Iran and state-sponsored terrorism
Since the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the government of Iran has been accused by several countries, including the United States, of funding, providing equipment, weapons, training and giving sanctuary to terrorists. Iran has been accused of training, financing, and providing weapons and safe havens for non-state militant actors, such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in Gaza, and other Palestinian groups (Islamic Jihad (PIJ) and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC)). These groups are designated terrorist groups by a number of countries and international bodies; however, Iran considers such groups to be "national liberation movements" with a right to self-defense in the face of Israeli military occupation. The United States State Department has also accused Iranian-backed Iraqi Shia militias of terrorism against US troops, and Iran of cyberterrorism, primarily through its Quds Force.
- 1 Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
- 2 Capture of American hostages
- 3 Alleged activities in other countries
- 4 Alleged Al-Qaeda ties
- 5 Taliban insurgency
- 6 Cyberattacks
- 7 US court judgements
- 8 Other allegations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
After the fall of the Shah in 1979, the Islamic Republic of Iran established the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) to domestically promote the government's social policy. IRGC is accused of spreading its ideology in neighboring regions by training and funding "terrorist organizations". By 1986, IRGC had 350,000 members and had acquired a small naval and air force. By 1996, its ground forces numbered 100,000 and the naval forces numbered 20,000. They are believed to use the Quds Force to train Islamic militants.
In 1995, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard held a conference with worldwide organizations accused of engaging in terrorism including the Japanese Red Army, the Armenian Secret Army, the Kurdistan Workers' Party, the Iraqi Da'wah Party, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain and Hezbollah in Beirut for the sole purpose of providing training to these organizations supposedly to help in the destabilization of Gulf States and aid assistance to militants in these countries to replace the existing governments with Iran-like regimes.
The United States State Department states that IRGC provides support for Hamas, Hezbollah and Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Israel. They also say that IRGC has given much support and training to terrorists supporting the Palestinian resistance. They are also accused of aiding the Iraqi insurgency in southern Iraq. On September 26, 2007, the United States Senate passed legislation by a vote of 76-22 designating the Iranian Revolutionary Guards a terrorist organization. U.S. President George W. Bush and Congress labeled the group under the guidelines established by Executive Order 13224 issued after the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Capture of American hostages
On November 4, 1979, 500 Iranians stormed the American Embassy and took 90 employees and visitors captive. They later released non-Americans, women and African-Americans, and held the 52 remaining Americans hostage for 444 days. The United States imposed a trade embargo against Iran and demanded that the hostages be freed. Iran demanded unblocking of Iran's frozen assets in the United States ($24 billion) to release the hostages. Iran also demanded that the Shah of Iran, in the U.S. for medical treatment, be arrested and sent back to Iran. They would later agree to accept $8 billion in frozen assets in exchange for the release of the hostages. They released the hostages after the inauguration of Ronald Reagan.
In 2000, the former hostages sued the Iranian government for state sponsored terrorism under the 1996 Antiterrorism Act. They would win the suit but would not be awarded damages because of a 2002 judgment that the terms of their release barred awarding any damages.
Alleged activities in other countries
On 19 December 2018 Albania expelled Iran’s ambassador to the country, Gholamhossein Mohammadnia, and another Iranian diplomat for "involvement in activities that harm the country's security" and for "violating their diplomatic status." The expelled Iranians were alleged to have plotted terrorist attacks in the country, including targeting MEK\PMOI event to silence dissidents.
On 30 September 2015, Bahraini security forces discovered a large bomb-making factory in Nuwaidrat and arrested a number of suspects linked to the Iranian Revolutionary Guards. The next day, 1 October, Bahrain recalled its ambassador to Iran and asked the Iranian acting charge d’affaires to leave the kingdom within 72 hours after he was declared persona non-grata. Bahrain's decision to recall its ambassador came "in light of continued Iranian meddling in the affairs of the kingdom of Bahrain in order to create sectarian strife and to impose hegemony and control.
On 6 January 2016, Bahrain said it had dismantled a terrorist cell allegedly linked to the Revolutionary Guards and Hezbollah. The Bahraini interior ministry said the cell was planning to carry out a “series of dangerous bombings” on the kingdom, and that many members were arrested including the group's leaders, 33-year-old twins Ali and Mohammed Fakhrawi.
