Buildings of central Inuvik from south of town
|Constituency||Inuvik Boot Lake|
Inuvik Twin Lakes
|Census division||Region 1|
|Village||1 April 1967|
|Town||1 January 1970 |
|• Mayor||Natasha Kulikowski|
|• SAO||Grant Hood|
|• MLA||Lesa Semmler (Twin Lakes)|
|• MLA||Diane Archie (Boot Lake)|
|• MP||Michael McLeod|
|• Land||62.48 km2 (24.12 sq mi)|
|• Population centre||1.62 km2 (0.63 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15 m (49 ft)|
|Highest elevation||68 m (223 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|• Density||51.9/km2 (134/sq mi)|
|• Population centre||3,140|
|• Population centre density||1,937.8/km2 (5,019/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−07:00 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−06:00 (MDT)|
|Canadian Postal code|
|Telephone exchange||678/777 (777 was previously (403) 979)|
|- Living cost||147.5A|
|- Food price index||156.6B|
Department of Municipal and Community Affairs,
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre,
Canada Flight Supplement
^A 2013 figure based on Edmonton = 100
^B 2015 figure based on Yellowknife = 100
Inuvik // (place of man) is a town in the Northwest Territories of Canada, and is the administrative centre for the Inuvik Region. Inuvik is both a Gwich'in and an Inuvialuit community. The community, like Aklavik, is located in both the Gwich'in Settlement Area and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
Inuvik was conceived in 1953 as a replacement administrative centre for the hamlet of Aklavik on the west of the Mackenzie Delta, as the latter was prone to flooding and had no room for expansion. Initially called "New Aklavik", it was renamed Inuvik in 1958. The school was built in 1959 and the hospital, government offices and staff residences in 1960, when people, including Inuvialuit, Gwich’in (Dene) and Métis, began to live in the community.
Naval Radio Station (NRS) Inuvik, later CFS Inuvik, callsign CFV, was commissioned on 10 September 1963 after operations had been successfully transferred from NRS Aklavik. Station CFV was part of the SUPRAD (Supplementary Radio) network of intercept and direction finding stations.
CFS Inuvik closed on 1 April 1986 and the site was transferred to the Department of Transport for use as a telecommunications station. Nothing remains of CFS Inuvik today. Even now, many people of all backgrounds still lament its closing. The Navy Operations base at the end of Navy Road was completely dismantled and removed.
Inuvik achieved village status in 1967 and became a full town in 1979 with an elected mayor and council. In 1979, with the completion of the Dempster Highway, Inuvik became connected to Canada's highway system, and simultaneously the most northerly town to which one could drive in Canada. While a winter only ice road through the Mackenzie River delta still connects Inuvik to Aklavik, southwest of Inuvik, the winter only ice road running northeast to Tuktoyaktuk is no longer being built due to the opening of the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway (ITH), which opened in November of 2017, and which is open all year round. The Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk highway, which connects to Canada's highway system at Inuvik via the Dempster Highway, is the first road in history to reach the polar shore of North America.
Between 1971 and 1990, the town's economy was supported by the local Canadian Forces Station, CFS Inuvik, (originally a Naval Radio Station, later a communications research/signals intercept facility) and by petrochemical companies exploring the Mackenzie Valley and the Beaufort Sea for petroleum. This all collapsed in 1990 for a variety of reasons, including disappearing government military subsidies, local resistance to petroleum exploration, and low international oil prices. Since then the economy has been based on some minor tourism and subsidy provided by the Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), Health Canada (for the regional hospital) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
The population as of the 2016 Census was 3,243, a decrease of 6.4% from the 2011 Census and a decrease of 7.0% from the 2006 Census. The two previous census counts show wide fluctuations due to economic conditions: 2,894 in 2001 and 3,296 in 1996.
As of the 2016 Census there were 2,080 people who identified as Indigenous. 63.2% were Inuvialuit (Inuit, predominantly Uummarmiut), 31.0% First Nations and 5.3%; Métis. The non-native population of Inuvik was 36.7%. The main language spoken in Inuvik is English, though schools teach and a handful of local people still speak Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun), and Gwich’in. Local CBC Radio, CHAK (AM), broadcasts an hour of programming a day in each of these languages. Local Gwich'in are enrolled in the Inuvik Native Band.
