlu}

{"(of) the woman"} + "and" → {and (of) the woman}

/nl/ → /nl/
or → /ll/


"the man"





aŋunlu or aŋullu

and the man

aŋun + lu → {aŋunlu or aŋullu}

{"the man"} + "and" → {and the man}

Since voiced fricatives can appear with nasal consonants, both consonant clusters are possible.

The sounds /f/ /x/ and /χ/ are not represented in the orthography (unless they occur alone between vowels). Therefore, like the /ɴn/ example shown above, assimilation still occurs while the spelling remains the same. Therefore:

IPA (pronunciation) Example
/qɬ/ → /χɬ/





/kʂ/ → /xʂ/





/vs/ → /fs/





These general features of assimilation are not shared with Uummarmiut, Malimiutun, or the Seward Peninsula dialects. Malimiutun and the Seward Peninsula dialects "preserve voiceless stops (k, p, q, t) when they are etymological (i.e. when they belong to the original word-base)".[12] Compare:

North Slope Malimiutun Seward Peninsula dialects Uummarmiut English
nivliqsuq nipliqsuq nivliraqtuq makes a sound
igniq ikniq ikniq fire
annuġaak atnuġaak atar̂aaq garment



The following patterns of palatalization can occur in North Slope Iñupiaq: /t/ → /t̚ʲ/, /tʃ/ or /s/; /ɬ//ʎ̥/; /l//ʎ/; and /n/ → /ɲ/. Palatalization only occurs when one of these four alveolars is preceded by a strong i. Compare:

Type of I Example







qimmiq → qimmit

/qimːiq/ → /qimːit̚ʲ/

dog → dogs








tumi → tumit

/tumi/ → /tumit/

footprint → footprints







and a mountain

iġġi → iġġiḷu

/iʁːi/ → /iʁːiʎu/

mountain → {and a mountain}







and a footprint

tumi → tumilu

/tumi/ → /tumilu/

footprint → {and a footprint}

Please note that the sound /t̚ʲ/ does not have its own letter, and is simply spelled with a T t. The IPA transcription of the above vowels may be incorrect.

If a t that precedes a vowel is palatalized, it will become an /s/. The strong i affects the entire consonant cluster, palatalizing all consonants that can be palatalized within the cluster. Therefore:

Type of I Example









amongst the plural things



amongst, in the midst of dogs

qimmiq + tigun → qimmisigun

/qimmiq/ + /tiɣun/ → /qimːisiɣun/

dog + {amongst the plural things} → {amongst, in the midst of dogs}




to be smart









she/he/it is smart

puqik + tuq → puqiksuq

/puqik/ + /tuq/ → /puqiksuq/

{to be smart} + {she/he/it} → {she/he/it is smart}

Note in the first example, due to the nature of the suffix, the /q/ is dropped. Like the first set of examples, the IPA transcriptions of above vowels may be incorrect.

If a strong i precedes geminate consonant, the entire elongated consonant becomes palatalized. For Example: niġḷḷaturuq and tikiññiaqtuq.

Further strong versus weak i processes[edit]


The strong i can be paired with a vowel. The weak i on the other hand cannot.[17] The weak i will become an a if it is paired with another vowel, or if the consonant before the i becomes geminate. This rule may or may not apply to other dialects. Therefore:

Type of I Example






her/his footprint

tumi → tumaa

/tumi/ → /tumaː/

footprint → {her/his footprint}







her/his dog

qimmiq → qimmia

/qimːiq/ → /qimːia/

dog → {her/his dog}







two boots

kamik → kammak

/kamik/ → /kamːak/

boot → {two boots}

Like the first two sets of examples, the IPA transcriptions of above vowels may not be correct.

Uummarmiutun sub-dialect[edit]

For the Uummarmiutun sub-dialect:[16]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals m n ɲ ŋ
Stops voiceless p t k q ʔ[a]
Fricatives voiceless f x χ h
voiced v ʐ ɣ ʁ
Lateral voiceless ɬ
voiced l
Approximant j
  1. ^ Ambiguities: This sound might exist in the Uummarmiutun sub dialect.

Phonological rules[edit]

The following are the phonological rules:[16] The /f/ is always found as a geminate.

The /j/ cannot be geminated, and is always found between vowels or preceded by /v/. In rare cases it can be found at the beginning of a word.

The /h/ is never geminate, and can appear as the first letter of the word, between vowels, or preceded by /k/ /ɬ/ or /q/.

The /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ are always geminate or preceded by a /t/.

The /ʐ/ can appear between vowels, preceded by consonants /ɣ/ /k/ /q/ /ʁ/ /t/ or /v/, or it can be followed by /ɣ/, /v/, /ʁ/.

Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq[edit]

For Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq:[11]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals m n ŋ
Stops voiceless p t k q ʔ
voiced b
Fricatives voiceless s ʂ h
voiced v z ʐ ɣ ʁ
Lateral voiceless ɬ
voiced l
Approximant w j ɻ

Unlike the other Iñupiaq dialects, the Seward Peninsula dialect has a mid central vowel e (see the beginning of the phonology section for more information).


