Inuvik

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Inuvik
Inuuvik
Town
Buildings of central Inuvik from south of town
Buildings of central Inuvik from south of town
Flag of Inuvik
Inuvik is located in Northwest Territories
Inuvik
Inuvik
Inuvik is located in Canada
Inuvik
Inuvik
Coordinates: 68°21′39″N 133°43′47″W / 68.36083°N 133.72972°W / 68.36083; -133.72972[1]Coordinates: 68°21′39″N 133°43′47″W / 68.36083°N 133.72972°W / 68.36083; -133.72972[1]
CountryCanada
TerritoryNorthwest Territories
RegionInuvik Region
ConstituencyInuvik Boot Lake
Inuvik Twin Lakes
Census divisionRegion 1
Settled1954
Village1 April 1967
Town1 January 1970[2]
Government
 • MayorClarence Wood
 • SAOGrant Hood
 • MLALesa Semmler (Twin Lakes)
 • MLADiane Archie (Boot Lake)
 • MPMichael McLeod
Area
 • Land62.68 km2 (24.20 sq mi)
 • Population centre[5]1.60 km2 (0.62 sq mi)
Elevation
15 m (49 ft)
Highest elevation
68 m (223 ft)
Lowest elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2021)[4]
 • Total3,137
 • Density50.0/km2 (129/sq mi)
 • Population centre3,001
 • Population centre density1,871.4/km2 (4,847/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−07:00 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Canadian Postal code
X0E 0T0
Area code867
Telephone exchange678/777 (777 was previously (403) 979)
- Living cost (2018)147.5A
- Food price index (2019)158.6B
HighwaysDempster Highway
Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway
WaterwaysMackenzie River
ClimateDfc
Websitewww.inuvik.ca
Sources:
Department of Municipal and Community Affairs,[3]
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre,[6]
Canada Flight Supplement[7]
^A 2018 figure based on Edmonton = 100[8]
^B 2019 figure based on Yellowknife = 100[8]

Inuvik /ɪˈnvɪk/ (place of man) is the only town[9] in the Inuvik Region, and the third largest community in Canada's Northwest Territories. Located in what is sometimes called the Beaufort Delta Region,[10] it serves as its administrative and service centre and is home to federal, territorial, and Indigenous government offices, along with the regional hospital and airport.

Inuvik is located on the northern edge of the boreal forest, just before it begins to transition to tundra, and along the east side of the enormous Mackenzie River delta. The town lies on the border between the Gwich'in Settlement Region[11][12] and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.[13][14][15]

History[edit]

Inuvik was conceived in 1953 as a replacement administrative centre for the hamlet of Aklavik on the west of the Mackenzie Delta, as the latter was prone to flooding and had no room for expansion. Initially called "New Aklavik", it was renamed Inuvik in 1958. The school was built in 1959 and the hospital, government offices and staff residences in 1960, when people, including Inuvialuit, Gwichʼin (Dene) and Métis, began to live in the community.

Naval Radio Station (NRS) Inuvik, later CFS Inuvik, callsign CFV, was commissioned on 10 September 1963 after operations had been successfully transferred from NRS Aklavik. Station CFV was part of the SUPRAD (Supplementary Radio) network of intercept and direction finding stations.

CFS Inuvik closed on 1 April 1986 and the site was transferred to the Department of Transport for use as a telecommunications station. Nothing remains of CFS Inuvik today. The Navy Operations base at the end of Navy Road was completely dismantled and removed.

Inuvik achieved village status in 1967 and became a full town in 1979 with an elected mayor and council. In 1979, with the completion of the Dempster Highway, Inuvik became connected to Canada's highway system, and simultaneously the most northerly town to which one could drive in Canada. While a winter only ice road through the Mackenzie River delta still connects Inuvik to Aklavik, southwest of Inuvik, the Tuktoyaktuk Winter Road, which ran northeast to Tuktoyaktuk, is no longer being built due to the opening in November 2017, of the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway (ITH), which is open all year round. The Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk highway, which connects to Canada's highway system at Inuvik via the Dempster Highway, is the first road in history to reach the Arctic Ocean in North America.[16]

Between 1971 and 1990, the town's economy was supported by the local Canadian Armed Forces Station, CFS Inuvik, (originally a Naval Radio Station, later a communications research/signals intercept facility[17]) and by petrochemical companies exploring the Mackenzie Valley and the Beaufort Sea for petroleum. This all collapsed in 1990 for a variety of reasons, including disappearing government military subsidies, local resistance to petroleum exploration, and low international oil prices. Since then the economy has been based on some minor tourism and subsidy provided by the Crown–Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), Health Canada (for the regional hospital) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Demographics[edit]