There are also about 100 Muslims, most of whom came there for economic opportunities. A small mosque (dubbed "Little mosque on the tundra" in reference to the CBC show Little Mosque on the Prairie) was established in 2010. In 2017 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 3,192 with an average yearly growth rate of -1.2% from 2007.
|Sources: NWT Bureau of Statistics (2001 - 2017)|
Inuvik is located on the East Channel of the Mackenzie Delta, approximately 100 km (60 mi) from the Arctic Ocean and approximately 200 km (120 mi) north of the Arctic Circle. The tree line lies north of Inuvik, and the town is surrounded by boreal forest.
Most roads in Inuvik are paved. There are both concrete and metal-grill sidewalks alongside the roads.
The Dempster Highway provides access to Inuvik for the majority of the year. However, the highway relies on ferries and ice bridges to get across the rivers. It is thus closed during the time of freeze-up (roughly late-October to mid-December), for ice to form and allow ice bridges, and thaw (roughly mid-May to mid-June) to allow the ferry to run. At these times, there is air access only.
When the Mackenzie River is ice-free, Northern Transportation Company Limited provides a commercial barge service from Hay River, on Great Slave Lake to the regional terminal in Inuvik. The annual sealift moves supplies as far east as Taloyoak, Nunavut and west to Utqiagvik, Alaska.
A distinct feature of Inuvik is the use of "utilidors" – above-ground utility conduits carrying water and sewage – which are covered by corrugated steel. They run throughout town connecting most buildings, and as a result there are many small bridges and underpasses. The utilidors are necessary because of the permafrost underlying the town.
Another feature is an Inuksuk placed outside the Mackenzie Hotel, which was rebuilt in 2006.
Inuvik has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). Summers are typically wetter and cool, with temperatures varying wildly throughout the months due to its peculiar location near the cold Arctic Ocean. The average hottest month of the year, July, has a mean high of 19.5 °C (67.1 °F) and mean low of 8.6 °C (47.5 °F). Unlike many other North American continental climates, Inuvik warms up very quickly during the months of May and June due to the rapidly increasing day length, and that remaining snow cools down until May. June is a warmer month than August. Seasonal transitions are extremely short, with mean daily temperatures rising or falling as fast as 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) per day. Winters are long and extremely frigid; the coldest month of the year, January, having a mean high of −22.8 °C (−9.0 °F) and a mean low of −31.0 °C (−23.8 °F). Freezing temperatures can occur any month of the year. Inuvik has a great variation of temperatures during the year, usually peaking below −40 °C (−40 °F) in the winter and above 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. The highest temperature ever recorded in Inuvik was 32.8 °C (91 °F) on 17 June 1999 and 20 July 2001. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −56.7 °C (−70 °F) on 4 February 1968.
Snow that falls from October onward usually stays until the spring thaw in mid-May. By March, the median snow depth has reached its greatest, about 56.2 cm (22.1 in).
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Inuvik (Mike Zubko Airport), elevation: 67.7 m (222 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1957–present|
|Record high humidex||5.9||4.9||5.6||14.9||29.2||35.8||40.0||36.6||26.7||20.6||10.0||5.0||40.0|
|Record high °C (°F)||7.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−22.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−26.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−31.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−54.4
|Record low wind chill||−64||−67||−60||−51||−35||−13||−5||−9||−23||−43||−55||−60||−67|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0.1
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||15.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||9.9||10.9||11.2||7.6||7.6||8.1||11.6||14.4||13.0||13.6||11.7||10.3||129.9|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||0.1||0.1||0.1||0.3||2.5||7.1||10.8||13.9||8.9||1.0||0.0||0.1||44.7|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||10.3||11.6||11.8||8.0||6.2||1.4||0.1||1.3||5.1||14.1||12.1||11.2||93.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67.3||65.4||58.0||59.3||59.9||49.3||56.3||63.2||68.8||78.6||74.0||69.7||64.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||7.3||65.2||174.1||248.7||295.0||375.1||339.8||216.2||109.4||50.2||17.8||0.0||1,898.8|
|Source: Environment Canada (Sunshine 1951–1980)|
Inuvik has North America's northernmost mosque, which opened in November 2010 after being built in Winnipeg and moved 4,000 km (2,500 mi) by truck and barge. Some media reports have mistakenly called the mosque "the world's northernmost mosque", but in fact mosques in Norilsk, Russia, and Tromsø, Norway, are both slightly farther north than Inuvik.