In North Slope Iñupiaq, all consonants represented by orthography can be geminated, except for the sounds /tʃ/ /s/ /h/ and /ʂ/.[15] Seward Peninsula Iñupiaq (using vocabulary from the Little Diomede Island as a representative sample) likewise can have all consonants represented by orthography appear as geminates, except for /b/ /h/ /ŋ/ /ʂ/ /w/ /z/ and /ʐ/. Gemination is caused by suffixes being added to a consonant, so that the consonant is found between two vowels.[15]

Writing systems[edit]

Iñupiaq was first written when explorers first arrived in Alaska and began recording words in the native languages. They wrote by adapting the letters of their own language to writing the sounds they were recording. Spelling was often inconsistent, since the writers invented it as they wrote. Unfamiliar sounds were often confused with other sounds, so that, for example, 'q' was often not distinguished from 'k' and long consonants or vowels were not distinguished from short ones.

Along with the Alaskan and Siberian Yupik, the Iñupiat eventually adopted the Latin script that Moravian missionaries developed in Greenland and Labrador. Native Alaskans also developed a system of pictographs,[which?] which, however, died with its creators.[20]

In 1946, Roy Ahmaogak, an Iñupiaq Presbyterian minister from Utqiaġvik, worked with Eugene Nida, a member of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, to develop the current Iñupiaq alphabet based on the Latin script. Although some changes have been made since its origin—most notably the change from 'ḳ' to 'q'—the essential system was accurate and is still in use.

Iñupiaq alphabet (North Slope and Northwest Arctic)[21]
A a Ch ch G g Ġ ġ H h I i K k L l Ḷ ḷ Ł ł Ł̣ ł̣ M m
a cha ga ġa ha i ka la ḷa ła ł̣a ma
/a/ // /ɣ/ /ʁ/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /l/ /ʎ/ /ɬ/ /𝼆/ /m/
N n Ñ ñ Ŋ ŋ P p Q q R r S s Sr sr T t U u V v Y y
na ña ŋa pa qa ra sa sra ta u va ya
/n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/ /p/ /q/ /ɹ/ /s/ /ʂ/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /j/

Extra letter for Kobuk dialect: ʼ /ʔ/

Iñupiaq alphabet (Seward Peninsula)
A a B b G g Ġ ġ H h I i K k L l Ł ł M m N n Ŋ ŋ P p
a ba ga ġa ha i ka la ła ma na ŋa pa
/a/ /b/ /ɣ/ /ʁ/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /l/ /ɬ/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /p/
Q q R r S s Sr sr T t U u V v W w Y y Z z Zr zr ʼ
qa ra sa sra ta u va wa ya za zra
/q/ /ɹ/ /s/ /ʂ/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /w/ /j/ /z/ /ʐ/ /ʔ/

Extra letters for specific dialects:

  • Diomede: e /ə/
  • Qawiaraq: ch //
Canadian Iñupiaq alphabet (Uummarmiutun)
A a Ch ch F f G g H h Dj dj I i K k L l Ł ł M m
a cha fa ga ha dja i ka la ła ma
/a/ // /f/ /ɣ/ /h/ // /i/ /k/ /l/ /ɬ/ /m/
N n Ñ ñ Ng ng P p Q q R r R̂ r̂ T t U u V v Y y
na ña ŋa pa qa ra r̂a ta u va ya
/n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/ /p/ /q/ /ʁ/ /ʐ/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /j/


Due to the number of dialects and complexity of Iñupiaq morphosyntax, the following section discusses Malimiutun morphosyntax as a representative. Any examples from other dialects will be marked as such.

Iñupiaq is a polysynthetic language, meaning that words can be extremely long, consisting of one of three stems (verb stem, noun stem, and demonstrative stem) along with one or more of three endings (postbases, (grammatical) endings, and enclitics).[15] The stem gives meaning to the word, whereas endings give information regarding case, mood, tense, person, plurality, etc. The stem can appear as simple (having no postbases) or complex (having one or more postbases). In Iñupiaq a "postbase serves somewhat the same functions that adverbs, adjectives, prefixes, and suffixes do in English" along with marking various types of tenses.[15] There are six word classes in Malimiut Inñupiaq: nouns (see Nominal Morphology), verbs (see Verbal Morphology), adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, and interjections. All demonstratives are classified as either adverbs or pronouns.[18]

Nominal morphology[edit]

The Iñupiaq category of number distinguishes singular, dual, and plural. The language works on an Ergative–Absolutive system, where nouns are inflected for number, several cases, and possession.[15] Iñupiaq (Malimiutun) has nine cases, two core cases (ergative and absolutive) and seven oblique cases (instrumental, allative, ablative, locative, perlative, similative and vocative).[18] North Slope Iñupiaq does not have the vocative case.[15] Iñupiaq does not have a category of gender and articles.[citation needed]