In July 2012, The Times of India reported that New Delhi police had concluded that terrorists belonging to a branch of Iran’s military, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, were responsible for an attack on 13 February 2012, during which a bomb explosion targeted an Israeli diplomat in New Delhi, India, wounding one embassy staff member, a local employee, and two passers-by. According to the report, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards may have planned other attacks on Israeli targets around the world as well.
Iran supplies political support and weapons to Hamas, an organization classified by Israel, the United States, Canada, the European Union, Egypt, Australia and Japan as a terrorist organization. Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian National Authority, has said "Hamas is funded by Iran. It claims it is financed by donations, but the donations are nothing like what it receives from Iran". From 2000 to 2004, Hamas was responsible for killing nearly 400 Israelis and wounding more than 2,000 in 425 attacks, according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2001 through May 2008, Hamas launched more than 3,000 Qassam rockets and 2,500 mortar attacks into Israel.
During the 1980s and 1990s, a wave of kidnappings, bombings, and assassinations of Western targets, particularly American and Israeli, occurred in Lebanon and other countries. The attacks, attributed to Hezbollah, have included:
- The 1982-1983 Tyre headquarters bombings
- The blowing up of a van filled with explosives in front of the U.S. embassy in Beirut killing 58 Americans and Lebanese in 1983.
- The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing of the U.S. Marine and French 'Drakkar' barracks which killed 241 American and 58 French peacekeepers. On May 30, 2003, a U.S. federal judge ruled that Hezbollah carried out the attack at the direction of the Iranian government.
- The 1983 Kuwait bombings in collaboration with the Iraqi Dawa Party.
- The 1984 United States embassy annex bombing, killing 24 people.
- The hijacking of TWA flight 847 holding the 39 Americans on board hostage for weeks in 1985 and murder of one U.S. Navy sailor
- The Lebanon hostage crisis from 1982 to 1992.
- According to Middle East analyst James Philips, an August 1989 bombing in London was a failed Hezbollah assassination attempt on Indian-born British author Salman Rushdie, after the Iranian government put a $2.5 million bounty on his head over the novel The Satanic Verses. Iranian officials have repeatedly called for Rushdie's death as recently as 2005.
- The bombing of the Israeli Embassy in Argentina killing twenty-nine people in 1992. Hezbollah operatives boasted of involvement.
- The bombing of a Jewish community center in Argentina killing 85 people in 1994. Hezbollah claimed responsibility. Argentine justice accused Iran of being behind the attacks because of Buenos Aires' decision to suspend a nuclear material delivery and technology transfer.
- The 1994 AC Flight 901 attack, killing 21 people, in Panama. Hezbollah claimed responsibility.
- The 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, killing 19 US servicemen. On December 22, 2006, federal judge Royce C. Lamberth ruled that Iran was responsible for the attack, stating "The totality of the evidence at trial...firmly establishes that the Khobar Towers bombing was planned, funded, and sponsored by senior leadership in the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The defendants' conduct in facilitating, financing, and providing material support to bring about this attack was intentional, extreme, and outrageous."
- The 2012 Burgas bus bombing, killing 6, in Bulgaria. Hezbollah is believed to have carried out that attack on its own accord, without any Iranian involvement or foreknowledge.
Islamic Jihad is widely believed to be a nom de guerre of the Lebanese Islamist political movement and social service agency Hezbollah, which was founded in 1982 with many millions of dollars of aid and considerable training and logistical support from the Islamic Republic. Many believe the group promotes the Iranian agenda and that its goal is to overthrow the moderate governments in the area and create Islamic Republics based on that of Iran as well as the destruction of Israel. Iran has supplied the militant organization Hezbollah with substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons (including long range rockets), explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid while persuading Hezbolla to take an action against Israel. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its four main goals as "Israel's final departure from Lebanon as a prelude to its final obliteration" According to reports released in February 2010, Hezbollah received $400 million from Iran.
Its methods include assassinations, kidnappings, suicide bombings, and guerrilla warfare. It is believed to be one of the Islamic resistance groups that made suicide bombings common use. Other attacks credited to Hezbollah include:
- Firing of hundreds of rockets into northern Israel on a daily basis and capture of Israeli soldiers in 2006.
- According to a senior U.S. intelligence officer, the 2005 assassination of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri was carried out by Hezbollah at the direction of Iranian agents.