Annual events of note
The Great Northern Arts Festival has been held annually for 10 days in the middle of July since 1989. The Festival has hosted over 3000 artists from across Canada's north, and from as far away as Japan and Australia over 31 years and is the largest annual tourism event in the Beaufort Delta. Featuring on-site demonstrations, 50+ arts workshops, a 3500-piece gallery, an outdoor carving village, an interactive artist studio zone, nightly cultural performances, northern film screenings, family activities and an Arctic fashion show, the Festival attracts visitors from around the world to travel the Dempster Highway to visit Inuvik and the Gwich'in and Inuvialuit Settlement Regions.
The annual Sunrise Festival happens on the second weekend of the new year, when the sun finally breaks the horizon after about thirty days of darkness. The Festival is an all-day community event highlighted by dog-sled races, a long-program fireworks show and community bonfire. This Festival was highlighted in the award-winning 2010 national Tropicana Orange Juice commercial Arctic Sun.
Inuvik celebrates the Muskrat Jamboree each year in late March or early April. Started in 1957, the event brings together thousands of people to participate in traditional games, watch the dog-sled and snowmobile races and dance (jig) the night away in town. Most events are held on the Mackenzie River where several community groups operate concessions in stove-heated traditional McPherson tents, preparing hot soup, bannock, baked goods, coffee, Labrador tea, hot chocolate and other traditional refreshments. Many participants and spectators wear traditional clothing and often local artisans will have something to sell. In conjunction with the Muskrat Jamboree, the Town of Inuvik hosts the annual Muskrat Cup 3-on-3 Pond Hockey Tournament on the frozen Mackenzie River, the world's most northerly cash tournament.
The weekend closest to the summer solstice (21 June) each year features the Midnight Sun Fun Run, a 5K, 10K and Half-Marathon that starts at midnight under the blazing 24-hours of sunlight experienced for 50+ days each summer in Inuvik. Runners from around the world make their way north to participate in this unique event under the midnight sun.
A new hospital opened in early 2003, providing service to an area extending from Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, to Ulukhaktok on Victoria Island, and from Paulatuk into the Sahtu Region including Norman Wells, Tulita, Deline, Fort Good Hope, and Colville Lake.
The Midnight Sun Complex, a stage-built multi-use facility, was completed in 2006. Featuring the Roy 'Sugloo' Ipana Memorial Arena, with an NHL-sized ice surface; the Inuvik Curling Club with 3 sheets and a well-situated licensed lounge/viewing area; the Inuvik Pool, an award-winning Class B recreational pool with lane swimming, waterpark features including a two-story waterslide, hot tub, sauna and steam room; two squash courts; a multi-use community hall with stage; on-site business centre/production office; full building wireless; video-conferencing facility; on-site catering/kitchen; and meeting rooms for groups of 5 to 500. At full-building use, the Complex can host conferences, conventions and trade shows with up to 1200 delegates/exhibitors.
The community has a state-of-the-art school called East 3. The construction budget for the school exceeded $110 million, and it features modern technologies such as 'smartboards' and videoconferencing facilities as well as a large gym.
