Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Iolanta, Op. 69, (Russian: Иоланта) is a lyric opera in one act by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. It was the last opera he composed. The libretto was written by the composer's brother Modest Tchaikovsky, and is based on the Danish play Kong Renés Datter (King René's Daughter) by Henrik Hertz, a romanticised account of the life of Yolande de Bar. In the original Danish play, the spelling of the princess's name was "Iolanthe", later adopted for the otherwise unrelated Gilbert and Sullivan operetta of that name. The play was translated by Fyodor Miller and adapted by Vladimir Zotov. The opera received its premiere on 18 December 1892 in Saint Petersburg.
Composed after the completion of The Queen of Spades, Tchaikovsky worried that he had lost his creative inspiration after such a large project. He started Iolanta with the final duet in June 1891, and despite his worries, finished composition in September and orchestration in November. The public reception was quite favorable, though Tchaikovsky was disappointed and felt he was repeating himself, especially when compared to his earlier work, The Enchantress.
The world premiere took place on 18 December (6 December O.S.) 1892 at the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg. It was conducted by Eduard Nápravník and sets were designed by Mikhail Bocharov. The premiere of the opera shared a double bill with the composer's last ballet, The Nutcracker. A 1997 two-act version of Iolanta is performed regularly at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, and in Belarus.
Its first performance outside Russia was in Hamburg on 3 January 1893, with Gustav Mahler conducting. Mahler also conducted the Vienna premiere on 22 March 1900. In New York City it has been produced in 1997 and 2011 by Dicapo Opera. In 2015, Iolanta was performed for the first time at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, with Anna Netrebko in the title role.
There are only a few recordings of the opera, although Robert's aria has been recorded and performed in concerts frequently. A 1963 performance was filmed in Riga and released overseas in 1974.
|Role||Voice type||Saint Petersburg premiere,
18 December 1892
(6 December O.S.)
(Conductor: Eduard Nápravník)
|René, King of Provence||bass||Konstantin Serebryakov|
|Robert, Duke of Burgundy||baritone||Leonid Yakovlev|
|Count Vaudémont, a Burgundian knight||tenor||Nikolay Figner|
|Ibn-Hakia, a Moorish physician||baritone||Arkady Chernov|
|Alméric, armor-bearer to King René||tenor||Vasily Karelin|
|Bertrand, doorkeeper of the castle||bass||Yalmar Frei|
|Iolanta, blind daughter of King René||soprano||Medea Mei-Figner|
|Marta, Bertrand's wife, Iolanta's nursemaid||contralto||Mariya Kamenskaya|
|Brigitta, Iolanta's friend||soprano||Aleksandra Runge|
|Laura, Iolanta's friend||mezzo-soprano||Mariya Dolina|
|Chorus, silent roles: Iolanta's servant-girls and friends, the king's retinue, the Burgundian Duke's regiment, men-at-arms|
The instrumentation requires the following forces:
- Strings: violins I, violins II, violas, cellos, and double basses
- Woodwinds: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, Cor Anglais, 2 clarinets (B-flat & A), 2 bassoons
- Brass: 4 horns (all in F), 2 trumpets (B-flat, A), 3 trombones, tuba
- Percussion: timpani
- Other: 2 harps
Time: 15th century
Place: Mountains of southern France
Princess Iolanta has been blind from birth, but no one has ever told her, nor does she know she is a princess. She lives in a beautiful enclosed garden on the king's estate, secluded from the world, in the care of Bertrand and Martha. Her attendants bring flowers and sing to her. She declares her sadness, and her vague sense that she is missing something important that other people can experience. Her father, King René insists that she not discover she is blind, or that her betrothed, Duke Robert, find out about this.
After announcing the king's arrival, Alméric is warned by Bertrand not to speak of light with Iolanta or to reveal that Iolanta's father is the king. The king arrives with Ibn-Hakia, a famed Moorish physician who states that Iolanta can be cured, but the physical cure will only work if she is psychologically prepared by being made aware of her own blindness. Ibn-Hakia sings the monologue "Two worlds", explaining the interdependence of the mind and the body within the divinely ordained universe, which merges spirit and matter. The king refuses the treatment, fearing for Iolanta's happiness if the cure should fail after she has learned what she is missing.