Shi'ite Militias in Iraq
Iranian proxies killed an estimated 1,100 US troops in Iraq. In addition, insurgents supported by Iran reportedly committed acts of terrorism. The United States State Department states that weapons are smuggled into Iraq and used to arm Iran's allies among the Shiite militias, including those of the anti-American cleric Muqtada al-Sadr and his Mahdi army.
During his address to the United States Congress on September 11, 2007, Commanding officer for the United States forces in Iraq, General David Petraeus noted that the multinational forces in Iraq have found that Iran's Quds force has provided training, equipment, funding, and direction to terrorists. “When we captured the leaders of these so-called special groups … and the deputy commander of a Lebanese Hezbollah department that was created to support their efforts in Iraq, we’ve learned a great deal about how Iran has, in fact, supported these elements and how those elements have carried out violent acts against our forces, Iraqi forces and innocent civilians.”
In 2015, Michael Weiss and Michael Pregent accused Shi'ite militias backed by Iran of committing extensive atrocities against Sunni civilians in the course of their war against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, including "burning people alive in their houses, playing soccer with severed human heads, and ethnically cleansing and razing whole villages to the ground." Weiss and Pregent even suggested that "Iran's Shi'ite militias aren't a whole lot better than the Islamic State."
Aggrey Adoli, police chief in Kenya's coastal region, said on 22 June 2012 that two Iranians, Ahmad Abolfathi Mohammad and Sayed Mansour Mousavi, believed to members of Iran's Revolutionary Guards' Quds Force, were arrested and suspected of being involved in terrorism. One of the Iranians led counter-terrorism officers to recover 15 kilograms of a powdery substance believed to be explosive. The two Iranians allegedly admitted to plotting to attack United States, Israeli, Saudi, or British targets in Kenya. In court, Police Sgt. Erick Opagal, an investigator with Kenya's Anti-Terrorism Police Unit, said that the two Iranians had shipped over 100 kilograms of powerful explosives into Kenya.
It was later revealed that the targets included Gil Haskel, Israel's ambassador to Kenya. During a visit to Kenya in August, Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon praised Kenya for its efforts in stopping Iranian terror threats against Israeli and Jewish targets. Uganda, Ethiopia, and Kenya all expressed concern with Ayalon regarding Iran's attempts to increase terror activity in Africa.
On 18 July 1994, there was an attack on the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association (AMIA) building in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which killed 85 people and injured hundreds. It was Argentina's deadliest bombing ever. Argentina accused Tehran in 2006 of being behind the attacks, and indicted several senior Iranian officials, including Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ahmad Vahidi, as well as Hezbollah's Imad Mughniyah.
On 14 February 2012, a series of explosions occurred in Bangkok, Thailand. Thai authorities said that the bombings were a botched attempt by Iranian nationals to assassinate Israeli diplomats. Several Iranians were arrested and charged for the attacks, one of whom was badly injured.
In October 2018, France froze Iranian financial assets in response to an alleged bomb plot to be carried out against an opposition group at a rally in Paris. The plot was said to be against the National Council of Resistance of Iran, which styles itself as Iran’s government-in-exile. Assadollah Assadi, an Iranian diplomat in the Vienna embassy, was arrested in Germany in connection with the alleged plot to blow up a meeting of Iranian dissidents in Paris in June.
In October 2018, Denmark said the Iranian government intelligence service had tried to carry out a plot to assassinate an Iranian Arab opposition figure on its soil. The planned asssassination was of an exiled leader of the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahvaz (ASMLA). Sweden extradited a Norwegian national of Iranian background to Denmark in connection with the foiled plot against the ASMLA leader.
Alleged Al-Qaeda ties
Al-Qaeda leaders regard Shia Muslims as heretics and have attacked their mosques and gatherings. In Iraq it considers Shi'i civilians to be legitimate targets for acts of violence. The group has been designated as terrorist organization by Iran and many other countries, and Iran has a hostile relationship with the group. However, allegedly Al-Qaeda and Iran formed an alliance during the 1990s in which Hezbollah trained al Qaeda operatives. Iran detained hundreds of al Qaeda operatives that entered the country following the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan; even though "the Iranian government has held most of them under house arrest, limited their freedom of movement, and closely monitored their activities," U.S. officials have expressed concerns that Iran has not fully accounted for their whereabouts, culminating in accusations of Iranian complicity in the 2003 Riyadh compound bombings.
