Iodine (medical use)
|Trade names||Iodoflex, Iodosorb, others|
|topical, by mouth, IM|
Iodine is used to treat and prevent iodine deficiency and as an antiseptic. For iodine deficiency it can be given by mouth or injection into a muscle. As an antiseptic it may be used on wounds that are wet or to disinfect the skin before surgery.
Common side effects when applied to the skin include irritation and discoloration. When taken by mouth or injection side effects may include allergic reactions, goitre, and thyroid dysfunction. Use during pregnancy is recommended in regions where deficiency is common, otherwise it is not recommended. Iodine is an essential trace element.
In 1811, Bernard Courtois isolated iodine from seaweed while in 1820 Jean-Francois Coindet linked iodine intake to goiter size. It initially came into use as a disinfectant and for goiter. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Table salt with iodine, known as iodized salt, is available in more than 110 countries. In areas with low dietary iodine one dose of iodine a year at 0.32 USD per dose may be recommended.
A number of iodine containing formulations are also used medically including:
- potassium iodide (supplement)
- Lugol’s solution (supplement and disinfectant)
- povidone-iodine (disinfectant)
- iohexol (contrast agent)
- amidotrizoate (contrast agent)
- meglumine iotroxate (contrast agent)
- radioactive iodine
- Tincture of iodine
- So-called nascent iodine
- Iopanoic acid (contrast agent)
- Amiodarone (30% iodine content)
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