Robert arrives at the court with his friend Count Vaudémont. Robert tells Vaudémont that he wishes to avoid the marriage as he has fallen in love with Countess Matilde. He sings of his love in his aria "Who can compare with my Mathilde" (Кто может сравниться с Матильдой моей). Vaudémont finds the entrance to Iolanta's secret garden, ignoring the sign which threatens death to anyone who enters. He sees the sleeping Iolanta, without realising who she is and instantly falls in love. Robert, astounded by his friend's behavior, is convinced she is a sorceress who has bewitched Vaudémont. He tells him to leave, but Vaudémont is too entranced. Robert departs to bring troops to rescue him. Iolanta awakes and Vaudémont, who asks her to give him a red rose as a keepsake, realizes she is blind when she twice offers him a white one. She has no concept of light, vision or blindness. They fall in love, after he explains light and color to her.
The couple are discovered by the king. Vaudémont pledges his love, whether Iolanta is blind or not. Ibn-Hakia tells the king that as Iolanta is now aware of her blindness, the treatment might be a success. Iolanta who has no will to see, is unsure therefore whether she should agree to treatment or not. Ibn-Hakia points out that the lack of will proves that, without inner desire, change cannot take place.
After Vaudémont admits seeing the warning sign at the garden entrance, the furious king threatens to execute him for revealing the truth to Iolanta. He tells Iolanta Vaudémont will die if the physician fails to restore her sight, in the hope that this will restore her will. Iolanta is horrified, and agrees to the treatment. After Ibn-Hakia leaves with Iolanta, the king explains to Vaudémont that he was feigning in order to motivate Iolanta. Robert returns with his troops. He admits to the king he has fallen in love with another, but is still willing to go ahead with the agreed marriage. The king cancels the wedding contract, and gives Iolanta to Vaudémont. Ibn-Hakia and Iolanta return. The treatment has worked and Iolanta can see. At first uncertain of her new gift, she eventually sings of the magical new world now visible to her. The court rejoices.
Principal arias and numbers
- Scene 1a. Iolanta's Arioso (Ариозо Иоланты): "Why haven't I known this before?" "Отчего это прежде не знала"
- Scene 5b. Ibn-Hakia's Monologue (Монолог Эбн-Хакиа): "Two worlds" "Два мира"
- Aria: "Who can be compared with my Matilda?" "Кто может сравниться с Матильдой моей" (Robert)
- No. 1: Scena (Marta) "Мой птенчик, Иоланта, ты устала?"
- No. 1a: Iolanta's Arioso "Отчего это прежде не знала"
- No. 2a: Scena (Marta) "Полно, не надо, родная, попусту душу томить!"
- No. 2b: Chorus (Brigitta, Laura, Maidservants) "Вот тебе лютики, вот васильки"
- No. 3a: Scena (Iolanta) "Бригитта, это ты?"
- No. 3b: Chorus (Brigitta, Laura, Marta) "Спи, пусть ангелы крылами навевают сны"
- No. 4a: Scena (Bertrand) "Призывный рог!"
- No. 4b: King René's Aria "Господь мой, если грешен я"
- No. 5a: Scena (King René) "Твое лицо бесстрастно"
- No. 5b: Ibn-Hakia's Monologue "Два мира: плотский и духовный"
- No. 6a: Scena (Robert) "Не торопись"
- No. 6b: Robert's Aria "Кто может сравниться с Матильдой моей"
- No. 6c: Vaudemont's Romance "Нет! Чары ласк красы мятежной"
- No. 7a: Scena (Vaudemont) "Однако где же мы?"
- No. 7b: Duet (Vaudemont, Iolanta) "Вы мне предстали как виденье"
- No. 8: Scena (Marta, Laura, Brigitta, Maidservants) "Иоланта!"