1998 United States embassy bombings
On November 8, 2011, Judge John D. Bates ruled in federal court that Iran was liable for the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. In his 45-page decision, Judge Bates wrote that "Prior to their meetings with Iranian officials and agents Bin Laden and al Qaeda did not possess the technical expertise required to carry out the embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam."
USS Cole bombing
In March 2015, U.S. federal judge Rudolph Contreras found both Iran and Sudan complicit in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole by al Qaeda, stating that "Iran was directly involved in establishing Al-Qaeda's Yemen network and supported training and logistics for Al-Qaeda in the Gulf region" through Hezbollah. Two previous federal judges had ruled that Sudan was liable for its role in the attack, but Contreras's "ruling is the first to find Iran partly responsible for the incident."
The U.S. indictment of bin Laden filed in 1998 stated that al-Qaeda "forged alliances ... with the government of Iran and its associated terrorist group Hezbollah for the purpose of working together against their perceived common enemies." On May 31, 2001, Steven Emerson and Daniel Pipes wrote in The Wall Street Journal that "Officials of the Iranian government helped arrange advanced weapons and explosives training for Al-Qaeda personnel in Lebanon where they learned, for example, how to destroy large buildings."
The 9/11 Commission Report stated that 8 to 10 of the hijackers on 9/11 previously passed through Iran and their travel was facilitated by Iranian border guards. The report also found "circumstantial evidence that senior Hezbollah operatives were closely tracking the travel of some of these future muscle hijackers into Iran in November 2000." After the commission called for "further investigation" into a possible Iranian role in the attacks, President George W. Bush demanded that Iran sever its ties with al-Qaeda, while saying that in his view, "There was no direct connection between Iran and the attacks of September 11."
Judge George B. Daniels ruled in a federal district court in Manhattan that Iran bears legal responsibility for providing "material support" to the 9/11 plotters and hijackers in Havlish, et al. v. Osama bin Laden, Iran, et al. Included in Judge Daniels' findings was that Iran "used front companies to obtain a Boeing 757-767-777 flight simulator for training the terrorists", Ramzi bin al-Shibh traveled to Iran in January 2001, and an Iranian government memorandum from May 14, 2001 demonstrates Iranian culpability in planning the attacks. Two defectors from Iran’s intelligence service testified that Iranian officials had "foreknowledge of the 9/11 attacks." By contrast, the 9/11 Commission "found no evidence that Iran or Hezbollah was aware of the planning for what later became the 9/11 attack. At the time of their travel through Iran, the al Qaeda operatives themselves were probably not aware of the specific details of their future operation." In addition, both bin al-Shibh and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed denied "any relationship between the hijackers and Hezbollah" and "any other reason for the hijackers' travel to Iran" besides "taking advantage of the Iranian practice of not stamping Saudi passports."
Riyadh compound bombings
According to Seth G. Jones and Peter Bergen, the 2003 Riyadh compound bombings were planned by al Qaeda operatives in Iran, with apparent Iranian complicity. In May 2003, then-State Department official Ryan Crocker provided information on the upcoming attack to Iranian officials, who apparently took no action.
A West Point study based on documents uncovered in Osama bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad found that the Iran-al Qaeda "relationship is not one of alliance, but of indirect and unpleasant negotiations over the release of detained jihadis and their families, including members of bin Laden's family." According to longtime Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) analyst Bruce Riedel: "Rather than being secretly in bed with each other as some have argued, al Qaeda had a fairly hostile relationship with the Iranian regime. To get members of his family out of Iran, for example, bin Laden had an Iranian diplomat kidnapped and then traded. The Iranians released some of his family members in the deal but then double crossed al Qaeda by not letting one of his daughters, Fatima, free."
In October 2012, a former United States government official said that American authorities believe that Iranian hackers, who were likely supported by the Iranian government, were responsible for cyberattacks against oil and gas companies in the Persian Gulf. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta has called the cyberattacks the most destructive cyberattacks in the private sector. Another American official said that the Obama administration knows that a government was responsible for the cyberattacks, which was confirmed by American agencies investigating the cyberattacks.
US court judgements
On multiple occasions, US courts have awarded damages to the victims of terrorism; deemed payable by Iran on the basis that although the attacks were not directly controlled by Iran, evidence shows Iranian payments supporting these terrorist groups. There has been controversy over how to enforce these decisions in order to make Iran pay reparations.
