Persian musical instruments

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Portrait of a music group in the Naser al-Din Shah Qajar era, 1886
17th century fresco at Chehel Sotoun showing musicians at a 1658 entertainment, in which Shah Abbas II hosted Nadr Mohammed Khan.

Persian musical instruments or Iranian musical instruments can be broadly classified into three categories: classical, Western and folk. Most of Persian musical instruments spread in the former Persian Empires states all over the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia and through adaptation, relations, and trade, in Europe and far regions of Asia. In ancient era, the Silk road had an effective role in this distribution.

String instruments[edit]



Wind instruments[edit]




Percussion instruments[edit]

While Arabic and Persian are separate languages, to a great extent the cultures intermixed during and after the Arab conquest of Persia. Arabic became the lingua franca from the Middle East to the edge of China and into India, much as Latin was in Europe. As a result, the list below may contain Arab words that don't belong, but may also include words shared by both languages. An example is daf (دایره), for which the Arab word is also daf or duff (plural dofuf'). Similarly, conquests and cultural intermixing have made Turkish words available, such as kudum.


Name in English Name in Persian or other names Description Picture
Arkal A kind of drum, possibly of the frame type.
Arabaneh A kind of frame drum, sometimes fitted with jingles. Possibly same as arbana, drum of Muslims in Kerala, India.[1]
Batare A kind of frame drum, maybe the same as Daf. It should be mentioned that Bateri is the same as the English word Battery (sound of drum and also a kind of percussion instrument).


Bendayer A large frame drum with thumb-hole on side. Today the Bendir is a typical frame drum. Similar instruments are common in the whole Near East from Morocco to Iraq and also in Northern Africa. A distinctive feature of this instrument is the set of snare strings fitted to the interior of the drum skin.
A man playing the bendir in Laghouat, Algeria
Chumlak-dombolak A kind of Turkish-Egyptian Dombak with clay body
Dabdab[2][3] kettledrum.


Dayereh دایره_(ساز)

Riq رق

Dafif, Dap, Dareh, Dariye, Kichik Dap, Dizeh, Dofuf, Duff, Dup, Kafeh, Raq, Req, Rik, Riqq The daf is one of the most ancient frame drums in Asia and North Africa. As a Persian instrument, in the 20th century, it is considered as a Sufi instrument to be played in Khaghan-s for Zikr music but now this percussion instrument has recently become very popular and it has been integrated into Persian art music successfully.
  • Dap/Dup Some believe that Dap or Dup is a Hebraic word (Hebrew תוף tof), which means stroke or beat and Daf is Arabicized of Dap. In Uyghuristan (Xinjiang of China) there are two kinds of frame drums. One is Dap and other that is smaller is Kichik Dap (Kichik literally means small). In Malaysia, Dup is a double-headed drum and is cylindrical in shape. Dup is usually used in the Ghazal and 'Gambuh' performance. The drumhead is of goat hide and it is beaten either with the hand or with cloth-padded drumsticks. The word "Dup" is an onomatopoeia.Dup - Malay community in Johor
  • Dofuf: Arabic pl. of Daf.
  • Dareh A kind of Persian frame drums same as Dayereh. It is played in folk music of Dezful city in Khuzestan province of Iran. There is a proverb that is: Dara seda nadara, which means Dareh, has not sound! Dara is a dialect of Dareh and Dareh in Dezful is called Dara. In Dezful Dar means coarse sieve.
  • Dayereh literally means circle. It is Persian frame drum, though Dayereh is an Arabic word. Some believe that Dayereh is the same as the Persian word Dareh.
  • Dizeh: In Bojnord city of Khorasan province of Iran, Dareh is called Dizeh.
  • Kafeh: A kind of Daf (frame drum) to be played by the palm of the hand. Kaffeh means circular thing.
Women playing dafs in Kurdistan.
Iranian percussionist Majid Khalaj playing the dayereh
Egyptian Riqq, also spelled riq, req.
Daf-e-chahar-gush A kind of squared Daf. This percussion-skinned instrument is played in Egypt and Syria.

