|ریال ایران (Persian)|
|Symbol||﷼ in Unicode|
|Freq. used||2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000 rials|
|Rarely used||100, 200, 500, 1,000 rials|
|Freq. used||500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 rials|
|Rarely used||50, 100, 250 rials|
|Central bank||Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1960–present)|
Bank Melli Iran (1932–1960)
|Printer||Security Printing and Minting Organization (1983–present)|
De La Rue (former)
|Mint||Security Printing and Minting Organization|
Although the "toman" (تومان tumân) is no longer an official unit of Iranian currency, Iranians commonly express amounts of money and prices of goods in "tomans". For this purpose, one "toman" equals 10 rials. Despite this usage, amounts of money and prices of goods are virtually always written in rials. For example, the sign next to a loaf of bread in a store would state the price in rials, e.g., "10,000 rials," even though the clerk, if asked, would say that the bread costs "1000 tomans". There is no official symbol for the currency but the Iranian standard ISIRI 820 defined a symbol for use on typewriters (mentioning that it is an invention of the standards committee itself) and the two Iranian standards ISIRI 2900 and ISIRI 3342 define a character code to be used for it. The Unicode Standard has a compatibility character defined U+FDFC ﷼ RIAL SIGN (HTML
﷼). The Iranian rial was devalued in July 2013 to half its previous value as the government reduced subsidisation of the exchange rate against the dollar. In December 2016, the Iranian government announced the country's currency would be changed from the rial to the commonly used toman. Such a move requires the approval of the Iranian Parliament.
- 1 History
- 2 Value
- 3 Coins
- 4 Banknotes
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The rial was first introduced in 1798 as a coin worth 1,250 dinars or one eighth of a toman. In 1825, the rial ceased to be issued, with the qiran of 1,000 dinars (one tenth of a toman) being issued as part of a decimal system. The rial replaced the qiran at par in 1932, although it was divided into one hundred (new) dinars.
|Old currency||In dinar||First issue||Year|
|shahi||50 dinars||Samanid dynasty||unknown|
|mahmoudi (sannar)||100 dinars||Sultan Mahmoud||unknown|
|abbasi||200 dinars||Shah Abbas I||unknown|
|naderi (da-shahi)||500 dinars||Nader Shah||unknown|
|qiran||1,000 dinars||Fath Ali Shah||1825|
|rial||1,250 dinars||Fath Ali Shah||1798|
|dozari||2,000 dinars||Qajar dynasty||unknown|
|panjzari||5,000 dinars||Qajar dynasty||unknown|
In 1932, the exchange rate with the British pound was 1 pound = 59.75 rials. This changed to 80.25 in 1936, 64.350 in 1939, 68.8 in 1940, 141 in 1941 and 129 in 1942. In 1945, Iran switched to the U.S. dollar as the peg for its currency, with 1 dollar = 32.25 rials. The rate was changed to 1 dollar = 75.75 rials in 1957. Iran did not follow the dollar's devaluation in 1973, leading to a new peg of 1 dollar = 68.725 rials. The peg to the U.S. dollar was dropped in 1975.
In 1979, 1 rial equaled $0.0141. The value of Iran's currency declined precipitously after the Islamic revolution because of capital flight from the country. Studies estimate that the flight of capital from Iran shortly before and after the revolution is in the range of $30 to $40 billion. Whereas on 15 March 1978, 71.46 rials equaled one U.S. dollar, in July 1999, 9,430 rials amounted to one dollar.
Injecting sudden foreign exchange revenues in the economic system forms the phenomenon of "Dutch disease" in a country. There are two main consequences for a country with Dutch disease: loss of price competitiveness in its production goods, and hence the exports of those goods; and an increase in imports. Both cases are clearly visible in Iran. The solution is to direct the extra revenues from oil into the National Development Fund for use in productive and efficient projects.
Although described as an (interbank) "market rate", the value of the Iranian rial is tightly controlled by the central bank. The state ownership of oil export earnings and its large reserves, supervision of letters of credit, together with current - and capital outflow account - outflows allows management of demand. The central bank has allowed the rial to weaken in nominal terms (4.6% on average in 2009) in order to support the competitiveness of non-oil exports.
