Iohexol

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Iohexol
Iohexol.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Omnipaque, Hexopaque, others
Synonyms 5-[N-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)acetamido]-2,4,6-triiodo-N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)isophthalamide
AHFS/Drugs.com Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Pregnancy
category
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
intrathecal, intravascular, by mouth, intracavital, rectal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding Low
Metabolism Nil
Elimination half-life Variable
Excretion Kidney, unchanged
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.060.130 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H26I3N3O9
Molar mass 821.138 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Iohexol, sold under the trade names Omnipaque among others, is a contrast agent used during X-rays.[1] This includes when visualizing arteries, veins, ventricles of the brain, the urinary system, and joints, as well as during computer tomography (CT scan).[1] It is given by mouth, injection into a vein, or into a body cavity.[2]

Side effects include vomiting, skin flushing, headache, itchiness, kidney problems, and low blood pressure.[1] Less commonly allergic reactions or seizures may occur.[1] Allergies to povidone-iodine or shellfish do not affect the risk of side effects more than other allergies.[3] Use in the later part of pregnancy may cause hypothyroidism in the baby.[4] Iohexol is an iodinated non-ionic radiocontrast agent.[1] It is in the low osmolar family.[5]

Iohexol was approved for medical use in 1985.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 10.99 USD per 50 ml vial.[8] In the United States a dose costs 50 to 100 USD.[2]

Chemistry[edit]

The osmolality of iohexol ranges from 322 mOsm/kg—approximately 1.1 times that of blood plasma—to 844 mOsm/kg, almost three times that of blood.[9] Despite this difference, iohexol is still considered a low-osmolality contrast agent; the osmolality of older agents, such as diatrizoate, may be more than twice as high.[10]

Society and culture[edit]

Names[edit]

It is sold under the brand names Omnipaque and Hexopaque. It is also sold as a density gradient medium under the names Accudenz, Histodenz and Nycodenz.[11][12]

Formulations[edit]

It is available in various concentrations, from 140 to 350 milligrams of iodine per milliliter.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 317–318. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 171. ISBN 9781284057560.
  3. ^ ACR Manual on Contrast Media v10.3. 2017 (PDF). American College of Radiology. 2017. p. 6. ISBN 9781559030120. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  4. ^ Briggs, Gerald G.; Freeman, Roger K.; Yaffe, Sumner J. (2011). Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 761. ISBN 9781608317080. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
  5. ^ Sutton, David; Young, Jeremy W. R. (2012). A Short Textbook of Clinical Imaging. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 235. ISBN 9781447117551. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
  6. ^ Broe, Marc E. de; Porter, George A.; Bennett, William M.; Verpooten, G. A. (2013). Clinical Nephrotoxins: Renal Injury from Drugs and Chemicals. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 325. ISBN 9789401590884. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
  7. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  8. ^ "Iohexol". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  9. ^ GE Healthcare (May 2006). "Omnipaque (Iohexol) injection. Product label". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
  10. ^ Amersham Health (April 2006). "Hypaque (Diatrizoate Meglumine and Diatrizoate Sodium) injection, solution. Product label". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
  11. ^ "HistoDenz (D2158)" Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine., product information sheet, Sigma-Aldrich. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2015.
  12. ^ "Nycodenz®: A universal density gradient medium" Archived 2015-02-26 at the Wayback Machine., Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2015.

External links[edit]