Inverted roller coaster

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Inverted roller coaster
Nemesis at Alton Towers 240 (4756752644).jpg
StatusIn Production
First manufactured1992
No. of installations189
ManufacturersBolliger & Mabillard, Vekoma, Intamin, and Mack Rides
VehiclesSuspended trains
Restraint StyleOver-the-shoulder (most common style)

An inverted roller coaster is a roller coaster in which the train runs under the track with the seats directly attached to the wheel carriage. This latter attribute is what sets it apart from the older suspended coaster, which runs under the track, but swings via a pivoting bar attached to the wheel carriage. The coaster type's inverted orientation, where the passengers' legs are exposed, distinguishes it from a traditional roller coaster, where the passengers' arms are instead exposed.

B&M style inverted roller coaster car.

The inverted coaster was pioneered by the Swiss roller coaster designers Bolliger & Mabillard in the early 1990s. The first installation came at Six Flags Great America in 1992.[1] Batman: The Ride opened to much fanfare and was "cloned" many times at other parks. The inverted coaster quickly became an industry favorite with custom designs installed nearly every year. The tallest and fastest inverted coaster is Legendary Twin Dragon at Chongqing Sunac Land at 229.6 feet (70.0 m) tall and reaching speeds up to 73.9 miles per hour (118.9 km/h). The longest inverted coaster is Banshee at Kings Island which travels along 4,124 feet (1,257 m) of track.

Other roller coaster manufacturers followed in the footsteps of Bolliger & Mabillard and began working on their own inverted coaster designs, including Vekoma, Intamin and other smaller companies. Intamin has few designs classified as inverted coasters, although they do install inverted coaster trains on some of their launched designs. Vekoma, on the other hand, usually mass-produces the same design (SLC (689m Standard)) with 41 identical coasters – and a few variations of that design – installed around the world.[2] Also, in recent years, Vekoma has become the first manufacturer to install a family-friendly inverted roller coaster. Giovanola also has a single inverted coaster operating.

The inversions usually include vertical loop, zero-g roll, Immelmann loop, cobra roll, and corkscrew.


231 inverted roller coasters have been installed at various theme parks, some of which have been relocated. The following list is not exhaustive and only shows the most notable installations.