There is an active black market in foreign exchange, but the development of the TSE rate and the ready availability of foreign exchange over 2000 narrowed the differential to as little as IR100 in mid-2000. However the spread increased again in September 2010 because channels for transferring foreign currency to and from Iran are blocked because of international sanctions.
Monetary policy is facilitated by a network of 50 Iranian-run forex dealers in Iran, the rest of the Middle East and Europe. According to the Wall Street Journal and dealers, the Iranian government was selling $250 million daily to keep the Iranian rial exchange rate against the US dollar between 9,700 and 9,900 in 2009. At times (before the devaluation of the rial in 2013) the authorities weakened the national currency intentionally by withholding the supply of hard currency to earn more rial-denominated income, usually at times when the government faced a budget deficit.
The widening of the gap between official and unofficial exchange rates stood at over 20% in November 2011. This shows the correlation between the value of foreign currencies and the domestic inflationary environment.
The unofficial rial vs. US dollar rate underwent severe fluctuations in January 2012 (the rial losing 50% of its value in a few days, following new international sanctions against the CBI), eventually settling at 17,000 rials at the end of the period. Besides all the bad effects on the economy in general, this had the effect of boosting the competitiveness of Iran's domestic industries abroad. Following President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's decision to liberalize the mechanism by which bank interest rates are set (granting banks the authority to raise interest rates to 21%), CBI announced that it would be fixing the official rate of the rial against the dollar at 12,260 rials from 28 January 2012 and seek to meet all demand for foreign currency through banks.
On September 25, 2012, the Iranian rial fell to a new low, trading at 26,500 to the US dollar. The drop followed the government's launch of a foreign exchange center a day before, that would provide importers of some basic goods with foreign exchanges, at a rate about 2% cheaper than the open market rate on a given day. The announced rate at the center on September 24, 2012 was 23,620 rials to USD. By early October 2012, Rial had further fell in value to about 38,500 Rials per USD in the free market. The Iranian rial was devalued in July 2013 as the government reduced subsidisation of the exchange rate against the dollar. Also on October, 2017 Rial had further fell in value to about 42,500 Rials per USD in the free market
On April 09, 2018, the Iranian rial fell its lowest rate in 35 years and the rate of US dollar is around IR.Rials 60,060 for any kind of business. According to Iranian sources in 2018, $59 billion has left Iran since the JCPOA was signed 2 years ago, thus contributing to further depreciation of the national currency.
|Year||Official rate||Transfer/Business/Trade/Parallel/Free rate|
- Pre-unification, rials per US dollar:
- Market: 8,200 (2002); 8,050 (2001); 8,350 (2000)
- Preferred: 6,906 (2002); 1,753 (2001); 1,764 (2000)
Exchange rate system
Until 2002, Iran's exchange rate system was based on a multi-layered system, where state and para-state enterprises benefited from the "preferred or official rate" (1750 rial for $1) while the private sector had to pay the "market rate" (8000 rial for $1), hence creating an unequal competition environment. The "official rate" of the Iranian rial—1,750 per U.S. dollar—applied to oil and gas export receipts, imports of essential goods and services, and repayment of external debt. The "export rate", fixed at 3,000 rials per dollar since May 1995, applied to all other trade transactions, but mainly to capital goods imports of public enterprises.
In 1998, in order to ease pressure on exporters, the central bank introduced a currency certificate system allowing exporters to trade certificates for hard currency on the Tehran Stock Exchange, thus creating a floating value for the rial known as the "TSE rate" or "market rate". This method finally replaced the fixed "export rate" (IR3,000:US$1) in March 2000, and has since held steady at some IR8,500:US$1.
In March 2002, the multi-tiered system was replaced by a unified, market-driven exchange rate. In 2002 the "official rate" a/k/a "preferred rate" (IR1,752:US$1) was abolished, and the TSE rate became the basis for the new unified foreign-exchange regime. Iran's Central Bank channels more than 90 per cent of hard currency into the local market (2012).