The town is served by the Inuvik Drum, a community newspaper published weekly by Northern News Services.
|OTA channel||Call sign||Network||Notes|
|13 (VHF)||CH4221||Aboriginal Peoples Television Network|
Inuvik was previously served by CHAK-TV, VHF channel 6, a CBC North television repeater of CFYK-DT (Yellowknife); that station closed down on 31 July 2012 due to budget cuts affecting the CBC.
|AM 860||CHAK||CBC Radio One||Talk radio, public radio||Canadian Broadcasting Corporation||Part of CBC North; broadcasts programming in English, Gwich’in, and Inuvialuktun|
|FM 98.7||CKRW-FM-2||The Rush||Hot adult contemporary||Klondike Broadcasting||Rebroadcaster of CKRW-FM (Whitehorse)|
|FM 101.9||VF2082||CKLB Radio: The Voice of Denendeh||Community radio||Native Communications Society of the Northwest Territories||First Nations community radio; rebroadcaster of CKLB-FM (Yellowknife)|
However, the dependence on this single trunk line occasionally causes widespread Internet outages during Dempster or Alaska Highway maintenance or construction. A backup trunk line between Fort Simpson and Inuvik is currently under construction.
In 1988, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN) officially adopted the name Inuvik for a crater on Mars, at 78.7° north latitude and 28.6° west longitude. The crater's diameter is 20.5 km (12.7 mi).
- Leona Aglukkaq, former member of Parliament for the electoral district of Nunavut and former Minister of Health
- Roger Allen, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
- Zac Boyer, former National Hockey League right winger
- Tom Butters, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
- Jason Elliott, former professional ice hockey player
- Fred Koe, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
- Floyd Roland, former Mayor of Inuvik and former Premier and member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
- Richard Nerysoo, former chief of the Gwich'in Tribal Council, former member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, former Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, and former Premier of the Northwest Territories
- Eric Schweig, Inuvialuit/Chippewa/Dene actor
- History of Inuvik
- Town of Inuvik. "Community Profile". Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "Census Profile | Inuvik, T Northwest Territories (Census subdivision)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census Inuvik (Population centre), Northwest Territories and Northwest Territories (Territory)]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "NWT Communities - Inuvik". Government of the Northwest Territories: Department of Municipal and Community Affairs.
- "Northwest Territories Official Community Names and Pronunciation Guide". Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre. Yellowknife: Education, Culture and Employment, Government of the Northwest Territories. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
- Inuvik - Statistical Profile
- Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claims Agreement (PDF). Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 1992. p. 4. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- Inuvialuit Final Agreement (PDF) (2005 Consolidated ed.). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 2005. p. 3. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- "Gwich'in Settlement Region". Gwich'in Social and Cultural Institute. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- "Concluding and Implementing Land Claim and Self-Government Agreements - Gwich'in". Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- "Inuvialuit Land Administration". Inuvialuit Regional Corporation. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- "Concluding and Implementing Land Claim and Self-Government Agreements - Inuvialuit". Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Developement Canada (4 June 2015). "Post-1975 Treaties (Modern Treaties)" (Shapefile). Open Government.
- Proc, Jerry (October 2007). "Inuvik". jproc.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Census Profile | Inuvik, T Northwest Territories (Census subdivision)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "2001 Community Profiles | 2001 Canada Census". www12.statcan.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "1996 Census of Canada: Electronic Area Profiles". www12.statcan.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Little mosque on the tundra | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Population Estimates By Community from the GNWT
- About Inuvuk
- NTCL services Archived 11 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Inuvik A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2202570. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Daily Data Report for January 2009". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2202575. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for April 2009". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2202575. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for May 2010". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2202575. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- CBC News Article on the World's northernmost mosque
- "Alnor facts Tromsø". alnor.no. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Arctic Muslims | The St. Petersburg Times | The leading English-language newspaper in St. Petersburg". sptimes.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Inuvik Community Greenhouse".
- "Great Northern Arts Festival". gnaf.org. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Cannes Lions 2010 Winners Film Lions". coloribus.com. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Tropicana Juice: "Arctic Sun" TV Commercial by BBDO Toronto Canada". coloribus.com. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Town of Inuvik | Go beyond the Arctic Circle | Town of Inuvik". inuvik.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Speaking notes for Hubert T. Lacroix regarding measures announced in the context of the Deficit Reduction Action Plan". cbc.radio-canada.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-384, July 17, 2012". crtc.gc.ca. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "USGS Map MC-01 of the Mare Boreum Region of the planet Mars showing INUVIK Crater" (PDF). planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inuvik.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Inuvik.|