Along with the above allegations, Iran is also accused of other acts of terrorism. Including:
- Mykonos restaurant assassinations. On September 17, 1992, Iranian-Kurdish insurgent leaders Sadegh Sharafkandi, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and their translator Nouri Dehkordi were assassinated at the Mykonos Greek restaurant in Berlin, Germany. In the Mykonos trial, the courts found Kazem Darabi, an Iranian national who worked as a grocer in Berlin, and Lebanese Abbas Rhayel, guilty of murder and sentenced them to life in prison. Two other Lebanese, Youssef Amin and Mohamed Atris, were convicted of being accessories to murder. In its 10 April 1997 ruling, the court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam Ali Fallahian after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of supreme leader Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and president Ayatollah Rafsanjani.
- Sponsoring at least 30 terrorist attacks between 2011 and 2013 "in places as far flung as Thailand, New Delhi, Lagos, and Nairobi", including a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian ambassador to the US and bomb the Israeli and Saudi embassies in Washington, D.C.
- 1981 Bahraini coup d'état attempt
- Iran and ISIL
- Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict
- Israel and state-sponsored terrorism
- Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism
- Qatar and state-sponsored terrorism
- Turkey and state-sponsored terrorism
- Saudi Arabia and state-sponsored terrorism
- Terrorism and the Soviet Union
- United States and state-sponsored terrorism
- United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war
- "State Sponsors: Iran". Council of Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Malakoutikhah, Zeynab (10 September 2018). "Iran: Sponsoring or Combating Terrorism?". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism: 1–27. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2018.1506560.
- U.S. State Department Country Reports on Terrorism 2016 - Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Retrieved 10-05-18
- State Sponsors of Terrorism - Overview - United States Department of State - Official Website
- "Qods (Jerusalem) Force Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC -Pasdaran-e Inqilab)". GlobalSecurity.org. 2005-04-26. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- "Senate on Iran Revolutionary Guard: Terrorist Organization". Friends Committee on National Legislation. 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
- "U.S. to Label Iran Revolutionary Guard 'Terrorists'". Fox News. 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
- "Iran Hostage Crisis". infoplease.com. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Albania Expels Two Iranian Diplomats For Allegedly ‘Harming’ National Security
- Bahrain withdraws ambassador from Iran. The Daily Star. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
- Bahrain withdraws ambassador from Tehran. Gulf News. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
- Bahrain smashes ‘Iran-linked’ terror cell. The National. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Chauhan, Neeraj (July 29, 2012). "Cops name Iran military arm for attack on Israeli diplomat". The Times of India. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- Davidovich, Joshua (July 29, 2012). "Indian police say Revolutionary Guards behind Delhi attack". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- Times of India: Israeli diplomat attackers be brought to book
- Ramin Mostaghim (20 September 2008). "Ayatollah Ali Khamenei says Iran, Israel on 'collision course'". The Los Angeles Times.
- Mathieu Guidère, Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism, Scarecrow Press, 2012 p.173.
- https://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21599826-decline-hamas-may-result-new-wave-chaos-whos-charge The Gaza Strip: Who's in charge?
- Filkins, Dexter (September 30, 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world.
- "Cyprus: Ship violated UN resolutions". The Jerusalem Post. January 30, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "Hamas 2010 budget mainly 'foreign aid' from Iran". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Israel At 'War to the Bitter End,' Strikes Key Hamas Sites". Fox News. 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- CNN Library, Beirut Marine Barracks Bombing Fast Facts, CNN, June 13, 2013.
- Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 289.
- Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 23.
- Terrorism – In the Spotlight: Hezbollah (Party of God) Archived 2006-02-22 at the Wayback Machine Michael Donovan, Center for Defense Information cdi.org, February 25, 2002
- Loyd=, Anthony (2005-06-08). "Tomb of the unknown assassin reveals mission to kill Rushdie". The Times. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
- "Hezbollah's Terrorist Threat to the European Union". House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 2007-06-20. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
- Rubin, Michael (2006-09-01). "Can Iran Be Trusted?". Middle East Forum. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
- Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. pp. 99–102.
- Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. pp. 75–77, 102.
- Article AMIA: el nuevo fiscal acusó a Irán como responsable del atentado in Argentine newspaper Clarin on 26 October 2006
- Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 102.
- Leonnig, Carol D. (2006-12-23). "Iran Held Liable In Khobar Attack". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-09-26.