دمام (ساز)

Damameh May denote both a drum of bowl shape and a type of cylindrical drum.
Demam drums during Ramadan, Bushehr city, Iran. Instruments in photo struck with drumstick and open hand.
Damz A kind of frame drum.
Davat A kind of drum to be stroke by Ghazib (drumstick).
Dā'ira[4] دایره (ساز)

Dayereh-zangi (دایره‌زنگی)

Dayera Frame drum.
  • Dā'ira means round tambourine[4] (a reminder that older tambourines may have been square.
  • The modern dayera looks like a tambourine, without jingles. The dayereh-zangi has those jingles and is the same as the Tambourine. It's not absolute, but a difference between the daf and the dayereh-zangi can be the size; the daf is often larger, the dayereh smaller.
Woman playing dayereh-zangi or daf. The zangi refers to the metal disks embedded in the instrument's edge. See zang


Dobol, Gapdohol, Jure

A big cylindrical two-faced drum to be played by two special drumsticks. One is wooden thick stick that is bowed at the end and its name is Changal (or Kajaki). The other is thin wooden twig and its name is Deyrak. (In Hormozgan province of Iran, Dohol is played by two hands.) Dohol is the main accompaniment of Sorna (Persian Oboe, Turkish Zurna, Indian Shehnay and Chinese Suona).
  • Dabal, big drum. Dabalzan means Dabal player
  • Dobol: A dialect of Dohol in Shushtar city of Khuzestan province of Iran.
  • Dohol-e-baz: Small brazen Dohol to be played in the time of hunting in order to encourage the prey hawk (falcon) for hunting.
  • Gapdohol: A kind of Dohol to be played in Hormozgan province of Iran.
  • Jure: A kind of cylindrical drums same as Dohol to be used in folk music of Hormozgan province of Iran for accompanying Sorna (Persian Oboe, Turkish Zurna, Indian Shehnay and Chinese Suona) in wedding ceremonies or any other festive occasions.
  • Keser: A kind of Dohol to be played in Hormozgan province.
  • Tanbal: Tablak or Dohol.
  • Timbook: A kind of cylindrical drums same as Dohol.
Two dohol drums.
Dohol دهل from Khorasan, played with curved drumstick. Called davul in Turkish.
Doholak A Dohol from Baluchestan, played with both hands. Called Nal in Pakistan, Dholki in Mahashtra, India. The Dholak in India is a folk drum characterized by a cylindrical wooden shell covered with skin on both sides.
  • Nal. Another name for Doholak.
Dulab Sarcastic or ironical name of drum.
Dulakvat A kind of cylindrical drum, like the dohol, of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Ghaval Azerbaijani frame drum with or without rings. Ghavalchi means Ghaval player.
Ghodum Kudum (in Turkey) A kind of drum to be played in Turkish Sufi music.
Jam-Danbolak A kind of drum similar to the Tonbak. Jam means "cup".
Kaseh means "bowl"; in music is considered a kettledrum. Kasehzan and Kasehgar both mean Kaseh player.
Khom Kettledrum.
  • Khom-e-ruyin: A kind of Khom with brazen body.
Koli A Persian frame drum.
Kube In Arabic, Al-kube. An hourglass drum. Kube comes from the Persian verb Kubidan (to strike).

کوس (ساز)

Kas Persian/Arab/Turkish Kettledrum.
  • Kös Turkish, from Persian.
  • Gavorga(ke): also called Kus (Kettledrum).
  • Kurka (e): A Turkish word. Same as Gavorga .
  • Kus-e-Ashkebus: Kus attributed to Ashkebus, famous commander of King Afrasiyab mentioned in masterpiece Shahnameh of the famous poet of Persia, Ferdosi.
  • Kus-e-dolat: Kettledrum to be played during the victories.
  • Kus-e-id: Kettledrum to be played during id (festival).
  • Kus-e-Iskandar: Kus attributed to Iskandar.
  • Kus-e-jang: Kettledrum used in wars in order to embolden and encourage the soldiers.
  • Kus-e-khaghani: Kettledrum for Khaghan (title of Chinese emperors).
  • Kus-e-Mahmudi: Kettledrum attributed to King Mahmud Ghaznavi.
  • Kus-e-rehlat: Kettledrum to be played during the decamping.
  • Kus-e-ruyin: Kettledrum with brazen body.
  • Kust: Another name of Kus mentioned in Shahnameh of Ferdosi.
  • Ruyin-khom: Kettledrum. Same as Khom-e-ruyin.
Large kettle drums from the Moghul Empire
Camel drums in Cairo.
Mohre A war drum