Iñupiaq nouns can likewise be classified by Wolf A. Seiler's seven noun classes.[18][22] These noun classes are "based on morphological behavior. [They] ... have no semantic basis but are useful for case formation ... stems of various classes interact with suffixes differently".[18]

Due to the nature of the morphology, a single case can take on up to 12 endings (ignoring the fact that realization of these endings can change depending on noun class). For example, the possessed ergative ending for a class 1a noun can take on the endings: -ma, ‑mnuk, ‑pta, ‑vich, ‑ptik, -psi, -mi, -mik, -miŋ, -ŋan, -ŋaknik, and ‑ŋata. Therefore, only general features will be described below. For an extensive list on case endings, please see Seiler 2012, Appendix 4, 6, and 7.[22]

Absolutive case/noun stems[edit]

The subject of an intransitive sentence or the object of a transitive sentence take on the absolutive case. This case is likewise used to mark the basic form of a noun. Therefore, all the singular, dual, and plural absolutive forms serve as stems for the other oblique cases.[15] The following chart is verified of both Malimiutun and North Slope Iñupiaq.

Absolutive endings[15][18]
singular -q, -k, -n, or any vowel
dual -k
plural -t

If the singular absolutive form ends with -n, it has the underlying form of -ti /tə/. This form will show in the absolutive dual and plural forms. Therefore:





two airplanes




multiple airplanes

tiŋmisuun → tiŋmisuutik & tiŋmisuutit

airplane {} {two airplanes} {} {multiple airplanes}

Regarding nouns that have an underlying /ə/ (weak i), the i will change to an a and the previous consonant will be geminated in the dual form. Therefore:





two boots

Kamik → kammak

boot {} {two boots}

If the singular form of the noun ends with -k, the preceding vowel will be elongated. Therefore:





two knives

savik → saviik

knife {} {two knives}

On occasion, the consonant preceding the final vowel is also geminated, though exact phonological reasoning is unclear.[18]

Ergative case[edit]

The ergative case is often referred to as the Relative Case in Iñupiaq sources.[15] This case marks the subject of a transitive sentence or a genitive (possessive) noun phrase. For non-possessed noun phrases, the noun is marked only if it is a third person singular. The unmarked nouns leave ambiguity as to who/what is the subject and object. This can be resolved only through context.[15][18] Possessed noun phrases and noun phrases expressing genitive are marked in ergative for all persons.[18]

Ergative endings[18]
Endings Allophones
-m -um, -im

This suffix applies to all singular unpossessed nouns in the ergative case.

Example English
aŋun → aŋutim man → man (ergative)
aŋatchiaq → aŋatchiaŋma uncle → my two uncles (ergative)

Please note the underlying /tə/ form in the first example.

Instrumental case[edit]

This case is also referred to as the modalis case. This case has a wide range of uses described below:

Usage of instrumental[18] Example
Marks nouns that are means by which the subject achieves something (see instrumental)




gray wale-ABS






(using it as a tool to)

Aŋuniaqtim aġviġluaq tuqutkaa nauligamik.

hunter.ERG {gray wale-ABS} kill-IND-3SG.SBJ-3SG.OBJ harpoon-INS

The hunter killed the gray whale with a harpoon.

Marks the apparent patient (grammatical object upon which the action was carried out) of syntactically intransitive verbs






(having the previous verb being done to it)

Miñułiqtugut umiamik.

paint-IND-3SG.OBJ boat-INS

We're painting a boat.

Marks information new to the narrative (when the noun is first mentioned in a narrative)

Marks indefinite objects of some transitive verbs






(new piece of information)

Tuyuġaat tuyuutimik.

send-IND-3PL.SBJ-3SG.OBJ letter-INS

They sent him a letter.

Marks the specification of a noun's meaning to incorporate the meaning of another noun (without incorporating both nouns into a single word) (Modalis of specification)[15]






(specifying that the caribou is food by referring to the previous noun)

Niġiqaqtuguk tuttumik.

food—have-IND-1DU.SBJ caribou-INS

We (dual) have (food) caribou for food.


how many-INS




(of the following noun)

Qavsiñik paniqaqpit?

{how many}-INS daughter—have

How many daughters do you have?

Instrumental endings[18]
Endings Examples
singular -mik




(with a) boot

Kamik → kamiŋmik

boot → {(with a) boot}

dual [dual absolutive stem] -nik


(two) boots


(with two) boots

kammak → kammaŋnik

{(two) boots} → {(with two) boots}

plural [singular absolutive stem] -nik




(with multiple) boots

kamik → kamiŋnik

boot → {(with multiple) boots}

Since the ending is the same for both dual and plural, different stems are used. In all the examples the k is assimilated to an ŋ.

