Iohexol

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Iohexol
Iohexol.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesOmnipaque, Hexopaque, others
Other names5-[N-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)acetamido]-2,4,6-triiodo-N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)isophthalamide
AHFS/Drugs.comMicromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Pregnancy
category
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
intrathecal, intravascular, by mouth, intracavital, rectal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein bindingLow
MetabolismNil
Elimination half-lifeVariable
ExcretionKidney, unchanged
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.060.130 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC19H26I3N3O9
Molar mass821.138 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Iohexol, sold under the trade name Omnipaque among others, is a contrast agent used during X-rays.[1] This includes when visualizing arteries, veins, ventricles of the brain, the urinary system, and joints, as well as during computer tomography (CT scan).[1] It is given by mouth, injection into a vein, or into a body cavity.[2]

Side effects include vomiting, skin flushing, headache, itchiness, kidney problems, and low blood pressure.[1] Less commonly allergic reactions or seizures may occur.[1] Allergies to povidone-iodine or shellfish do not affect the risk of side effects more than other allergies.[3] Use in the later part of pregnancy may cause hypothyroidism in the baby.[4] Iohexol is an iodinated non-ionic radiocontrast agent.[1] It is in the low osmolar family.[5]

Iohexol was approved for medical use in 1985.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$10.99 per 50 ml vial.[8] In the United States a dose costs US$50–100.[2]

Chemistry[edit]

The osmolality of iohexol ranges from 322 mOsm/kg—approximately 1.1 times that of blood plasma—to 844 mOsm/kg, almost three times that of blood.[9] Despite this difference, iohexol is still considered a low-osmolality contrast agent; the osmolality of older agents, such as diatrizoate, may be more than twice as high.[10]

Society and culture[edit]

Names[edit]

It is sold under the brand names Omnipaque and Hexopaque. It is also sold as a density gradient medium under the names Accudenz, Histodenz and Nycodenz.[11][12]

Formulations[edit]

It is available in various concentrations, from 140 to 350 milligrams of iodine per milliliter.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 317–318. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 171. ISBN 9781284057560.
  3. ^ ACR Manual on Contrast Media v10.3. 2017 (PDF). American College of Radiology. 2017. p. 6. ISBN 9781559030120. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  4. ^ Briggs, Gerald G.; Freeman, Roger K.; Yaffe, Sumner J. (2011). Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 761. ISBN 9781608317080. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
  5. ^ Sutton, David; Young, Jeremy W. R. (2012). A Short Textbook of Clinical Imaging. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 235. ISBN 9781447117551. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
  6. ^ Broe, Marc E. de; Porter, George A.; Bennett, William M.; Verpooten, G. A. (2013). Clinical Nephrotoxins: Renal Injury from Drugs and Chemicals. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 325. ISBN 9789401590884. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
  7. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  8. ^ "Iohexol". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  9. ^ GE Healthcare (May 2006). "Omnipaque (Iohexol) injection. Product label". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
  10. ^ Amersham Health (April 2006). "Hypaque (Diatrizoate Meglumine and Diatrizoate Sodium) injection, solution. Product label". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
  11. ^ "HistoDenz (D2158)" Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine, product information sheet, Sigma-Aldrich. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2015.
  12. ^ "Nycodenz®: A universal density gradient medium" Archived 2015-02-26 at the Wayback Machine, Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2015.

External links[edit]