Azerbaijani drum



Desarkutan, Naghghareh, Naker

A kind of drum to be stroke by Ghazib (drum stick).
  • Naqqāra, a kettledrum[5]
  • Nakers were made of wood, metal, or clay and were sometimes equipped with snares. They were almost always played in pairs and were struck with hard sticks. They were probably tuned to high and low notes of identifiable pitch.
  • Desarkutan A kind of drum to be played in Mazandaran province of Iran. See Naghghareh-ye-Shomal
  • Naghghareh-ye-Fars: A kind of Naghghareh to be played in Fars province of Iran.
  • Naghghareh-ye-Sanandaj: A kind of Naghghareh to be played in Sanandaj city of Kurdistan province of Iran.
  • Naghghareh-ye-Shomal: A kind of Naghghareh to be played in North of Iran. Its name in Mazandaran province of Iran is Desarkutan. Desarkutan is the combination of the words De, Sar and Kutan that they respectively mean two, head and to beat.
Naqqāra-khāna or naubat (band). Features large nagaras on camel, smaller nagaras on horse, nafir trumpet and sorna (or zurna).
Iraqi naqqarat
A pair of gosh naghara.
Samma A frame drum used in Sufi (mystic) music of Sistan-Baluchestan and other parts of southern Iran .
Shaghf A frame drum.
Shahin-Tabbal shahin-tabl Pipe and tabor.
  • shāhin (شاهین) is a fife. ṭabl (فایف) is a drum. The two were allowed to be played together (with reservations as an old/pre-Islamic combination).[6]

Shahin means royal falcon, but refers here to a wind instrument. Tabbal means drummer. Shahin-Tabbal is a person who plays Shahin by one hand and Tabl (drum) by the other one.

Tabare Tabire Tabire means drum. In Arabic it means Tabl. In French encyclopedia of Littreé it has been mentioned that the French word Tabur (small drum used in medieval times to accompany folk-dancing) comes from the Persian word Tabire.
  • Tabur An Eastern percussion instrument called Tambour there, which immigrated westward.
  • Taburak: A kind of frame drum. The word comes from Tabire, with a diminutive suffix "ak" and means small Tabire.


Kabar Drum.
  • ṭabl is a generalized word for drum, any kind of drum
  • ṭabl-e-baz: A kind of drum to be used in the time of hunting. See Dohol-e-baz.
  • ṭabl ṭawīl, ordinary long drum[5]
  • ṭabl al-mukhannath, hourglass-shaped drum[5]
Ṭabl, name for any kind of drum.
Tablak Doplak, Gushdarideh Small drum
  • Tanbal: Tablak or Dohol.

طاس (ساز)

Tasht Small copper bowl drum covered with sheep or cow skin and beaten with a drumstick, or leather or rubber straps. The instrument may be related to the Indian Tasa or Tasha drums. Alternatively is copper bowls without skin, called Jal-Tarang in India. Tasht means tub or basin. Tashtgar means Tasht player.
Russian Turkestan, circa 1869. Tas (left), qairaq or kairak right. In another photo from the series, the back of the tas shows it has no drumhide, but is sounded like a cymbal.
Tas from Kurdistan
Tempo A goblet drum similar to Turkish-Arabic Dumbek or Darbuka.
Tiryāl Tirpal a type of frame drum/tambourine[7]


Tonbak (تنبک)

Zarb (ضَرب)