Federal census population history of Inuvik
YearPop.±%
19611,248—    
19662,040+63.5%
19712,669+30.8%
19763,116+16.7%
19813,147+1.0%
19863,389+7.7%
19913,206−5.4%
19963,296+2.8%
20013,152−4.4%
20063,484+10.5%
20113,463−0.6%
20163,243−6.4%
20213,137−3.3%
Source: Statistics Canada
[4][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]
Annual population estimates
YearPop.±%
19963,461—    
19973,361−2.9%
19983,313−1.4%
19993,317+0.1%
20003,324+0.2%
20013,399+2.3%
20023,555+4.6%
20033,572+0.5%
20043,622+1.4%
20053,654+0.9%
20063,646−0.2%
20073,616−0.8%
20083,601−0.4%
YearPop.±%
20093,632+0.9%
20103,639+0.2%
20113,607−0.9%
20123,559−1.3%
20133,457−2.9%
20143,368−2.6%
20153,266−3.0%
20163,239−0.8%
20173,192−1.5%
20183,424+7.3%
20193,370−1.6%
20203,366−0.1%
Sources: NWT Bureau of Statistics (2008 – 2019),[8] NWT Bureau of Statistics (2001 – 2017)[28]

In the 2021 Canadian census conducted by Statistics Canada, Inuvik had a population of 3,137 living in 1,223 of its 1,464 total private dwellings, a change of -3.3 per cent from its 2016 population of 3,243. With a land area of 62.68 km2 (24.20 sq mi), it had a population density of 50.0/km2 in 2021.[4]

As of the 2021 Canadian census there were 1,990 people who identified as Indigenous. Of these 63.6 per cent were Inuvialuit (Inuit, predominantly Uummarmiut), 26.1 per cent First Nations, 5.8 per cent Métis and 4.8 per cent reported other Indigenous heritage. The non-Indigenous population of Inuvik was 36.6 per cent. The main language spoken in Inuvik is English, though schools teach and a handful of local people still speak Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun), and Gwichʼin.[29] Local CBC Radio, CHAK (AM), broadcasts an hour of programming a day in each of these languages. Local Gwichʼin are enrolled in the Inuvik Native Band.

There are also about 100 Muslims, most of whom came there for economic opportunities. A small mosque (dubbed "Little mosque on the tundra" in reference to the CBC show Little Mosque on the Prairie) was established in 2010.[30]

Geography[edit]

Inuvik, NT.jpg

Inuvik is located on the East Channel of the Mackenzie Delta, approximately 100 km (62 mi) from the Arctic Ocean and approximately 200 km (120 mi) north of the Arctic Circle. The tree line lies north of Inuvik, and the town is surrounded by boreal forest.[31]

Due to its northern location, Inuvik experiences an average of 56 days of midnight sun every summer and 30 days of polar night every winter.

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Until November 2017, Inuvik was the most northern community in Canada to be accessible by road (now second to Tuktoyaktuk). The 736 km (457 mi) Dempster Highway links Inuvik to the rest of Canada, providing relatively easy access to a wide variety of goods, and greatly reducing their cost. In contrast, many Arctic communities depend on cargo flights for regular goods and summer sealifts for larger freight, making goods expensive and often slow to arrive.[32] In 2017, the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway was extended north from Inuvik another 138 km (86 mi) to Tuktoyaktuk on the Arctic coast. Inuvik is also connected to Aklavik by an ice road across the Mackenzie Delta from late December until late April each year.[33]

The Dempster Highway relies on ferries to cross the Peel River near Fort McPherson and the Mackenzie River at Tsiigehtchic during the summer months. In winter, ice bridges are constructed to cross the rivers. During the spring the crossings close throughout May as the ice on the rivers breaks up. Similarly, they are impassible for most of November while the rivers freeze.[33][34] During these times air travel is the only way for people and goods to reach Inuvik.

Air[edit]

The Inuvik (Mike Zubko) Airport is serviced by several regional carriers. Canadian North has regular direct flights to Yellowknife and Norman Wells. It further connects to Edmonton, and a number of smaller communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.[35] Air North connects to points in the Yukon and travels as far south as Vancouver.[36] Aklak Air flies north to the small communities of Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk, and Ulukhaktok.[37] Freight services, helicopters, and floatplane charters are also available from Inuvik. Floatplane service operates out of the nearby Inuvik/Shell Lake Water Aerodrome.

