A selection of IP cameras
|Invented by||Axis Communications|
|First product||Axis Neteye 200|
|Type||Centralized or Decentralized|
|Slots||SD Card (optional)|
|Ports||Ethernet, Audio, I/O block|
|Language||ONVIF and PSIA|
An Internet Protocol camera, or IP camera, is a type of digital video camera that receives control data and sends image data via the Internet. They are commonly used for surveillance. Unlike analog closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras, they require no local recording device, but only a local area network. Most IP cameras are webcams, but the term IP camera or netcam usually applies only to those used for surveillance that can be directly accessed over a network connection.
Some IP cameras require support of a central network video recorder (NVR) to handle the recording, video and alarm management. Others are able to operate in a decentralized manner with no NVR needed, as the camera is able to record directly to any local or remote storage media. The first centralized IP camera was Axis Neteye 200, released in 1996 by Axis Communications.
- 1 History
- 2 Standards
- 3 WIFI Home Camera
- 4 Considerations
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The first centralized IP camera, the Axis Neteye 200, was released in 1996 by Axis Communications and was developed by the team of Martin Gren and Carl-Axel Alm. Though promoted based on its direct accessibility from anywhere with an internet connection, the camera couldn't stream real-time motion video, but was limited to a snapshot image each time the camera was accessed. At the time of launch, it was considered incapable of operating as a motion camera due to what was, at the time, "enormous" bandwidth requirements. Thus it was aimed primarily at the tourism industry. The Axis Neteye 200 was not intended to replace traditional analogue CCTV systems, given that its capability was limited to just one frame per second in CIF, or one every 17 seconds in 4CIF resolution, with a maximum resolution quality of 0.1MP (352x288). Axis used a custom proprietary web server named OSYS, yet by the summer of 1998, it had started porting the camera software to Linux. Axis also released documentation for its low-level application programming interface (API) called VAPIX, which builds on the open standards of HTTP and real time streaming protocol (RTSP). This open architecture was intended to encourage third-party software manufacturers to develop compatible management and recording software.
The first decentralized IP camera was released in 1999 by Mobotix. The camera's Linux system contained video, alarm, and recording management functions. The first IP camera with onboard video content analytics (VCA) was released in 2005 by Intellio. This camera was able to detect a number of different events, such as if an object was stolen, a human crossed a line, a human entered a predefined zone, or if a car moved in the wrong direction.
Previous generations of analog CCTV cameras use established broadcast television formats (e.g. Common Intermediate Format (CIF), NTSC, PAL, and SECAM). Since 2000, there has been a shift in the consumer TV business towards high-definition (HD) resolutions (e.g. 1080P (Full-HD), 4K resolution (Ultra-HD) and 16:9 widescreen format).
IP cameras may differ from one another in resolution, features, video encoding schemes, available network protocols, and the API for video management software. IP cameras are available at resolutions from 0.3 (VGA resolution) to 29 megapixels.
To address IP video surveillance standardization issues, two industry groups formed in 2008: the Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) and the Physical Security Interoperability Alliance (PSIA). PSIA was founded by 20 member companies including Honeywell, GE Security, and Cisco. ONVIF was founded by Axis Communications, Bosch and Sony. Each group now has numerous additional members. Cameras and recording hardware that operate under the same standard can work with each other.
WIFI Home Camera
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WIFI Home camera is the IP cameras that are sitting in the homes, and that utilize high speed broadband Internet access to capture and transmit High-definition video. The gap of IP camera used in small business and home is diminishing. Current home security camera can be used in small business due to its easy installation, that translates no installers required so it's far more cost and time savings. The exception is to monitor large businesses or commercial space like a mall. Some will require super high resolution videos (ie 4K) and will a great many cameras (possibly up to hundreds) and professional applications to accommodate these type of needs.
One of most popular applications is the Wifi home security cameras allows users to remotely view their homes indoors and outdoors via an Mobile app installed on their Mobile device. Most cameras offer such features as wide angle (around 140 degree, or pan/tilt up to 350 degrees horizontal, 90 degree vertical), low/night vision, and motion activation notifications. When an event occurs, users will receive alarms via an app. Video clips are stored in the local device (if a Micro-SD is present) or on the Cloud computing 
The market size of home security system has reached $4.8 billion dollars in 2018. This is displayed a CAGR of 22.4% between 2011 an 2018. Countries such as including Uganda, Sweden, Italy, and Tanzania suffered from high crime rates particularly robbery and theft, are keen to adopting the home security cameras. In addition, two countries, US and China, have high implementation rate of residential security cameras.
Major key players in home security market are Nest (US), Ring (owned by Amazon, US), Arlo (owned by Netgear, US), and SimpliSafe (US). Hikvision Digital Technology (Ltd) and Leshi Video Tech (China) are the largest camera manufacturers. As for alarm security industry, key players are ADT Inc., Security Services (US), Vivint Inc, and Front Point Security Solutions.