Dombak, Dombalak, Donbak, Zarb Tonbak: Persian goblet drums. There are many names for this instrument. Some of them are: 1. Dombar 2. Dombarak 3. Tabang 4. Tabnak 5. Tobnak 6. Tobnok 7. Tobnog 8. Tonbik 9. Tonbook 10. Tontak 11. Khonbak 12. Khombak 13. Khommak 14. Damal 15. Dambal 16. Donbalak 17. Dombalak 18. Khoorazhak 19. Khomchak 20. Tonbak 21. Tombak 22. Donbak 23. Dombak 24. Zarb.
  • Dombak: agoblet drum Another name of Tonbak. It is derived from the Pahlavi (Persian ancient language) word, Dombalak.
  • Dombalak: Pahlavi name of Tonbak.
  • Dombalak-e-ayyubi: Dombalak attributed to Ayyub (a Middle Eastern rhythm played in belly dance).
  • Donbak: Another name of Tonbak.
  • Donbalak-e-Moghren: An ancient drum that was a pair of Tombaks.
  • Khombak: Another name for Tonbak. Khomak: Khom-e-ruyin. It literally means small barrel. There is a kind of cylindrical drum in Bengal and its name is Khomok. The khomok of the Baul people of Bengal is also known as a khamak, anandalahari, and gubgubi. It looks like a small drum with a wooden body and a skinhead. The head is pierced with a string attached to a small piece of wood or metal to prevent it from passing all the way through the skin. The other end of the string travels through the instrument to come out the bottom opening and is attached to a small brass handle. The khomok is played by placing the drum body under the arm and pulling on the handle thus pulling the string and placing tension on the drum skin. The string is plucked while the tension on the string is varied, producing a surprising vocal-like sound. Some khomok have two strings that are played at the same time increasing both the volume and complexity of the sound.
  • Khonb: Khom. Same as Khonbak.
  • Khonbak: Some believe that Khonbak was a small Kettledrum with metallic body. Then it was made of clay and now it is made of wood and it is same as today Tonbak.
  • Tonbak-e-zourkhaneh: A slightly larger than normal Tonbak to be played in zourkhaneh (Traditional Persian Gymnasium). Zourkhaneh literally means house of power.
  • Tonbak-e-bazmi: A kind of Tonbak to be played in parties.
  • Tonbak-e-razmi: Tonbak-e-zourkhaneh.
  • Tonbak-e-Ta'lim: A kind of Tonbak for training the athletes in zourkhaneh (Traditional Persian Gymnasium).
  • Tonbook: Another name of Tonbak.
  • Zarb (ضَرب): Another name of Tonbak. Zarbgir is old expression for Tonbak player and it comes from the verb Zarb gereftan that means to play on Zarb.
  • Zarb-e-zourkhaneh: A kind of Tonbak to be played in zourkhaneh (Traditional Persian Gymnasium). Zourkhaneh literally means house of power.
  • Zarbuleh: A kind of goblet drum to be played in North Africa and Syria. In Syria it is covered with fish-skin and in North Africa with goatskin
  • Tabang: Another name of Tonbak (Persian goblet drum).
Early to mid 19th-century zarb, part of Qajar Iran.[8]
Madjid Khaladj playing Tombak
Zirbaghali Zerbaghali A goblet drum with a body made of clay. It is similar to the tonbak and used in Afghanistan. The skin has a black spot called siyahi, made of tuning paste. Drum influenced by India with technique that draws on Persian Tonbak and Indian tabla and darbuka.
Zu-jalal A kind of frame drum with bells.
zorkhaneh beat

ضرب زورخانه

Clay-bodied drum with hide stretched across, used by a Murshid (mentor) in a zorkhaneh gym to guide the exercise. Used alongside the Zang-e-zourkhaneh bell (زنگ زورخانه ای). The name is actually the name of the rhythm or drum-beat, applied to the instrument.
Zorkhaneh drum and zang-e-zourkhaneh bell, right side of image.