Allative case[edit]

The allative case is also referred to as the terminalis case. The uses of this case are described below:[18]

Usage of Allative[18] Example
Used to signify motion or an action directed towards a goal[15]










(towards his direction/to him)

Qaliŋaum quppiġaaq atauksritchaa Nauyamun.

Qaliŋak-ERG coat-ABS lend-IND-3SG.SBJ-3SG.OBJ Nauyaq-ALL

Qaliŋak lent a coat to Nauyaq







Isiqtuq iglumun.

enter-IND-3SG house-ALL

He went into the house

Signifies that the statement is for the purpose of the marked noun






(for the purpose of)

Niġiqpaŋmun niqiłiuġñiaqtugut.

feast-ALL prepare.a.meal-FUT-IND-3PL.SBJ

We will prepare a meal for the feast.

Signifies the beneficiary of the statement











Piquum uligruat paipiuranun qiḷaŋniqsuq.

Piquk-ERG blanket-ABS-PL baby-PL-ALL knit-IND-3SG

Evidently Piquk knits blankets for babies.

Marks the noun that is being addressed to







Qaliŋaŋmun uqautirut

Qaliŋaŋmun-ALL tell-IND-3PL.SBJ

They (plural) told Qaliŋak.

Allative endings
Endings Examples
singular -mun




(to the) girl

aġnauraq → aġnauramun

girl → {(to the) girl}

dual [dual absolutive stem] -nun


(two) girls


(with two) girls

aġnaurak → aġnauraŋ*

{(two) girls} → {(with two) girls}

plural [singular absolutive stem] -nun




(to the two) girls

aġnauraq → aġnauranun

girl → {(to the two) girls}

*It is unclear as to whether this example is regular for the dual form or not.


Iñupiaq numerals are base-20 with a sub-base of 5. The numbers 1 to 20 are:[23]

1 2 3 4 5
atausiq malġuk piŋasut sisamat tallimat
6 7 8 9 10
itchaksrat tallimat malġuk tallimat piŋasut quliŋŋuġutaiḷaq qulit
11 12 13 14 15
qulit atausiq qulit malġuk qulit piŋasut akimiaġutaiḷaq akimiaq
16 17 18 19 20
akimiaq atausiq akimiaq malġuk akimiaq piŋasut iñuiññaġutaiḷaq iñuiññaq

The sub-base of five shows in the words for 5, tallimat, and 15, akimiaq, to which the numbers 1 to 3 are added to create the words for 7, 8, 16, 17 and 18, etc. (itchaksrat '6' being irregular). Apart from sisamat '4', numbers before a multiple of five are indicated with the subtractive element -utaiḷaq: quliŋŋuġutaiḷaq '9' from qulit '10', akimiaġutaiḷaq '14' from akimiaq '15', iñuiññaġutaiḷaq '19' from iñuiññaq '20'.[24]

Scores are created with the element -kipiaq, and numbers between the scores are composed by adding 1 through 19 to these. Multiples of 400 are created with -agliaq and 8000's with -pak. Note that these words will vary between singular -q and plural -t, depending on the speaker and whether they are being used for counting or for modifying a noun.

# Number Semantics
20 iñuiññaq 20
25 iñuiññaq tallimat 20 + 5
29 iñuiññaq quliŋŋuġutaiḷaq 20 + 10 − 1
30 iñuiññaq qulit 20 + 10
35 iñuiññaq akimiaq 20 + 15
39 malġukipiaġutaiḷaq 2×20 − 1
40 malġukipiaq 2×20
45 malġukipiaq tallimat 2×20 + 5
50 malġukipiaq qulit 2×20 + 10
55 malġukipiaq akimiaq 2×20 + 15
60 piŋasukipiaq 3×20
70 piŋasukipiaq qulit 3×20 + 10
80 sisamakipiaq 4×20
90 sisamakipiaq qulit 4×20 + 10
99 tallimakipiaġutaiḷaq 5×20 − 1
100 tallimakipiaq 5×20
110 tallimakipiaq qulit 5×20 + 10
120 tallimakipiaq iñuiññaq 5×20 + 20
140 tallimakipiaq malġukipiaq 5×20 + 2×20
160 tallimakipiaq piŋasukipiaq 5×20 + 3×20
180 tallimakipiaq sisamakipiaq 5×20 + 4×20
200 qulikipiaq 10×20
300 akimiakipiaq 15×20
400 iñuiññakipiaq (in reindeer herding and math, iḷagiññaq) 20×20
800 malġuagliaq 2×400
1200 piŋasuagliaq 3×400
1600 sisamaagliaq 4×400
2000 tallimaagliaq 5×400
2400 tallimaagliaq iḷagiññaq 5×400 + 400
2800 tallimaagliaq malġuagliaq 5×400 + 2×400
4000 quliagliaq 10×400
6000 akimiagliaq 15×400
7999 atausiqpautaiḷaq 8000 − 1
8000 atausiqpak 8000
16,000 malġuqpak 2×8000
24,000 piŋasuqpak 3×8000
32,000 sisamaqpak 4×8000
40,000 tallimaqpak 5×8000
48,000 tallimaqpak atausiqpak 5×8000 + 8000
72,000 tallimaqpak sisamaqpak 5×8000 + 4×8000
80,000 quliqpak 10×8000
120,000 akimiaqpak 15×8000
160,000 iñuiññaqpak 20×8000
320,000 malġukipiaqpak 2×20×8000
480,000 piŋasukipiaqpak 3×20×8000
640,000 sisamakipiaqpak 4×20×8000
800,000 tallimakipiaqpak 5×20×8000
1,600,000 qulikipiaqpak 10×20×8000
2,400,000 akimiakipiaqpak 15×20×8000
3,200,000 iḷagiññaqpak 400×8000
6,400,000 malġuagliaqpak 2×400×8000
9,600,000 piŋasuagliaqpak 3×400×8000
12,800,000 sisamaagliaqpak 4×400×8000
16 million tallimaagliaqpak 5x400×8000
32 million quliagliaqpak 10×400×8000
48 million akimiagliaqpak 15×400×8000