Water[edit]

When the Mackenzie River is ice-free, Marine Transportation Services provides a commercial barge service from Hay River, on Great Slave Lake to the regional terminal in Inuvik. The annual sealift moves supplies east into the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut and west to Utqiagvik, Alaska.[38] Many locals own small boats with outboard motors which are used to access family hunting and fishing camps or to visit Aklavik. Boat traffic comes to a halt in the winter when the Mackenzie River freezes.

Climate[edit]

Inuvik has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). Summers are typically wetter and cool, with temperatures varying wildly throughout the months due to its peculiar location near the cold Arctic Ocean. The average hottest month of the year, July, has a mean high of 19.5 °C (67.1 °F) and mean low of 8.6 °C (47.5 °F). Unlike many other North American continental climates, Inuvik warms up very quickly during the months of May and June due to the rapidly increasing day length, and that remaining snow cools down until May. June is a warmer month than August. Seasonal transitions are extremely short, with mean daily temperatures rising or falling as fast as 0.5 °C (0.90 °F) per day. Winters are long and cold; the coldest month of the year, January, having a mean high of −22.8 °C (−9.0 °F) and a mean low of −31.0 °C (−23.8 °F). Freezing temperatures can occur any month of the year. Inuvik has a great variation of temperatures during the year, usually peaking below −40 °C (−40 °F) in the winter and above 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer.[39] The highest temperature ever recorded in Inuvik was 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) on 17 June 1999 and 20 July 2001.[39] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −56.7 °C (−70.1 °F) on 4 February 1968.[39]

Snow that falls from October onward usually stays until the spring thaw in mid-May. By March, the median snow depth has reached its greatest, about 56.2 cm (22.1 in).[39]

Climate data for Inuvik (Inuvik (Mike Zubko) Airport)
Climate ID: 2202570; coordinates 68°18′15″N 133°28′58″W / 68.30417°N 133.48278°W / 68.30417; -133.48278 (Inuvik (Mike Zubko) Airport); elevation: 67.7 m (222 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1957–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 5.9 4.9 5.6 14.9 29.2 35.8 40.0 36.6 26.7 20.6 10.0 5.0 40.0
Record high °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
5.2
(41.4)
6.1
(43.0)
15.3
(59.5)
30.4
(86.7)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.5
(90.5)
26.2
(79.2)
20.9
(69.6)
10.6
(51.1)
5.0
(41.0)
32.8
(91.0)
Average high °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−16.8
(1.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
5.2
(41.4)
17.7
(63.9)
19.5
(67.1)
16.0
(60.8)
7.9
(46.2)
−4.3
(24.3)
−17.1
(1.2)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.9
(−16.4)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−11.8
(10.8)
0.4
(32.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.1
(57.4)
11.0
(51.8)
3.9
(39.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−24.1
(−11.4)
−8.2
(17.2)
Average low °C (°F) −31.0
(−23.8)
−30.1
(−22.2)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−17.4
(0.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
5.5
(41.9)
8.6
(47.5)
5.9
(42.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
−10.9
(12.4)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−12.9
(8.8)
Record low °C (°F) −54.4
(−65.9)
−56.7
(−70.1)
−50.6
(−59.1)
−46.1
(−51.0)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−6.1
(21.0)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−35.0
(−31.0)
−46.1
(−51.0)
−50.0
(−58.0)
−56.7
(−70.1)
Record low wind chill −64 −67 −60 −51 −35 −13 −5 −9 −23 −43 −55 −60 −67
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.5
(0.49)
13.1
(0.52)
11.9
(0.47)
9.8
(0.39)
17.3
(0.68)
17.3
(0.68)
35.0
(1.38)
39.4
(1.55)
29.3
(1.15)
24.4
(0.96)
16.0
(0.63)
14.8
(0.58)
240.6
(9.47)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.6
(0.02)
5.9
(0.23)
15.5
(0.61)
35.0
(1.38)
36.4
(1.43)
20.3
(0.80)
0.9
(0.04)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
114.5
(4.51)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 15.4
(6.1)
16.4
(6.5)
14.8
(5.8)
11.7
(4.6)
14.2
(5.6)
1.9
(0.7)
0.0
(0.0)
3.1
(1.2)
10.4
(4.1)
30.1
(11.9)
21.3
(8.4)
19.4
(7.6)
158.6
(62.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.9 10.9 11.2 7.6 7.6 8.1 11.6 14.4 13.0 13.6 11.7 10.3 129.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 2.5 7.1 10.8 13.9 8.9 1.0 0.0 0.1 44.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 10.3 11.6 11.8 8.0 6.2 1.4 0.1 1.3 5.1 14.1 12.1 11.2 93.0
Average relative humidity (%) 67.3 65.4 58.0 59.3 59.9 49.3 56.3 63.2 68.8 78.6 74.0 69.7 64.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 7.3 65.2 174.1 248.7 295.0 375.1 339.8 216.2 109.4 50.2 17.8 0.0 1,898.8
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (Sunshine 1951–1980)[39][40][41][42]


Tourism[edit]

Our Lady of Victory church

Famous attractions[edit]

Inuvik's Our Lady of Victory Church, often called Igloo Church, is a famous landmark in the region. It is the most-photographed building in the town[citation needed].

