Ipomoea purpurea

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Ipomoea purpurea
BlueMorningGlory.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae
Genus: Ipomoea
Species: I. purpurea
Binomial name
Ipomoea purpurea
(L.) Roth[1]

Ipomoea purpurea, the common morning-glory,[2] tall morning-glory,[3] or purple morning glory, is a species in the genus Ipomoea, native to Mexico[4] and Central America. Like all morning glories the plant entwines itself around structures, growing to a height of 2–3 metres (6 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in) tall. The leaves are heart-shaped and the stems are covered with brown hairs. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, predominantly blue to purple or white, and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) diameter.[5]

Habitats[edit]

The plant is predisposed to moist and rich soil, but can be found growing in a wide array of soil types.[6] It is naturalized throughout warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Although it is often considered a noxious weed, Ipomoea purpurea is also grown for its beautiful purple and white flowers and has many cultivars. Common cultivars include I. purpurea 'Crimson Rambler' (red-violet blossoms with white throats), 'Grandpa Ott's,' 'Kniola's Black Knight,' and 'Star of Yelta' (blossoms in varying shades of deep purple with white or pale pink throats) and 'Milky Way' (white blossoms with mauve accents).

Chemistry[edit]

The triangular seeds have some history of use as a psychedelic; they, like Ipomoea tricolor contain LSA.[6] Effects are reported to be somewhat similar to those of LSD.[7]

Flower color[edit]

Acylated cyanidin glycosides can be isolated from violet-blue flowers of I. purpurea. These anthocyanins were all based on cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside, acylated with caffeic acid and/or p-coumaric acid.[8]

Acylated pelargonidin glycosides can be isolated from the red-purple flowers of I. purpurea. The acylated anthocyanins were all based on pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside, acylated with caffeic acid and/or glucosylcaffeic acid.[9]

Toxic treatments[edit]

Commercial morning glory seeds are commonly treated with toxic methylmercury which serves as a preservative and a cumulative neurotoxic poison that is considered useful by some to discourage recreational use of them. There is no legal requirement in the United States to disclose to buyers that seeds have been treated with a toxic heavy metal compound.[10] According to the book Substances of Abuse, in addition to methylmercury, the seeds are commonly coated with a chemical that cannot be removed with washing that is designed to cause unpleasant physical symptoms such as nausea and abdominal pain. The book states that this chemical is also toxic.[11]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ USDA Plants Profile
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ "Ipomoea purpurea". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Fang, Zhou (2013-01-12). "Tracing the Geographic Origins of Weedy Ipomoea purpurea in the Southeastern United States". Journal of Heredity. 104 (5). doi:10.1093/jhered/est046. PMID 23894192. Retrieved 2016-08-30 – via Oxford Journals. 
  5. ^ "Ipomoea purpurea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Richard H. Uva, Joseph C. Neal and Joseph M. Ditomaso, Weeds of The Northeast, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997), Pp. 214-217.
  7. ^ Charles Savage, Willis W. Harman and James Fadiman, Ipomoea purpurea: A Naturally Occurring Psychedelic
  8. ^ Norio Saito, Fumi Tatsuzawa, Kyoko Yoda, Masato Yokoi, Kichiji Kasahara, Shigeru Iida, Atsushi Shigihara and Toshio Honda (November 1995). "Acylated cyanidin glycosides in the violet-blue flowers of Ipomoea purpurea". Phytochemistry. 40 (4): 1283–1289. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00369-I. 
  9. ^ Norio Saito; Fumi Tatsuzawa; Masato Yokoi; Kichiji Kasahara; Shigeru Iida; Atsushi Shigihara; Toshio Honda (December 1996). "Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in red-purple flowers of Ipomoea purpurea". Phytochemistry. 43 (6): 1365–1370. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00501-8. 
  10. ^ Dunn Chace, Teri (2015). Seeing Seeds: A Journey into the World of Seedheads, Pods, and Fruit. Portland OR: Timber Press. ISBN 1604694920. 
  11. ^ Potter, James (2008). Substances of Abuse. Redding CA: Jubilee Enterprises. p. 157. ISBN 1930327463. 

External links[edit]