The Ipuwer Papyrus (officially Papyrus Leiden I 344 recto) is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus made during the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, and now held in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, Netherlands. It contains the Admonitions of Ipuwer, an incomplete literary work whose original composition is dated no earlier than the late Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (c.1991–1803 BCE).
During the first half of the 19th century, many Egyptian ancient artifacts were discovered in Egypt by either scholars or merchants who tried to make a quick profit. The Ipuwer Papyrus was discovered by such unprofessional traders, who sold it to Giovanni Anastasi, who served as Consul in Egypt for Sweden and Norway. In 1828, Anastasi sold the papyrus to the Dutch government.
In the poem, Ipuwer – a name typical of the period 1850–1450 BCE – complains that the world has been turned upside-down: a woman who had not a single box now owns furniture, a girl who used to look at her face in the water now has a mirror, while the once-rich man is now in rags. He demands that the Lord of All (a title which could refer to either the king or the creator sun-god) destroy his enemies and remember his religious duties. This is followed by a vivid description of the disorders: there is no longer any respect for the law and even the king's burial inside the pyramid has been desecrated. The story continues with the recalling of better days until it abruptly ends due to the missing final part of the papyrus. It is likely that the poem concluded with a reply of the Lord of All, or prophesying the coming of a powerful king who would restore order.
The Ipuwer Papyrus has been dated no earlier than the Nineteenth Dynasty, around 1250 BCE but the text itself is much older, and dated back no earlier than the late Twelfth Dynasty of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. The Admonitions is considered the world's earliest known treatise on political ethics, suggesting that a good king is one who controls unjust officials, thus carrying out the will of the gods. It is a textual lamentation, close to Sumerian City Laments and to Egyptian laments for the dead, using the past (the destruction of Memphis at the end of the Old Kingdom) as a gloomy backdrop to an ideal future.
It was previously thought that the Admonitions of Ipuwer presents an objective portrait of Egypt in the First Intermediate Period. In more recent times, it was found that the Admonitions, along with the Complaints of Khakheperraseneb, are most likely works of royal propaganda, both inspired by the earlier Prophecy of Neferti: the three compositions have in common the theme of a nation that has been plunged into chaos and disarray and the need for an intransigent king who would defeat chaos and restore maat. Toby Wilkinson suggested that the Admonitions and Khakheperresenb may thus have been composed during the reign of Senusret III, a pharaoh well known for his use of propaganda. Ian Shaw does not consider the Admonitions to be a reliable account of early Egyptian history, because of the long time interval between its original composition and the writing of the Leiden Papyrus.
Ipuwer and the Book of Exodus
Ipuwer has often been put forward in popular literature as confirmation of the biblical account of the Exodus, most notably because of its statement that "the river is blood" and its frequent references to servants running away. This assertion has not gained acceptance among the majority of scholars. There are disparities between Ipuwer and the narrative in the Book of Exodus, such as that the papyrus describes the Asiatics as arriving in Egypt rather than leaving. The papyrus' statement that the "river is blood" phrase may refer to the red sediment colouring the Nile during disastrous floods, or simply be a poetic image of turmoil.
- Quirke 2014, p. 167.
- Willems 2010, p. 83.
- Anne Habermehl, "The Ipuwer Papyrus and the Exodus" in J.H. Whitmore (ed.) Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism (Pittsburgh, 2018), pp. 1-6
- Gardiner 1961, p. 109-110.
- Grimal 1992, p. 138.
- Shaw 2013, p. 745.
- Gabriel 2002, p. 23.
- Morenz 2003, p. 103–111.
- Bresciani 1969, p. 65.
- Wilkinson 2010, p. 174–175.
- Enmarch 2011, p. 173–175.
- Bresciani, Edda (1969). Letteratura e poesia dell'antico Egitto. Turin: Einaudi.
- Enmarch, Roland (2011). "The Reception of a Middle Egyptian Poem: The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All". In Collier, M.; Snape, S. (eds.). Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (PDF). Rutherford. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.
- Gabriel, Richard A. (2002). Gods of Our Fathers: The Memory of Egypt in Judaism and Christianity. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 9780313312861.
- Gardiner, Alan (1961). Egypt of the Pharaohs: an introduction. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 9780195002676.
- Grabbe, Lester (2014). "Exodus and History". In Dozeman, Thomas; Evans, Craig A.; Lohr, Joel N. (eds.). The Book of Exodus: Composition, Reception, and Interpretation. BRILL. ISBN 9789004282667.
- Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Books. ISBN 978-0-631-17472-1.
- Moore, Megan B.; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History. Grand Rapids, Michigan; Cambridge, UK. ISBN 9780802862600.
- Morenz, Ludwig D. (2003). "Literature as a Construction of the Past in the Middle Kingdom". In Tait, John (ed.). 'Never had the liked occurred': Egypt's View of its Past. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781135393625.
- Quirke, Stephen (2014). Exploring Religion in Ancient Egypt. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118610527.
- Shaw, Ian (2013). "Pharaonic Egypt". In Mitchell, Peter; Lane, Paul (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191626142.
- Wilkinson, Toby A.H. (2010). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781408810026.
- Willems, Harco (2010). "The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom". In Lloyd, Alan B. (ed.). A Companion to Ancient Egypt. Vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444320060.
- The Admonitions of Ipuwer, an English translation of the Ipuwer Papyrus