The system continues through compounding suffixes to a maximum of iñuiññagliaqpakpiŋatchaq (20×400×80003, ≈ 4 quadrillion), e.g.

# Number Semantics
64 million atausiqpakaippaq 1×80002
1,280 million iñuiññaqpakaippaq 20×80002
25.6 billion iḷagiññaqpakaippaq 400×80002
511,999,999,999 atausiqpakpiŋatchaġutaiḷaq 1×80003 − 1
512 billion atausiqpakpiŋatchaq 1×80003
10.24 trillion iñuiññaqpakpiŋatchaq 20×80003
204.8 trillion iḷagiññaqpakpiŋatchaq 400×80003
2.048 quadrillion quliagliaqpakpiŋatchaq 10×400×80003

There is also a decimal system for the hundreds and thousands, with the numerals qavluun for 100 and kavluutit for 1000, thus malġuk qavluun 200, malġuk kavluutit 2000, etc.[25]


The numeral five, tallimat, is derived from the word for hand/arm. The word for 10, qulit, is derived from the word for "top", meaning the ten digits on the top part of the body. The numeral for 15, akimiaq, means something like "it goes across", and the numeral for 20, iñuiññaq means something like "entire person" or "complete person", indicating the 20 digits of all extremities.[24]

Verbal morphology[edit]

Again, Malimiutun Iñupiaq is used as a representative example in this section. The basic structure of the verb is [(verb) + (derivational suffix) + (inflectional suffix) + (enclitic)], although Lanz (2010) argues that this approach is insufficient since it "forces one to analyze ... optional ... suffixes".[18] Every verb has an obligatory inflection for person, number, and mood (all marked by a single suffix), and can have other inflectional suffixes such as tense, aspect, modality, and various suffixes carrying adverbial functions.[18]


Tense marking is always optional. The only explicitly marked tense is the future tense. Past and present tense cannot be marked and are always implied. All verbs can be marked through adverbs to show relative time (using words such as "yesterday" or "tomorrow"). If neither of these markings is present, the verb can imply a past, present, or future tense.[18]

Future tense[18]
Tense Example





Uqaqsiitigun uqaqtuguk.

telephone we-DU-talk

We (two) talk on the phone.






Uqaqsiitigun uqaġisiruguk.

telephone we-DU-FUT-talk

We (two) will talk on the phone.

Future (implied)


give birth probably


my sister



Iġñivaluktuq aakauraġa uvlaakun.

{give birth probably} {my sister} tomorrow

My sister (will) give(s) birth tomorrow. (the future tense "will" is implied by the word tomorrow)


Marking aspect is optional in Iñupiaq verbs. Both North Slope and Malimiut Iñupiaq have a perfective versus imperfective distinction in aspect, along with other distinctions such as: frequentative (-ataq; "to repeatedly verb"), habitual (-suu; "to always, habitually verb"), inchoative (-łhiñaaq; "about to verb"), and intentional (-saġuma; "intend to verb"). The aspect suffix can be found after the verb root and before or within the obligatory person-number-mood suffix.[18]


Iñupiaq has the following moods: Indicative, Interrogative, Imperative (positive, negative), Coordinative, and Conditional.[18][22] Participles are sometimes classified as a mood.[18]

Mood Usage Example Notes
Indicative Declarative statements





aŋuniaqtit siñiktut.

hunt-NZ-PL sleep-3-IND

The hunters are sleeping.

Participles Creating relative clauses







Putu aŋutauruq umiaqaqtuaq.

Putu young-man boat-have-3-PTCP

Putu is a man who owns a boat.

"who owns a boat" is one word, where the meaning of the English "who" is implied through the case.
Interrogative Formation of yes/no questions and content questions





Can you (singular) swim?

Yes/no question





What are you two doing?

