Invasive species in New Zealand
A number of introduced species, some of which have become invasive species, have been added to New Zealand's native flora and fauna. Both deliberate and accidental introductions have been made from the time of the first human settlement, with several waves of Polynesian people at some time before the year 1300, followed by Europeans after 1769.
Almost without exception, the introduced species have been detrimental to the native flora and fauna but some, such as farmed sheep and cows and the clover upon which they feed, now form a large part of the economy of New Zealand. Registers, lists and indexes of species that are invasive, potentially invasive, or a threat to agriculture or biodiversity are maintained by Biosecurity New Zealand.
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Many invasive animal species are listed in schedules 5 and 6 of the Wildlife Act 1953. Those in Schedule 5 have no protection and may be killed. Those in Schedule 6 are declared to be noxious animals and subject to the Noxious Animals Act 1956.
Some of the better-known invasive animal species are as follows.
The National Pest Plant Accord, with a listing of about 120 genus, species, hybrids and subspecies, was developed to limit the spread of plant pests. Invasive plants are classified as such on a regional basis with some plants declared as national plant pests. The Department of Conservation also lists 328 vascular plant species as environmental weeds.
Some of the better-known invasive plant species are:
- Acacia species (mostly Australian) especially wattle
- Acanthus - bears britches
- Arundo donax - giant reed (or elephant grass)
- Banana passionfruit
- Boxthorn (Lycium ferossimum)
- Darwin's barberry (Berberis darwnii)
- Cape sundew (Drosera capensis)
- Blackberry
- Broom (Cytisus scoparius)
- Buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus)
- Californian thistle
- Cape tulip
- Christmasberry (Schinus terebinthifolius)
- Climbing asparagus (Asparagus scandens)
- Didymosphenia geminata ("didymo" or "rock snot")
- Japanese honeysuckle
- Jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum)
- Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum)
- Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta)
- Mexican daisy
- Mexican devil (Ageratina adenophora)
- Morning glory (Convolvulus)
- Moth plant
- Old man's beard
- Oxygen weed (Egeria)
- Oxygen weed (Lagarosiphon major)
- Pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana)
- Purple loosestrife
- Queen of the night (Cestrum nocturnum)
- Rhododendron ponticum
- Scotch thistle
- Tradescantia fluminensis
- Willow
- Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus)
- Yellow flag (Iris pseudacorus)
Specific issues in New Zealand
- Agapanthus in New Zealand
- Australian magpies in New Zealand
- Blue morning glory in New Zealand
- Canada geese in New Zealand
- Cats in New Zealand
- Common brushtail possum in New Zealand
- Didymo in New Zealand
- Gorse in New Zealand
- Gypsy moths in New Zealand
- Old man's beard in New Zealand
- Stoats in New Zealand
- Wilding conifer
- Howe, K. R. (2003). The Quest for Origins. p. 179. ISBN 0-14-301857-4.
- Rat remains help date New Zealand's colonisation. New Scientist. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
- Abel Tasman did not land, so is unlikely to have introduced anything.
- It has been suggested that the harrier hawk may have benefited.
- "Registers, List and Indexes". MAF Biosecurity New Zealand. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
- Lowe S., Browne M., Boudjelas S. and de Poorter M. (2000, updated 2004). 100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species: A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database. The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), a specialist group of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Auckland.
- "Trichosurus vulpecula alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Mustela furo alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Erinaceus europaeus alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- "Mus musculus alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- "Oryctolagus cuniculus alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Mustela erminea alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Pycnonotus cafer alien range". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- "Management of invasive freshwater fish: striking the right balance!" (PDF). Department of Conservation.
There will be sites where the Department will want to eradicate salmonids species because they pose a significant threat to the maintenance of a threatened species or ecosystem...
- Howell, Clayson (May 2008). Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand (PDF). DRDS292. Wellington: Department of Conservation. ISBN 978-0-478-14413-0. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "Media release: Doctors prescribe attitude change for World’s weediest city". Landcare Research. 23 January 2006. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
- Landcare Research. "Attitude change prescribed for weedy Auckland" (Press release). Snoop.
Auckland has the dubious honour of being the weediest city in the world, with 220 weeds (and climbing).
- Allen, Robert B.; Lee, William G., eds. (2006). Biological Invasions in New Zealand. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-30022-8.
- Hackwell, Kevin (1999). Pests & Weeds: The Cost of Restoring an Indigenous Dawn Chorus: A Blueprint for Action Against the Impacts of Introduced Pest Organisms on the New Zealand Environment. Wellington [N.Z.]: New Zealand Conservation Authority. ISBN 0-9583301-8-2.
- King, Carolyn M. (1985). Immigrant Killers: Introduced Predators and the Conservation of Birds in New Zealand. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-558115-7.
- King, Carolyn M., ed. (1993). "The Great Lake Pest Summit - Proceedings of the National Mammalian Pest Forum, May 1993". New Zealand Journal of Zoology (Royal Society of New Zealand) 20 (4). doi:10.1080/03014223.1993.10420365. ISSN 0301-4223.
- Kirk, T. (1895). "The displacement of species in New Zealand". Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 28: 1–27.
- Rahman, Anis and Ian Popay (1 August 2001). "Review of emerging weed problems in hill country pastures".
- Thomson, George Malcolm (1922). The naturalisation of animals & plants in New Zealand. England: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.55364. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Timmins, S; Williams, P. (1991). "Weed numbers in New Zealand's forest and scrub reserves" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Ecol (New Zealand Ecological Society) 15 (2): 153–162.
- "The Future of Pest Management in New Zealand: A Think Piece" (PDF). Local Government New Zealand. August 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- New Zealand Plant Protection Society (2004). An illustrated guide to common weeds of New Zealand / Bruce Roy ... [et.al.] (2nd ed.). Lincoln, Canterbury, N.Z: New Zealand Plant Protection Society. ISBN 0473097605.
- Biosecurity New Zealand NZ Government Agency responsible for biosecurity
- New Zealand Department of Conservation - animal pests
- New Zealand Department of Conservation - plant pests (weeds)
- Searchable database on unwanted organisms at the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
- Information on plant pests at Weedbusters