- No. 9: Finale (King René) "Прости меня, я обманул тебя"
- 1977, Tamara Sorokina (Iolanta), Yevgeny Nesterenko (René), Yuri Mazurok (Robert, Duke of Burgundy), Vladimir Atlantov (Vaudémont), Vladimir Valaitis (Ibn-Hakia), Alexander Arkhipov (Alméric), Valery Yaroslavtsev (Bertrand), Nina Grigorieva (Martha), Clara Kadinskaya (Brigitta), Larisa Nikitina (Laura). Bolshoi Theatre Soloists & Chorus and Orchestra, Mark Ermler. Melodiya.
- 1984, Galina Vishnevskaya (Iolanta), Nicolai Gedda (Vaudémont), Walton Gronroos (Robert), Tom Krause (Ibn-Hakia), Dimiter Petkov (René), James Anderson (Alméric), Fernand Dumont (Bertrand), Viorica Cortez (Martha), Tania Gedda (Brigitta). Groupe Vocal de France & Orchestre de Paris, Mstislav Rostropovich. Erato.
- 1994, Galina Gorchakova (Iolanta), Sergei Alexashkin (René), Gegham Grigoryan (Vaudémont), Dmitri Hvorostovsky (Robert). Conductor Valery Gergiev, Kirov Theatre. Philips.
- 1996, Tatiana Vorjdova (Iolanta), Alexei Levitski (René), Vassili Gorshkov (Vaudémont), Vladimir Prudnik (Ibn-Hakia), Sergei Nikitin (Robert), Tatiana Gorbunova (Martha) Novosibirsk State Opera Orchestra, Alexei Ludmilin. Brilliant Classics.
- 2002, Olga Mykytenko (Iolanta), Benno Schollum (René), Piotr Beczała (Vaudémont), Vladimir Krassov (Ibn-Hakia), Andrey Grigoryev (Robert), Roman Muravitsky (Almeric), Nikolai Didenko (Bertrand), Nina Romanova (Martha), Bella Kabanova (Brigitte) The Moscow Chamber Choir, Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra of Moscow Radio, Vladimir Fedoseyev. RELIEF.
- 2015, Anna Netrebko (Iolanta), Vitalij Kowaljow (René), Sergey Skorokhodov (Vaudémont), Lucas Meachem (Ibn-Hakia), Alexey Markov (Robert), Junho You (Almeric), Luka Debevec Mayer (Bertrand), Monika Bohinec (Martha), Theresa Plut (Brigitte), Slovenian Chamber Choir, Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra, Emmanuel Villaume. Deutsche Grammophon.
- 2015, Olesya Golovneva (Iolanta), Alexander Vinogradov (René), Dmitri Popov (Vaudémont), Andrei Bondarenko (Robert). Conductor Dmitri Kitayenko, Cologne Opera Chorus, Cologne Gürzenich Orchestra. Oehms.
- 1963, Galina Oleinichenko, Ivan Petrov, Bolshoi. Boris Khaikin
- 1982, Galina Kalinina, Artur Eisen. VAI.
- 2012, Ekaterina Scherbachenko, Pavel Cernoch. Teatro Real de Madrid. Teodor Currentzis
- 2012, Mikhailovsky Castle, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 19 July 2012.
- Henry Irving had produced a version of King René's Daughter in 1880, in London, under the name Iolanthe, so Gilbert asked his producer, Richard D'Oyly Carte, to request Irving's permission to use the name. See Ainger, Michael. Gilbert and Sullivan – A Dual Biography, Oxford University Press (2002), p. 212; and Bradley, Ian. The Complete Annotated Gilbert and Sullivan, Oxford University Press (1996), p. 364
- Iolanta (1997 production). Bolshoi Opera, Moscow.
- Iolanta. Academic Opera Company of Belarus
- Gustav Mahler chronology 1891–1900
- Wheeler, Victor (2011). "Dicapo Opera – Tchaikovsky's Iolanta". www.classicalsource.com. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
- Iolanta. Metropolitan Opera 2015
- Tchaikovsky Research
- Recordings source: Operadis discography
- Program notes, Metropolitan Opera, 2015
- Iolanta: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Yolanta (1963) at the Internet Movie Database
- Russian libretto with Spanish translation
- Duet Iolanta, Vaudémont, Anna Netrebko, Piotr Beczała, Metropolitan Opera, 2015