Content question (this is a single word)
Imperative A command






Conditionals Conditional and hypothetical statements





Kakkama niġiŋaruŋa.

hungry-1SG-COND-PFV eat-PFV-1SG-IND

When I got hungry, I ate.

Conditional statement. The verb "eat" is in the indicative mood because it is simply a declarative statement.





Kaakkumi niġiñiaqtuŋa.

hungry-1SG-COND-IPFV eat-FUT-1SG-IND

If I get hungry, I will eat.

Hypothetical statement. The verb "eat" is in the indicative mood because it is simply a statement.
Coordinative Formation of dependent clauses that function as modifiers of independent clauses





Agliqiłuŋa niġiruŋa.

read-1SG-COORD eat-1SG-IND

[While] reading, I eat.

The coordinative case on the verb "read" signifies that the verb is happening at the same time as the main clause ("eat" - marked by indicative because it is simply a declarative statement).

Indicative mood endings can be transitive or intransitive, as seen in the table below.

Indicative intransitive endings Indicative transitive endings
Mood marker 3s 3d 3p 2s 2d 2p 1s 1d 1p
+t/ru ŋa













+kI/gI ga
















































+ka/ga a




















Nearly all syntactic operations in the Malimiut dialect of Iñiupiaq—and Inuit languages and dialects in general—are carried out via morphological means.[18]

The language aligns to an ergative-absolutive case system, which is mainly shown through nominal case markings and verb agreement (see above).[18]

The basic word order is subject-object-verb. However, word order is flexible and both subject and/or object can be omitted. There is a tendency for the subject of a transitive verb (marked by the ergative case) to precede the object of the clause (marked by the absolutive case). There is likewise a tendency for the subject of an intransitive verb (marked by the absolutive case) to precede the verb. The subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a clause (both marked by the absolutive case) are usually found right before the verb. However, "this is [all] merely a tendency."[18]

Iñupiaq grammar also includes morphological passive, antipassive, causative and applicative.

Noun incorporation[edit]

Noun incorporation is a common phenomenon in Malimiutun Iñupiaq. The first type of noun incorporation is lexical compounding. Within this subset of noun incorporation, the noun, which represents an instrument, location, or patient in relation to the verb, is attached to the front of the verb stem, creating a new intransitive verb. The second type is manipulation of case. It is argued whether this form of noun incorporation is present as noun incorporation in Iñupiaq, or "semantically transitive noun incorporation"—since with this kind of noun incorporation the verb remains transitive. The noun phrase subjects are incorporated not syntactically into the verb but rather as objects marked by the instrumental case. The third type of incorporation, manipulation of discourse structure, is supported by Mithun (1984) and argued against by Lanz (2010). See Lanz's paper for further discussion.[18] The final type of incorporation is classificatory noun incorporation, whereby a "general [noun] is incorporated into the [verb], while a more specific [noun] narrows the scope".[18] With this type of incorporation, the external noun can take on external modifiers and, like the other incorporations, the verb becomes intransitive. See Nominal Morphology (Instrumental Case, Usage of Instrumental table, row four) on this page for an example.


Switch-references occur in dependent clauses only with third person subjects. The verb must be marked as reflexive if the third person subject of the dependent clause matches the subject of the main clause (more specifically matrix clause).[18] Compare:

Switch references[18]
Example Notes





Kaakkama niġiŋaruq.

hungry-3-REFL-COND eat-3-IND

When he/she got hungry, he/she ate.

The verb in the matrix clause (to eat) refers to the same person because the verb in the dependent clause (To get hungry) is reflexive. Therefore, a single person got hungry and ate.





Kaaŋman niġiŋaruq.

hungry-3-NREFL-COND eat-3-IND

When he/she got hungry, (someone else) ate.

The verb in the matrix clause (to eat) refers to a different singular person because the verb in the dependent clause (To get hungry) is non-reflexive.

Text sample[edit]

This is a sample of the Iñupiaq language of the Kivalina variety from Kivalina Reader, published in 1975.

Aaŋŋaayiña aniñiqsuq Qikiqtami. Aasii iñuguġuni. Tikiġaġmi Kivaliñiġmiḷu. Tuvaaqatiniguni Aivayuamik. Qulit atautchimik qitunġivḷutik. Itchaksrat iñuuvlutiŋ. Iḷaŋat Qitunġaisa taamna Qiñuġana.

This is the English translation, from the same source:

Aaŋŋaayiña was born in Shishmaref. He grew up in Point Hope and Kivalina. He marries Aivayuaq. They had eleven children. Six of them are alive. One of the children is Qiñuġana.