In a move interpreted as aiming at unifying currency exchange rates, on September 24, 2012, the government launched a foreign exchange centre, that would provide importers of some basic goods with foreign exchanges, at a rate about 2% cheaper than the open market rate on a given day. This project was canceled following the strong depreciation of the rial between 2012 and 2013 but was put on the agenda again in 2015 for use in the reunification of forex rates (planned for 2017) and the introduction of currency derivatives. through the Iran Mercantile Exchange.
In addition to banks, exchange shops are also available for limited transactions. Exchange shops must operate under the licenses issued by Central Bank of Iran. Foreign currencies can be bought or sold at these exchange shops.
Exchange restriction arises from limitations on the transferability of rial profits from certain investments under the Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Act and from limitations on other investment-related current international payments under this act.
Multiple currency practices
In 2010, the cases of multiple currency practices arose from the following:
- Budget subsidies for foreign exchange purchases in connection with payments of certain letters of credit opened prior to March 21, 2002 under the previous multiple exchange rate system (see above);
- Obligations of entities that had received allocations of foreign exchange at subsidized "allocated rates" under the previous multiple exchange rate system to surrender unused allocations to the Central Bank of Iran at the allocation rate.
Until 2012, the dollar had different exchange rates, depending where you are buying your currency
- Official Exchange Rate
- Free Trade Zone Exchange Rate
- Referential Exchange Rate
- Black Market Exchange Rate
In 2012, Bank Markazi classified a long list of goods into categories with priorities 1 through 10, leaving it to the parallel market to take of all other needs. Priorities 1 and 2 are food and medicine, receiving foreign exchange at the official rate of 12,260 rials per dollar, followed by other categories with lower priorities, which are mostly intermediate goods used in industrial production.
Because of the current low value of rial, and that people rarely use the term, redenomination or change of currency was first proposed in the late 1980s. The issue has re-emerged and been under discussion, as a result of issuance of larger banknotes in 2003. Opponents of redenomination are wary of more inflation resulting from psychological effects, and increase in velocity of money leading to more instabilities in the economy of Iran.
On 12 April 2007, the Economics Commission of the Parliament announced initiation of a statute in draft to change the currency, claiming redenominations had helped reduce inflation elsewhere, such as in Turkey. In 2008, an official at the Central Bank of Iran said the bank plans to slash four zeros off the rial and rename it the toman. The bank printed two new travelers cheques, which function quite similar to a banknote, with values of 500,000 and 1,000,000 rials. However, they have the figures "50" and "100" written on their top right hand corners, respectively, which is seen as the first step toward a new currency.
In April 2011, it was reported that the Central Bank is working on a six-month redenomination project to cut four zeros from the national currency and replace old bank notes with new ones, similar to the redenomination of the Turkish lira and introduction of the Turkish new lira in 2005.
A website to poll the public on the redenomination plan was launched on 21 July 2011; the public was allowed to vote on how many zeroes to cut and what the new currency's name should be. Preliminary results indicate that four zeroes would be cut (in line with the government's recommendation) and that the name will be changed to Parsi.
CIA market manipulation
It has been reported that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has tried unsuccessfully to manipulate the Iranian rial over the past few years in order to destabilize the country. Iran reported arresting 20 "Forex manipulators" in 2012.
During the late 18th and early 19th century, Silver coins were issued in denominations of 1⁄8, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 and 1 rial.
The first coins of the second rial currency, introduced in 1932, were in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 dinars, 1⁄2, 1, 2 and 5 rials, with the 1⁄2 to 5 rials coins minted in silver. Gold coins denominated in pahlavi were also issued, initially valued at 100 rials. In 1944, the silver coinage was reduced in size, with the smallest silver coins being 1 rial pieces. Minting of all denominations below 25 dinars ended in this year. In 1945, silver 10 rials coins were introduced. In 1953, silver coins ceased to be minted, with the smallest denomination now 50 dinars. 20 rials coins were introduced in 1972.