Inuvik has the Midnight Sun Mosque, North America's northernmost, which opened in November 2010 after being built in Winnipeg and moved 4,000 km (2,500 mi) by truck and barge.[43] Some media reports have mistakenly called the mosque "the world's northernmost mosque", but in fact mosques in Norilsk, Russia, and Tromsø, Norway, are both slightly further north than Inuvik.[44][45]

Annual events of note[edit]

The Inuvik community greenhouse converted from an old hockey rink.[46]

The Great Northern Arts Festival has been held annually for 10 days in the middle of July since 1989.[47] The Festival has hosted over 3,000 artists from across Canada's north, and from as far away as Japan and Australia over 31 years and is the largest annual tourism event in the Beaufort Delta. Featuring on-site demonstrations, 50+ arts workshops, a 3,500-piece gallery, an outdoor carving village, an interactive artist studio zone, nightly cultural performances, northern film screenings, family activities and an Arctic fashion show, the Festival attracts visitors from around the world to travel the Dempster Highway to visit Inuvik and the Gwich'in and Inuvialuit Settlement Regions.

The annual Sunrise Festival happens on the second weekend of the new year, when the sun finally breaks the horizon after about thirty days of polar night. The Festival is an all-day community event highlighted by dog sled races, a long-program fireworks show and community bonfire. This Festival was highlighted in the award-winning[48] 2010 national Tropicana Orange Juice commercial Arctic Sun.[49]

Inuvik celebrates the Muskrat Jamboree each year in late March or early April. Started in 1957, the event brings together thousands of people to participate in traditional games, watch the dog sled and snowmobile races and dance (jig) the night away in town. Most events are held on the Mackenzie River where several community groups operate concessions in stove-heated traditional McPherson tents, preparing hot soup, bannock, baked goods, coffee, Labrador tea, hot chocolate and other traditional refreshments. Many participants and spectators wear traditional clothing and often local artisans will have something to sell. In conjunction with the Muskrat Jamboree, the Town of Inuvik hosts the annual Muskrat Cup 3-on-3 Pond Hockey Tournament on the frozen Mackenzie River, the world's most northerly cash tournament.

The weekend closest to the summer solstice (21 June) each year features the Midnight Sun Fun Run, a 5K, 10K and half marathon that starts at midnight under the 24-hours of sunlight experienced for over 50 days each summer in Inuvik. Runners from around the world make their way north to participate in this unique event under the midnight sun.


Facilities[edit]

Inuvik Regional Hospital

A new hospital opened in early 2003, providing service to an area extending from Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, to Ulukhaktok on Victoria Island, and from Paulatuk into the Sahtu Region including Norman Wells, Tulita, Délı̨nę, Fort Good Hope, and Colville Lake.

The Midnight Sun Complex, a stage-built multi-use facility, was completed in 2006. Featuring the Roy 'Sugloo' Ipana Memorial Arena, with an NHL-sized ice surface; the Inuvik Curling Club with three sheets and a well-situated licensed lounge/viewing area; the Inuvik Pool, an award-winning Class B recreational pool with lane swimming, waterpark features including a two-story waterslide, hot tub, sauna and steam room; two squash courts; a multi-use community hall with stage; on-site business centre/production office; full building wireless; video-conferencing facility; on-site catering/kitchen; and meeting rooms for groups of 5 to 500. At full-building use, the Complex can host conferences, conventions and trade shows with up to 1200 delegates/exhibitors.[50]

The community has a state-of-the-art school called East 3. The construction budget for the school exceeded $110 million, and it features modern technologies such as 'smartboards' and videoconferencing facilities as well as a large gym.

A distinct feature of Inuvik is the use of "utilidors" – above-ground utility conduits carrying water and sewage – which are covered by corrugated steel. They run throughout town connecting most buildings, and as a result there are many small bridges and underpasses. The utilidors are necessary because of the permafrost underlying the town.

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

The town is served by the Inuvik Drum, a community newspaper published weekly by Northern News Services.