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

The comparison of various vocabulary in four different dialects:

North Slope Iñupiaq[26] Northwest Alaska Iñupiaq[26]
(Kobuk Malimiut)
King Island Iñupiaq[27] Qawiaraq dialect[28] English
atausiq atausriq atausiq atauchiq 1
malġuk malġuk maġluuk malġuk 2
piŋasut piñasrut piŋasut piŋachut 3
sisamat sisamat sitamat chitamat 4
tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat 5
itchaksrat itchaksrat aġvinikłit alvinilġit 6
tallimat malġuk tallimat malġuk tallimat maġluuk mulġunilġit 7
tallimat piŋasut tallimat piñasrut tallimat piŋasut piŋachuŋilgit 8
quliŋuġutaiḷaq quliŋŋuutaiḷaq qulinŋutailat quluŋŋuġutailat 9
qulit qulit qulit qulit 10
qulit atausiq qulit atausriq qulit atausiq qulit atauchiq 11
akimiaġutaiḷaq akimiaŋŋutaiḷaq agimiaġutailaq . 14
akimiaq akimiaq agimiaq akimiaq 15
iñuiññaŋŋutaiḷaq iñuiñaġutaiḷaq inuinaġutailat . 19
iñuiññaq iñuiñaq inuinnaq . 20
iñuiññaq qulit iñuiñaq qulit inuinaq qulit . 30
malġukipiaq malġukipiaq maġluutiviaq . 40
tallimakipiaq tallimakipiaq tallimativiaq . 100
kavluutit, malġuagliaq qulikipiaq kavluutit kabluutit . 1000
nanuq nanuq taġukaq nanuq polar bear
ilisaurri ilisautri iskuuqti ilichausrirri teacher
miŋuaqtuġvik aglagvik iskuuġvik naaqiwik school
aġnaq aġnaq aġnaq aŋnaq woman
aŋun aŋun aŋun aŋun man
aġnaiyaaq aġnauraq niaqsaaġruk niaqchiġruk girl
aŋutaiyaaq aŋugauraq ilagaaġruk ilagaaġruk boy
Tanik Naluaġmiu Naluaġmiu Naluaŋmiu white person
ui ui ui ui husband
nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq wife
panik panik panik panik daughter
iġñiq iġñiq qituġnaq . son
iglu tupiq ini ini house
tupiq palapkaaq palatkaaq, tuviq tupiq tent
qimmiq qipmiq qimugin qimmuqti dog
qavvik qapvik qappik qaffik wolverine
tuttu tuttu tuttu tuttupiaq caribou
tuttuvak tiniikaq tuttuvak, muusaq . moose
tulugaq tulugaq tiŋmiaġruaq anaqtuyuuq raven
ukpik ukpik ukpik ukpik snowy owl
tatqiq tatqiq taqqiq taqqiq moon/month
uvluġiaq uvluġiaq ubluġiaq ubluġiaq star
siqiñiq siqiñiq mazaq machaq sun
niġġivik tiivlu, niġġivik tiivuq, niġġuik niġġiwik table
uqautitaun uqaqsiun qaniqsuun qaniqchuun telephone
mitchaaġvik mirvik mizrvik mirvik airport
tiŋŋun tiŋmisuun silakuaqsuun chilakuaqchuun airplane
qai- mauŋaq- qai- qai- to come
pisuaq- pisruk- aġui- aġui- to walk
savak- savak- sawit- chuli- to work
nakuu- nakuu- naguu- nakuu- to be good
maŋaqtaaq taaqtaaq taaqtaaq maŋaqtaaq, taaqtaaq black
uvaŋa uvaŋa uaŋa uaŋa, waaŋa I, me
ilviñ ilvich iblin ilvit you (singular)
kiña kiña kina kina who
sumi nani, sumi nani chumi where
qanuq qanuq qanuġuuq . how
qakugu qakugu qagun . when (future)
ii ii ii'ii ii, i'i yes
naumi naagga naumi naumi no
paniqtaq paniqtaq paniqtuq pipchiraq dried fish or meat
saiyu saigu saayuq chaiyu tea
kuuppiaq kuukpiaq kuupiaq kuupiaq coffee

See also[edit]