After the Islamic Revolution, the coinage designs were changed to remove the Shah's effigy but the sizes and compositions were not immediately changed. 50 dinar coins were only minted in 1979 and 50 rial coins were introduced in 1980. In 1992, a new coinage was introduced with smaller 1, 5, 10 and 50 rial coins and new 100 rial pieces. 250 rial coins were introduced the following year. In 2004, the sizes of the 50, 100 and 250 rial coins were reduced and 500 rial coins were introduced. New, smaller types of 250 and 500 rials were introduced in 2009, along with the new denomination of 1000 rials. 2000 and 5000 rial coins were introduced in 2010.
|Iranian rial coins currently in circulation|
|Image||Value||Technical parameters||Description||Date of|
|||||50 rials||20.2 mm||1.33 mm||3.5 g||copper
|Plain||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Fatima Masumeh Shrine||2004|
|||||100 rials||22.95 mm||1.36 mm||4.6 g||copper
|Plain||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Imam Reza Shrine||2004|
|||||250 rials||18.8 mm||???||2.8 g||copper
|Plain||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Feyziyeh madrasah||2009|
|||||500 rials||20.8 mm||???||3.9 g||copper
|Reeded||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Saadi's Mausoleum in Shiraz||2009|
|||||1000 rials||23.7 mm||???||5.8 g||copper
|Reeded||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Khaju Bridge||2009|
|||||2000 rials||26.3 mm||???||6.8 g||copper
|Reeded||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Shrine of Imam Reza||2010|
|||||5000 rials||29.3 mm||???||10.1 g||copper
|Reeded||Value, motif, year of minting, "Islamic Republic of Iran"||Text, Fiftieth Anniversary of Foundation of the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran||2010|
|These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.|
In 1932, notes were issued by the "Bank Melli Iran" in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 rials. 1000 rial notes were introduced in 1935, followed by 200 rial notes in 1951 and 5000 and 10,000 rials in 1952. 5 rial notes were last issued in the 1940s, with 10 rial notes disappearing in the 1960s. In 1961, the Central Bank of Iran took over the issuance of paper money.
In 1979, after the Islamic revolution, Iranian banknotes featuring the Shah's face were counter-stamped with intricate designs to cover the Shah's face. The first regular issues of the Islamic Republic were in denominations of 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rials. 2000 rial notes were introduced in 1986.
They are issued by the Central Bank of Iran, each bearing the signature of the President of the Iranian Central Bank. The 100, 200 and 500 rial banknotes are becoming increasingly uncommon; shopkeepers habitually give out small packages of gum in lieu of the last 500 rials of change. For day to day means people will carry wards of 100,000's.
|1 Toman||130 × 67||Silver||Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar||Value, "Imperial State of Iran"|
|5 Tomans||136 × 69||Tan||Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar||Value, "Imperial State of Iran"|
|50 Tomans||142 × 71||Gray||Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar||Value, Lion and Sun|
|5 rials||130 × 67||Green||Reza Shah Pahlavi||Value, Lion and Sun with crown|
|10 rials||136 × 69||Brown||Reza Shah Pahlavi||Value, Lion and Sun with crown|
|20 rials||142 × 71||Purple||Reza Shah Pahlavi||Sa'dabad Palace|
|500 rials||142 × 71||Navy||Pasargadae|
|1,000 rials||148 × 73||Silver||Reza Shah Pahlavi|
|10 rials||130 × 67||Silver||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Imperial seal of Darius the Great|
|10 rials||130 × 67||Silver||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Avicenna Mausoleum|
|10 rials||130 × 67||Silver||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Amir Kabir Dam|
|20 rials||130 × 67||Orange||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Amir Kabir Dam|
|50 rials||130 × 67||Green||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi in a public meeting|