Name Park Opened Manufacturer Status
Batman: The Ride Six Flags Great America 1992 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Batman: The Ride Six Flags Great Adventure 1993 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Flight Deck California's Great America 1993 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Nemesis Alton Towers 1994 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Batman: The Ride Six Flags Magic Mountain 1994 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Raptor Cedar Point 1994 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
El Condor Walibi Holland 1994 Vekoma Operating
Diavlo Himeji Central Park 1994 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Batman: The Ride Six Flags St. Louis 1995 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
T3 Kentucky Kingdom 1995 Vekoma Operating
Eurostar German Traveling Fairs 1995 Intamin/Giovanola Operating
Flight Deck Canada's Wonderland 1995 Vekoma Operating
Hurricane Rusutsu Resort 1995 Vekoma Operating
Lethal Weapon - The Ride Warner Bros. Movie World 1995 Vekoma Closed 2019
Fly - The Great Nor'easter Morey's Piers 1995 Vekoma Operating
F2 Fright Flight Nasu Highland Park 1995 Vekoma Operating
Mind Eraser Six Flags America 1995 Vekoma Operating
Montu Busch Gardens Tampa Bay 1996 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Batman: The Ride Six Flags Over Georgia 1997 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
The Great White SeaWorld San Antonio 1997 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Mind Eraser Darien Lake 1997 Vekoma Operating
The Riddler Revenge Six Flags New England 1997 Vekoma Operating
Mind Eraser Elitch Gardens 1997 Vekoma Operating
Mayan Adventure Formosa Aboriginal Culture Village 1997 Vekoma Operating
Alpengeist Busch Gardens Williamsburg 1997 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Jaguar Isla Magica 1997 Vekoma Operating
Nio Mitsui Greenland 1997 Vekoma Operating
Great Bear Hersheypark 1998 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Linear Gale LaQua 1998 Intamin Operating
Volcano, The Blast Coaster Kings Dominion 1998 Intamin Closed 2018
Blue Tornado Gardaland 1998 Vekoma Operating
Cape Cobras Ratanga Junction 1998 Vekoma Closed 2018
Formerly The Hangman
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
Vekoma Operating
Closed 1997
Tornado Parque de Atracciones de Madrid 1999 Intamin Operating
Batman: The Ride Six Flags Over Texas 1999 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Dragon Challenge Islands of Adventure 1999 Bolliger & Mabillard Closed 2017[3]
Roller Coaster Dream Park 1999 Vekoma Operating
Afterburn Carowinds 1999 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Limit Heide Park 1999 Vekoma Operating
Anaconda Gold Reef City 1999 Giovanola Operating
Twisted Typhoon Wild Adventures 1999 Vekoma Operating
Vampire Walibi Belgium 1999 Vekoma Operating
Invertigo Kings Island 1999 Vekoma Operating
Queen Bee Center Norte 1999 Pinfari Closed 2007
Desafio Parque de la Costa 1999 Vekoma Operating
Tornado Parque de Atracciones de Madrid 1999 Intamin Operating
Katun Mirabilandia 2000 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Batman: The Ride Six Flags Mexico 2000 Vekoma Operating
Mirage Rosso Zoosafari Fasanolandia 2000 Fabbri Group Operating
Kumba Superland 2001 Vekoma Operating
MP Xpress Movie Park Germany 2001 Vekoma Operating
Talon Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom 2001 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Tornado Särkänniemi 2001 Intamin Operating
Great Fluffy Sky Adventure Fuji-Q Highland 2001 Hoei Sangyo Co., Ltd. Operating
Screaming Condor Leofoo Village Theme Park 2001 Intamin Operating
Vertical Velocity Six Flags Great America 2001 Intamin Operating
Batman la Fuga Parque Warner Madrid 2002 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Stunt Fall Parque Warner Madrid 2002 Vekoma Operating
Wicked Twister Cedar Point 2002 Intamin Closed 2021
Le Vampire La Ronde 2002 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
V2: Vertical Velocity Six Flags Discovery Kingdom 2002 Intamin Operating
Snow Mountain Flying Dragon Happy Valley, Shenzhen 2002 Vekoma Operating
Sky Rocket Dreamworld 2002 Vekoma Operating
Jubilee Odyssey Fantasy Island 2002 Vekoma Operating
Queen Bee Botton's Pleasure Beach 2002 Pinfari Operating
Nemesis Inferno Thorpe Park 2003 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Swamp Thing Wild Adventures 2003 Vekoma Operating
Kiddy Hawk Carowinds 2003 Vekoma Operating
Steel Venom Valleyfair 2003 Intamin Operating
Suspended Looping Coaster Suzhou Amusement Land 2003 Vekoma Closed 2017
Titánide Terra Mitica 2003 Vekoma Operating
Lightning Kuwait Entertainment City 2004 Bolliger & Mabillard Closed 2016
Silver Bullet Knott's Berry Farm 2004 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Tsunami M&Ds 2004 Pinfari Closed 2016
Gauntlet Magic Springs and Crystal Falls 2004 Vekoma Operating
Anaconda Fantasy World 2004 Fabbri Group Operating
Bat Lagoon 2005 Vekoma Operating
Shenzhou Coaster Beijing Shijingshan Amusement Park 2005 Beijing Shibaolai Operating
Patriot Worlds of Fun 2006 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Black Mamba Phantasialand 2006 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Kumali Flamingo Land Resort 2006 Vekoma Operating
Unknown Nanhu 2006 Fabbri Group Closed
Golden Wings in Snowfield Happy Valley 2006 Vekoma Operating
Formerly Traumatizer
Pleasure Beach Blackpool
Pleasureland Southport
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2006
Formerly Pusing Lagi
Siam Park City
Jerudong Park
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2005/6
Jimmy Neutron's Atomic Flyer Movie Park Germany 2007 Vekoma Operating
Star Flyer Star City 2007 Pinfari Operating
Kvasten Gröna Lund 2007 Vekoma Operating
Phaethon Gyeongju World 2007 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Formerly Batman: The Ride
Formerly Gambit
Six Flags Fiesta Texas
Six Flags New Orleans
Thrill Valley
Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Closed 2005
Closed 2002
Thunderhawk Michigan's Adventure
Geauga Lake
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2007
Formerly Steel Venom
Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom
Geauga Lake
Intamin Operating
Closed 2006
Formerly Déjà Vu
Silverwood Theme Park
Six Flags Great America
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2007
Formerly Blackout
Beto Carrero World
Suzuka Circuit
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2007
Steel Lasso Frontier City 2008 Vekoma Operating
The Monster
Formerly Orochi
Walygator Parc
Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Closed 2007
Ednör - L'Attaque
Formerly Serial Thriller
La Ronde
Six Flags Astroworld
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2005
Battlestar Galactica: Cylon Universal Studios Singapore 2010 Vekoma Operating
Sky Mountain
Formerly Déjà Vu
Six Flags Over Georgia
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2007
Mountain Peak Jinjiang Action Park 2011 Vekoma Operating
Flying School
Formerly Swamp Thing
Legoland Florida
Cypress Gardens
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2008
Formerly Déjà Vu
Six Flags New England
Six Flags Magic Mountain
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2011
Formerly Invertigo
Dorney Park
California's Great America
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2010
Formerly Tornado
Formerly Unknown
Formerly Hangover
Somerland Syd
Allou Fun Park
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2011
In storage 2003 to 2004
Closed 2002
OzIris Parc Astérix 2012 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Banshee Kings Island 2014 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Family Inverted Coaster Happy Valley 2014 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating
Arthur - The Ride Europa-Park 2014 Mack Rides Operating
Formerly Two Face: The Flip Side
Movieland Park
Six Flags America
Vekoma Operating
Closed 2007
Mayan Energylandia 2015 Vekoma Operating
Dragonflyer Dollywood 2019 Vekoma Operating
Hals-über-Kopf Erlebnispark Tripsdrill 2020 Vekoma Operating
Monster Gröna Lund 2021 Bolliger & Mabillard Operating


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Meyer, Russell (May 12, 2014). "Coaster Tech: An Insider's look at inverted coasters". Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Dragon Challenge closing for a new Harry Potter ride". 24 July 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.

External links[edit]