- "Hezbollah suspected in Bulgaria bus bombing". Al Jazeera. February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Filkins, Dexter (2013-09-30). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- "IN THE PARTY OF GOD Are terrorists in Lebanon preparing for a larger war? by Jeffrey Goldberg". The New Yorker. October 14, 2002. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- "Iran Massively Rearming Hezbollah in Violation of UN Security Council Resolution, American Chronicle, March 28, 2010". Archived from the original on 6 March 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Background Information on Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations
- Norton, Augustus (1987). Amal and the Shi'a: the struggle for the Soul of Lebanon. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 167–87. ISBN 0-292-73040-3.
- "Hezbollah". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Chulov, Martin (2011-07-28). "Qassem Suleimani: the Iranian general 'secretly running' Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
- Bowers, Carol (2007-09-11). "Iran Playing 'Destabilizing Role' in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- McCarthy, Andrew C., Obama Frees Iranian Terror Masters, National Review Online, July 11, 2009.
- "Chapter 6 -- State Sponsors of Terror Overview". U.S. Department of State. 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Weiss, Michael; Pregent, Michael (2015-03-28). "The U.S. Is Providing Air Cover for Ethnic Cleansing in Iraq". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- Kreider, Randy (July 2, 2012). "Iranians Planned to Attack US, Israeli Targets in Kenya: Officials". ABC News. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "2 Iranian terror suspects arrested in Kenya". Associated Press. Yahoo News. June 22, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "Kenya police: Iranians shipped 100kg of explosives". Associated Press. Fox News. July 10, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Eichner, Itamar (August 17, 2012). "Iranians planned to assassinate Israeli ambassador'". Eichner, Itamar. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Paris, Charles Bremner (2018-10-03). "France freezes Iranian assets after rally bomb plot". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
- ALBANIA EXPELS IRANIAN AGENTS FOR PLOTTING ATTACKS AGAINST ISRAEL
- Denmark calls for fresh EU sanctions on Iran after alleged assassination plot foiled
- Security strategy and transatlantic relations (2006) Roland Dannreuther
- Abdel Bari Atwan. The Secret History of Al Qaeda, p. 233. University of California Press, 2006. ISBN 0-520-24974-7
- Slavin, Barbara (2013-02-08). "Iran and al Qaeda: More Enemies Than Allies". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
- Zagorin, Adam, and Joe Klein, 9/11 Commission Finds Ties Between al-Qaeda and Iran, Time, July 16, 2004.
- Jones, Seth G., Al Qaeda in Iran, Foreign Affairs, January 29, 2012.
- Thiessen, Marc A., Iran responsible for 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, The Washington Post, December 8, 2011.
- Hsu, Spencer S. (2015-03-31). "Judge orders Sudan, Iran to pay $75 million to family of USS Cole victim". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
- Emerson, Steven, and Daniel Pipes, Terrorism on Trial, The Wall Street Journal, May 31, 2001.
- The 9/11 Commission Report. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 240-41. ISBN 0-393-32671-3
- Timmerman, Ken, Lawsuit: Iran Knew About 9/11 Attack, Newsmax, May 19, 2011.
- U.S. District Court Rules Iran Behind 9/11 Attacks, PRNewswire, December 23, 2011.
- Timmerman, Ken, Federal judge: Iran shares responsibility for 9/11 terror attacks, The Daily Caller, December 16, 2011.
- Weisner, Benjamin, and Scott Shane, Court Filings Assert Iran Had Link to 9/11 Attacks, The New York Times, May 19, 2011.
- Bergen, Peter, "Strange bedfellows -- Iran and al Qaeda", CNN, March 10, 2013.
- "Iran arming Taliban, U.S. claims". CNN. 2007-06-13.
- Townsend, Mark (2008-06-22). "Special forces find proof of Iran supplying Taliban with equipment to fight British". The Observer.
- "Iran still supporting Afghan insurgency-U.S." Reuters. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Gorman, Siobhan; Solomon, Jay (2010-07-27). "Reports Bolster Suspicion of Iranian Ties to Extremists". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
- Baldor, Loilita (October 12, 2012). "Official: US blames Iran hackers for cyberattacks". The Associated Press. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Adam Kredo (2015-09-30). "Iran Withholding $43 Billion In Restitution to U.S Terror Victims". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
- "Israel fails to prevent Germany freeing Iranian". Haaretz.com. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Hakakian, Roya (2007-10-04). "The End of the Dispensable Iranian". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2009-01-31.