Indoor camera: Indoor camera is widely used at residential, and commercial (retail/office) space. Depending on the price points and functionality, they are fixed camera and Ptz camera. Fixed camera is utilized to monitor an unobtrusive area where as a PTZ camera can either track motion or manually adjust the monitoring area.
Outdoor wired (AC powered) camera: Like the name suggests, outdoor camera is placed in an outdoor environment and should sustain weather conditions, such as heat, cold, rain, and moisture. The IP65/IP 67 rated are common standards to withstand the outdoor circumstances. Outdoor camera is also capable of capturing videos in low light conditions.
Wired (AC Powered) or Wired free cameras  for homes:
Wired (AC power) WIFI cameras provides a reliable power source and stable signal. However, it’s not highly desirable and accessible to place power outlets on the roof for instance. Wired free camera, on contrary, uses WIFI connection and their power sources like solar or battery (no power cord). There is no hassle of wiring and drilling in area not easily accessed such as the roof top or above the garage door. Wirefree cameras do offer the convenience of free from hiring a contractor to wire the cables. However, it is not without trade offs. There is a need to change battery frequently, or important video footage may be missed due to lack of power. There is one more risk that the cameras may be undesirably removed since it’s not fully secured with a wire.
Some camera manufacturers have offered cloud subscriptions where users may view and download the video clips in a certain number of days looping by paying recurring subscription fees. Cloud-stored videos can be accessed remotely. Cloud subscription plan typically comes with a number of days looping (ie 7 days), and the videos will be overwritten beyond this duration.
Some cameras include a micro SD card slot so users may store videos locally. There is no looping as long as the memory card has sufficient space to store the images. However, locally stored video footage can not be accessed remotely.
Previous generation cameras transmitted analog video signals. IP cameras send images digitally using the transmission and security features of the TCP/IP protocol. Advantages to this approach include:
- Two-way audio via a single network cable allows users to listen to and speak to the subject of the video (e.g., a clerk assisting a customer through step-by-step instructions)
- Use of a Wi-Fi or wireless network
- Distributed artificial intelligence (DAI)—as the camera can contain video analytics that analyze images
- Secure data transmission through encryption and authentication methods such as WPA or WPA2, TKIP or AES
- Remote accessibility that lets users view live video from any device with sufficient access privileges
- Power over Ethernet (PoE) to supply power through the Ethernet cable and operate without a dedicated power supply
- Better image Resolution, typically four times the resolution of an analog camera
Artificial intelligence and Internet privacy
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has expressed privacy concerns if AI is widely practiced. AI is capable of tracking our movements, studying our behaviors; moreover, AI may learn our emotions, and further predict our movement of patterns. This has caused a threat that our lives are being monitored by computer watchers.
Facial recognition system
Facial recognition may identify a human's face by using the facial features via 3D biometrics from a picture or video. The application is straight forward. If the camera allows users to set up a database that includes family members and close friends. The system may distinguish whether someone exists in the database. The system is rather complex when considering a wide variety of factors such as wearing glasses, changes of hairstyles, and even different lightings during the day and night. If home camera is capable of providing accurate facial recognition, it shall tell the person walking into the home owner's door is either a family member or an intruder. If that's the later one, it will prepare the owner to call a law enforcement. The captured videos, rather than a few generic motion action alarms, may be provided as a trace to catch a criminal. This is will further enhanced a much safer environments for the homeowners and deter crimes from happening.
- Privacy and portrait rights infringement
- Average higher purchase cost per camera
- Security can be compromised by insecure credentials, given that the camera can be accessed independently of a video recorder
- Public internet connection video can be complicated to set up, and may require either a Static IP Address or a Dynamic DNS, though some IP cameras include a built-in dynamic DNS or using the peer-to-peer (P2P) network.
- Data storage can be a concern with IP Cameras, requiring large hard drives.
As with a CCTV/DVR system, if the video is transmitted over the public internet rather than a private network or intranet, the system potentially becomes open to a wider audience including hackers. Criminals can hack into a CCTV system to disable or manipulate them or observe security measures and personnel, thereby facilitating criminal acts and rendering the surveillance counterproductive. This can be counteracted by ensuring the network and device is secured and staying informed on new security methods. In 2012 users of 4chan hacked into thousands of streaming personal IP cameras by exploiting a vulnerability in some models of Trendnet home security cameras. In 2014 it was reported that a site indexed 73,011 locations worldwide with security cameras that were unprotected by using default usernames and passwords.
- Closed-circuit television camera (CCTV)
- Dashcam - continuous video recording in a vehicle
- Trail Camera - outdoor digital camera that operates on batteries and saves motion detected images to an SD card
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