  1. ^ www.kipigniutit.org/. Kipiġniuqtit Iñupiuraallanikun https://www.kipigniutit.org/_files/ugd/622f90_b56e79dff4164f3ca875ea2fbb1a9ef5.pdf. Retrieved 2023-09-11. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Chappell, Bill (21 April 2014). "Alaska OKs Bill Making Native Languages Official". NPR.
  3. ^ "Populations and Speakers | Alaska Native Language Center". Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  4. ^ "Iñupiatun, North Alaskan". Ethnologue.
  5. ^ a b "Alaska's indigenous languages now official along with English". Reuters. 2016-10-24. Retrieved 2017-02-19.
  6. ^ "Sheldon Jackson in Historical Perspective". www.alaskool.org. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  7. ^ Krauss, Michael E. 1974. Alaska Native language legislation. International Journal of American Linguistics 40(2).150-52.
  8. ^ D'oro, Rachel (2 September 2018). "Facebook adds Alaska's Inupiaq as language option". PBS NewsHour. NewsHour Productions LLC. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Alaskan doctoral student creates Iñupiaq Wordle version". 22 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Wordle takes off — this time, in Iñupiaq". Anchorage Daily News.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Iñupiaq/Inupiaq". languagegeek.com. Retrieved 2007-09-28.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Dorais, Louis-Jacques (2010). The Language of the Inuit: Syntax, Semantics, and Society in the Arctic. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-7735-3646-3.
  13. ^ a b c Burch 1980 Ernest S. Burch, Jr., Traditional Eskimo Societies in Northwest Alaska. Senri Ethnological Studies 4:253-304
  14. ^ Spencer 1959 Robert F. Spencer, The North Alaskan Eskimo: A study in ecology and society, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, 171 : 1-490
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1986). North Slope Iñupiaq Grammar: First Year. Alaska Native Language Center, College of Liberal Arts; University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ISBN 1-55500-026-6.
  16. ^ a b c Lowe, Ronald (1984). Uummarmiut Uqalungiha Mumikhitchiȓutingit: Basic Uummarmiut Eskimo Dictionary. Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada: Committee for Original Peoples Entitlement. pp. xix–xxii. ISBN 0-9691597-1-4.
  17. ^ a b c Kaplan, Lawrence (1981). Phonological Issues In North Alaska Iñupiaq. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Fairbanks. p. 85. ISBN 0-933769-36-9.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Lanz, Linda A. (2010). A grammar of Iñupiaq morphosyntax (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). Rice University. hdl:1911/62097.
  19. ^ Kaplan, Larry (1981). North Slope Iñupiaq Literacy Manual. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  20. ^ Project Naming Archived 2006-10-28 at the Wayback Machine, the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada
  21. ^ Kaplan, Lawrence (2000). "L'Iñupiaq et les contacts linguistiques en Alaska". In Tersis, Nicole and Michèle Therrien (eds.), Les langues eskaléoutes: Sibérie, Alaska, Canada, Groënland, pages 91-108. Paris: CNRS Éditions. For an overview of Iñupiaq phonology, see pages 92-94.
  22. ^ a b c Seiler, Wolf A. (2012). Iñupiatun Eskimo Dictionary (PDF). Sil Language and Culture Documentation and Descriptions. SIL International. pp. Appendix 7. ISSN 1939-0785. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-28.
  23. ^ MacLean (2014) Iñupiatun Uqaluit Taniktun Sivuninit / Iñupiaq to English Dictionary, p. 840 ff
  24. ^ a b Clark, Bartley William (2014). Iñupiatun Uqaluit Taniktun Sivuninit/Iñupiaq to English Dictionary (11 ed.). Fairbanks: University of Alaska. pp. 831–841. ISBN 9781602232334.
  25. ^ Ulrich, Alexis. "Inupiaq numbers". Of Languages and Numbers.
  26. ^ a b "Interactive IñupiaQ Dictionary". Alaskool.org. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
  27. ^ "Ugiuvaŋmiuraaqtuaksrat / Future King Island Speakers". Ankn.uaf.edu. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
  28. ^ Agloinga, Roy (2013). Iġałuiŋmiutullu Qawairaġmiutullu Aglait Nalaunaitkataat. Atuun Publishing Company.

OBJ:object INS:instrumental case

Print resources[edit]

  • Barnum, Francis. Grammatical Fundamentals of the Innuit Language As Spoken by the Eskimo of the Western Coast of Alaska. Hildesheim: G. Olms, 1970.
  • Blatchford, DJ. Just Like That!: Legends and Such, English to Iñupiaq Alphabet. Kasilof, AK: Just Like That!, 2003. ISBN 0-9723303-1-3
  • Bodfish, Emma, and David Baumgartner. Iñupiat Grammar. Utqiaġvigmi: Utqiaġvium minuaqtuġviata Iñupiatun savagvianni, 1979.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence D. Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Iñupiaq. Alaska Native Language Center research papers, no. 6. Fairbanks, Alaska (Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks 99701): Alaska Native Language Center, 1981.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence. Iñupiaq Phrases and Conversations. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, 2000. ISBN 1-55500-073-8
  • MacLean, Edna Ahgeak. Iñupiallu Tanņiḷḷu Uqaluņisa Iḷaņich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, 1980.
  • Lanz, Linda A. A Grammar of Iñupiaq Morphosyntax. Houston, Texas: Rice University, 2010.
  • MacLean, Edna Ahgeak. Beginning North Slope Iñupiaq Grammar. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, 1979.
  • Seiler, Wolf A. Iñupiatun Eskimo Dictionary. Kotzebue, Alaska: NANA Regional Corporation, 2005.
  • Seiler, Wolf. The Modalis Case in Iñupiat: (Eskimo of North West Alaska). Giessener Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Bd. 14. Grossen-Linden: Hoffmann, 1978. ISBN 3-88098-019-5
  • Webster, Donald Humphry, and Wilfried Zibell. Iñupiat Eskimo Dictionary. 1970.

External links and language resources[edit]

There are a number of online resources that can provide a sense of the language and information for second language learners.