|50 rials||130 × 67||Green||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Pasargadae|
|100 rials||130 × 67||Purple||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Social Services|
|100 rials||130 × 67||Purple||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Marble Palace|
|100 rials||130 × 67||Purple||Reza Pahlavi and Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||50th Anniversary of the establishment of Pahlavi Dynasty|
|200 rials||130 × 67||Blue-Green||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Azadi Tower|
|1000 rials||130 × 67||Brown||Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi||Tomb of Hafez|
Imam Reza shrine Series (1980/81)
|100 rials||136 × 69||Purple||Imam Reza shrine||Chaharbagh School|
|200 rials||136 × 69||Blue-Green||Imam Reza shrine||Avicenna Mausoleum|
|500 rials||142 × 71||Brown||Imam Reza shrine||Winged horse|
|1,000 rials||148 × 73||Pink||Imam Reza shrine||Tomb of Hafez|
|5,000 rials||154 × 75||Purple||Imam Reza shrine||Tehran's Oil refinery|
|10,000 rials||160 × 77||Green||Imam Reza shrine||Old building of Parliament of Iran|
Revolutionary Series (1981/85)
|100 rials||130 × 67||Purple||Hassan Modarres||Old building of Islamic Consultative Assembly|
|200 rials||142 × 71||Grey||Jame Mosque of Yazd||Agricultural Workers|
|500 rials||142 × 71||Gray-Green||Friday prayers||University of Tehran main entrance|
|1,000 rials||148 × 73||Brown||Feyziyeh School||Dome of the Rock|
|2,000 rials||148 × 73||Purple||Liberation of Khorramshahr||Kaaba|
|5,000 rials||154 × 75||Red||Revolutionaries||Fatima Masumeh Shrine|
|10,000 rials||160 × 77||Blue||Revolutionaries||Imam Reza shrine|
Current (Imam Khomeini) Series (1992)
|||||1,000 rials||148 × 73||Brown||Ruhollah Khomeini||Dome of the Rock|
|||||2,000 rials||151 × 74||Onion-skin purple||Ruhollah Khomeini||Kaaba|
|||||5,000 rials||154 × 75||Brown-Olive||Ruhollah Khomeini||Flowers and birds|
|||||5,000 rials||154 × 75||Brown-Olive||Ruhollah Khomeini||Omid satellite, Safir 2 rocket, globe with the marked territory of Iran|
|||||5,000 rials||154 × 75||Brown-Olive||Ruhollah Khomeini||Pottery from Zabol (Eastern Iran)|
|||||10,000 rials||160 × 77||Green||Ruhollah Khomeini||Mount Damavand|
|||||20,000 rials||163 × 78||Blue||Ruhollah Khomeini||Naqsh-e Jahan Square|
|||||20,000 rials||163 × 78||Blue||Ruhollah Khomeini||Al-Aqsa Mosque|
|||||20,000 rials||163 × 78||Blue||Ruhollah Khomeini||Aghazadeh Mansion|
|||||50,000 rials||166 × 79||Ochre||Ruhollah Khomeini||Map of Iran with Atom symbol, quote in Persian from the prophet Mohammed ("If the science exists in this constellation, men from Persia will reach it"), and "Persian Gulf" in English|
|||||50,000 rials||166 × 79||Ochre||Ruhollah Khomeini||University of Tehran main entrance|
|||||100,000 rials||166 × 79||Light olive greenish||Ruhollah Khomeini||Saadi's Mausoleum in Shiraz|
Issuance of larger notes
Printing banknotes larger than 10,000 rials was first proposed in 1989, and in 1992 the central bank asked for government permission to print 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000 rial notes. This was not realized at that time, due to fears of inflation and counterfeiting. The 10,000 rials note remained the highest valued banknote for more than 50 years until 2005, when a 20,000 rial banknote was introduced and subsequently a 50,000 rial banknote was introduced with the subject being the Iranian nuclear energy program. The note was issued on 12 March. The note features a quote by the prophet Mohammed, translated as: "Even if knowledge is at the Pleiades, the people from the land of Persia would attain it". Banknotes currently in circulation are 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000 rials. After the death of Ruhollah Khomeini, his portraits were used on the obverse of 1000 rial banknotes and greater.
Currently the highest valued legal tender banknote issued by the central bank is 100,000 rials (about U.S. $1.42 on Apr. 13, 2018). However 500,000 rial and 1,000,000 rial Iran Cheques circulate freely and are treated as cash.