Name in English Name in Persian or other names Description Picture
Alvah It is a set of wooden or metallic plates that is played by being struck with sticks.
Ayine-pil Kaseh-pil A metal gong, beaten with sticks – so large that it had to be carried by elephant and played by a mounted musician.
  • Kaseh-pil: A kind of drum that was banded on elephant. See Ayine-pil.
Boshghabak Small cymbal to be used by dancers.
Chini A shaken percussion instrument used in military bands. It consists of an earthenware body hung with small bells.
Ghashoghak Castanets.
Gong Khar-mohre Metal disk with a turned rim giving a resonant note when struck with a stick. Gong apparently is of Chinese origin.
  • Khar-mohre: A kind of Gong.
  • Naghus: Gong.
Jalājil[9] (Arabic, جلجل) Ghalāghil, Juljul[9] Jalājil is plural of Juljul. Arabic word for bells.[9] The word may have spread as far as Nepal where a type of cymbal is called Jhyali. Juljul can also be used of the bells hung on herd animals.[10]
Ancient bell, Western Iran, circa 1000-650 B.C.

kozeh (saz) کوزه (ساز)

Used in the music of Bandar Abbas, Iran and some other cities in southern Iran
Kozeh. Instrument made from imitation of Udu from Africa.
Kastan قاشقک (ساز) two bowl or shell-shaped finger-clappers that dancers wear on their fingers, clapped together rhythmically while dancing.
Wooden kastan, shaped like shells


Historically, a wooden plank hit with a hammer or tapped on cobblestone to make clanking noise. In modern Persian, naqus (ناقوس) means bell.

As a wooden plank, it was considered by Muhammed to signal a call to prayer. Known mainly as Christian instrument, allowed to be used in Muslim areas instead of a bell.

Senj sinj سِنج

(Plural ṣunūj[2][11])

Sanj سنج

Boshqābak, Chalab, Chalap, Zang, Tal Large cymbal played in mourning ceremonies. A smaller version, by contrast, is used in festive ceremonies.
His elephant-attendants' crowns of gold,
Their golden girdles and their golden torques,
Their golden Sanj (cymbals) and their golden Zang (bells)...
  • In moderns use, senj (سِنج) is the same as cymbal.
  • As they have been transcribed into European script, sanj and sinj have been confused. Farmer makes it clear that sinj was the cymbals, while sanj was the jank. However, in the Arabic and Persian scripts, diacritical marks to indicate vowels are optional, and sanj/sinj are spelled the same.
  • ṣunnūj ṣaghīra, small metal castanets used by dancers[12] (now called Zill)
Sanj, large cymbals or crash cymbals go back into antiquity; these are from Mesopotamia, 3rd millennium B.C.
Military band behind Emperor Humayun includes sanj.
Saz-e-fulad A percussion instrument made 35 metallic plates of different sizes. Fulad (Arabicized of Pulad) means "steel". Saz means "musical instrument".
  • Saz-e-kubei: Percussion instrument. Kubei (from the verb Kubidan) means "percussion" and means to beat or strike.
  • Saz-e-zarbi: Percussion instrument. Zarbi means rhythmic composition.
  • Saz-e-zarbi-ye-pusti: Percussion skinned instrument. Pust and pusti mean "skin" and "skinned".


Zang-e zurchaneh, bells used in Zurkhaneh power house, Iran

Persuan word for bells.

  • Zang-e-zourkhaneh (زنگ زورخانه ای): A kind of Zang to be played in zourkhaneh (Traditional Persian Gymnasium). Not finger cymbals but hanging bells.
  • zang-i kaftar, bells worn on the wrist
  • zang-e schotor, camel bells, larger bells, small bells, bells attached to cloth (as neck band or knee band), clusters of bells suspended from larger bells
  • Zangol: Another name of Zang.
  • Zangolicheh: Small Zang or Jaras. It comes from Zangol and the diminutive suffix "cheh".
  • Zanguleh: Small bell.
Akbar riding an elephant. The elephant has multiple bells, as well as chains that jingle.
zang-e schotor, camel bells
Zang, braclet of bells from Uzbekistan

sanj angshati سنج انگشتی


Finger cymbals made of copper, played per pairs fixed on the inch and the major one of each hand. Mainly employed to stress the dance, one finds them in particular present in the miniatures Persians on figurines dancers of the beginning of the century, and in the past on low-relieves. Their existence seems to go back to immemorial times.