Television[edit]

OTA channel Call sign Network Notes
13 (VHF) CH4221 Aboriginal Peoples Television Network

Inuvik was previously served by CHAK-TV, VHF channel 6, a CBC North television repeater of CFYK-DT (Yellowknife); that station closed down on 31 July 2012 due to budget cuts affecting the CBC.[51][52]

Radio[edit]

Frequency Call sign Branding Format Owner Notes
AM 860 CHAK CBC Radio One Talk radio, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Part of CBC North; broadcasts programming in English, Gwichʼin, and Inuvialuktun
FM 98.7 CKRW-FM-2 The Rush Hot adult contemporary Klondike Broadcasting Rebroadcaster of CKRW-FM (Whitehorse)
FM 101.9 VF2082 CKLB Radio: The Voice of Denendeh Community radio Native Communications Society of the Northwest Territories First Nations community radio; rebroadcaster of CKLB-FM (Yellowknife)

Communications[edit]

Landline telephone service is provided by Northwestel, and cellular service by Ice Wireless and Arctic Digital (Bell Mobility). Cable television is also offered in Inuvik by New North Networks.

Fibre optic communications were added in Inuvik in June 2017 with the completion of the Mackenzie Valley Fibre Link; the $82 million 1,200 km (750 mi) line adds new capability to the town.

However, the dependence on this single trunk line occasionally causes widespread Internet outages during Dempster or Alaska Highway maintenance or construction.[53][54] A backup trunk line between Fort Simpson and Inuvik is currently under construction.[55]

Planetary nomenclature[edit]

In 1988, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN) officially adopted the name Inuvik for a crater on Mars, at 78.7° north latitude and 28.6° west longitude. The crater's diameter is 20.5 km (12.7 mi).[56]

Notable people[edit]

  • Leona Aglukkaq, former member of Parliament for the electoral district of Nunavut and former Minister of Health
  • Roger Allen, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories and Olympian
  • Zac Boyer, former National Hockey League right winger
  • Tom Butters, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
  • Jason Elliott, former professional ice hockey player
  • Fred Koe, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
  • Floyd Roland, former Mayor of Inuvik and former Premier and member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
  • Richard Nerysoo, former chief of the Gwich'in Tribal Council, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, former Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, and former Premier of the Northwest Territories
  • Eric Schweig, Inuvialuit / Chippewa / Dene actor

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Inuvik". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  2. ^ History of Inuvik
  3. ^ a b "NWT Communities - Inuvik". Government of the Northwest Territories: Department of Municipal and Community Affairs.
  4. ^ a b c d "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Profile table - Inuvik, Town (T), Northwest Territories [Census subdivision]". Statistics Canada. 2 September 2022. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Data table Inuvik Northwest Territories [Population centre]". Statistics Canada. 30 January 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  6. ^ "Northwest Territories Official Community Names and Pronunciation Guide". Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre. Yellowknife: Education, Culture and Employment, Government of the Northwest Territories. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  7. ^ Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Inuvik – Statistical Profile
  9. ^ "Communities". Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  10. ^ "Beaufort Delta". Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Gwich'in Settlement Region". Gwich'in Social and Cultural Institute. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Concluding and Implementing Land Claim and Self-Government Agreements – Gwich'in". Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  13. ^ "Inuvialuit Land Administration". Inuvialuit Regional Corporation. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Concluding and Implementing Land Claim and Self-Government Agreements – Inuvialuit". Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  15. ^ Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (4 June 2015). "Post-1975 Treaties (Modern Treaties)" (Shapefile). Open Government.
  16. ^ "Follow the first-ever highway to the Arctic Ocean".
  17. ^ Proc, Jerry (October 2007). "Inuvik". jproc.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  18. ^ "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1901–1961". 1961 Census of Canada (PDF). Series 1.1: Historical, 1901–1961. Vol. I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 8 March 1963. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  19. ^ "Table 2: Population of Census Subdivisions, 1921–1971". 1971 Census of Canada (PDF). Population. Vol. Census Subdivisions (Historical). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. July 1973. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  20. ^ "1976 Census of Canada: Population – Geographic Distributions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. June 1977. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  21. ^ "1981 Census of Canada: Census subdivisions in decreasing population order" (PDF). Statistics Canada. May 1992. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  22. ^ "1986 Census: Population – Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 1987. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  23. ^ "91 Census: Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions – Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1992. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  24. ^ "96 Census: A National Overview – Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1997. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  25. ^ "Population and Dwelling Count Amendments". Statistics Canada. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  26. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  27. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. 25 July 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  28. ^ Population Estimates By Community from the GNWT
  29. ^ "Census Profile | Inuvik, T Northwest Territories (Census subdivision)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  30. ^ "Little mosque on the tundra | Toronto Star". thestar.com. 24 September 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  31. ^ About Inuvuk
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