Names in Persian relate to the Sanj (sanj angshati) and the zang (Zang-e-sarangoshti)

Zang-e-sarangoshti (سنج انگشتی) or ṣunnūj ṣaghīra (Arabic) or ghashoghak or or zills. All names for metal castanets.


Zanchir in Pahlavi Zanjir means chain. It is a string or loop of hawk bells, able to be hung. It sounds by shaking.
Portrait of Kay Khusraw, by Mihr 'Ali, Qajar Iran, Isfahan 1803-4, cropped to show hawk. Hawk has on hawk bells, not a zanjir string, but 2 single bells.
Grotesque dancer wearing Zanjir (زنجی).

Shaken idiophones[edit]

Name in English Name in Persian or other names Description Picture
Akhlakandu Ajlakandu A very ancient percussion instrument. It was a type of rattle made from a skull part-filled with small stones. Its modern name is Jeghjeghe meaning simply 'rattle'. It was played by being shaken.
Chaghaneh Chaghabeh A type of gourd rattle, filled with small stones. Used by dancers.


Persian rattle. Today in Iran it is considered as an instrument for entertaining children.
Plastic baby rattle toy 2.jpg
Qairaq kairak Musical instruments of the Tajiks, also used by Uzbeks and in Afghanistan. Flat river stones, held in pairs and shaken; makes clicking and rattling noise; some sounds are similar to castanets.
Qairaq from Afghanistan. From the Metropolitan Museum of Art.


Name in English Name in Persian or other names Description Picture
Ghopuz Zanburak Jaw harp of Turkmen Sahra of Iran.

Images from Turkestan[edit]

These images are from the Russian Turkestan, circa 1865-1872, an area in which Persian, Turkish, Arab/Islamic and Mongol peoples conquered and settled over the ages. When the Russians conquered, both Turkish and Persian languages were being spoken. The images of musical instruments show the mixing of cultures; some such as the tanbur appear normal for Persian culture. But there are variations, such as a kamanche that appears to be a bowed tanbur, and the kauz or kobyz, which is a Turkish word for an instrument that is closely related to the Ghaychak, a Persian instrument.


The electronic keyboard is a popular western instrument.

There are numerous native musical instruments used in folk music.

See also[edit]


  • Abbas Aryanpur and Manoochehr Aryanpur, The Concise Persian-English Dictionary, Amir Kabir Publication Organization, Tehran, 1990.
  • David R. Courtney, Fundamentals of Tabla, Vol. I, Sur Sangeet Services, Houston, 1998.
  • Michael Kennedy, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1980.
  • Mehran Poor Mandan, The Encyclopedia of Iranian Old Music, Tehran, 2000.
  • Cemsid Salehpur, Türkçe Farsça Genel Sözlügü, Tehran, 1996.
  • Mehdi Setayeshgar, Vazhe-Name-ye-Musighi-ye-Iran Zamin, Tehran, Vol. I (1995) & Vol. II (1996).
  1. ^ L. K. A. K. Iyer (1984). "Arbana". In Stanley Sadie (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. Vol. 1. London: Macmillan Press. p. 68.
  2. ^ a b Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 154. ...pomp and circumstance of war became the order of the day, and we finds bands with the būq al-nafīr (large metal trumpet), the dabdāb (kettledrum), the qaṣ'a (shallow kettledrum), as well as the ṣunūj (cymbals).
  3. ^ Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 207. granted leave to a general to have kettledrums (dabādib, sing. dabdāb)
  4. ^ a b Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 38. dā'ira (round tambourine)
  5. ^ a b c d e Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 211. jalājil (bells), and nāqūs (clapper)
  6. ^ Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 34.
  7. ^ Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 211. jalājil (bells), and nāqūs (clapper)
  8. ^ Jean During (1984). "Zarb". In Sadie, Stanley (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. p. 891. Volume 3.
  9. ^ a b c Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 6. jalājil (bells), and nāqūs (clapper)
  10. ^ Marcuse, Sibyl (1975). A Survey of Musical Instruments. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-06-012776-7.
  11. ^ Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 263. ṣinj (pl. sunūj
  12. ^ Farmer, Henry George (2001). A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. New Delhi: Goodword Books. p. 47.

External links[edit]