The central bank used to allow major state banks to print their own banknotes known as "cash cheques". They were a form of bearer teller's-cheque with fixed amounts, printed in the form of official banknotes. Once they were acquired from banks, they could function like cash for a year. Two forms of these banknotes were available. One known as "Iran cheque" could be cashed in any financial institution, while the other could be cashed at the issuing bank. They were printed in 200,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, 2,000,000 and 5,000,000 rial values.
In 2008, CBI revoked this privilege from banks, and currently issues its own Iran Cheques in denominations of 500,000 and 1,000,000 rials.
|Current IRR exchange rates|
|From Google Finance:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD PKR|
|From Yahoo! Finance:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD PKR|
|From XE:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD PKR|
|From OANDA:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD PKR|
|From fxtop.com:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD PKR|
- Electronic currency in Iran
- Iranian qiran
- Iranian toman
- International rankings of Iran in economy
- Shetab Banking System
- Economy of Iran
- Iranian Oil Bourse
- Saudi riyal (﷼ )
- Matthew Rosenberg; Annie Lowrey (17 August 2012). "Iranian Currency Traders Find a Haven in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- Anoushiravan Ehteshami; Mahjoob Zweiri, eds. (2011). Iran's Foreign Policy: From Khatami to Ahmadinejad. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press. p. 134. ISBN 0863724159.
Not only is the Iranian rial now traded there, but many Iranian goods are bought and sold throughout the southern half of Iraq.
- "Iran's currency woes hurt wallets in Iraq". Al Jazeera. November 2, 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- Angus McDowall (15 November 2003). "Iranian pilgrims risk lives crossing border". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
Iranian currency has become commonly accepted by Iraqi shopkeepers and hoteliers, according to pilgrims who recently returned to Iran. The pilgrims saw large numbers of other Iranians at the shrines of Ali and Hussain, the first and third Shia Imams.
- Aseel Kami (11 February 2012). ""We decided not to receive Iranian currency any more"". Arabian Business. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- Mohammed, Irfan (May 7, 2013). "Money changers stay away from Iranian rial". Arab News. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- Adelkhah, Fariba (2015). The Thousand and One Borders of Iran: Travel and Identity. Iranian Studies. 27. Routledge. p. 225. ISBN 1317418972.
...a Lari pilgrim will take care to buy a chador from Lari who have shops Mecca. Similarly, the Iranian rial is accepted currency in the holy places, and most travellers do not even bother to change money at the airport or hotel.
- Ebrahimi, Marziyeh. "A Trip to Mecca and Medina Saudi Arabia for Hajj". GoNOMAD. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
They also accept Iranian currency, even those who sell on the streets. Many Arab people can speak Persian.
- "Saudis refuse Iranian currency from Iranian pilgrims to Mecca". Iran Press News. January 7, 2007. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- von Maltzahn, Nadia (2013). The Syria-Iran Axis: Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations in the Middle East. Library of Modern Middle East Studies. 37. London: I.B.Tauris. p. 199. ISBN 1780765371.
...shops have Persian on their signs and sellers usually accept the Iranian rial... Walking around the small alleys surrounding the shrine of Sayida Ruqayya in the old town of Damascus, one felt as if one were in an Iranian bazaar. 'Come here, come here, two tuman, two tuman', vendors shouted in Persian to the Iranian crowds passing, trying to attract their attention. They offered clothes, ..., hagled with the pilgrims in Persian and accepted Iranian currency.
- Shargi, Ali (15 December 1998), ESKENĀS, VIII/6, Encyclopædia Iranica, pp. 615–624
- "Countries Compared by Economy > Currency > Least valued currency unit > Exchange rate to 1 US dollar. International Statistics at NationMaster.com". Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- For the proposal, see Pournader, Roozbeh (2001-09-20). "Proposal to add Arabic Currency Sign Rial to the UCS" (PDF). It proposes the character under the name of ARABIC CURRENCY SIGN RIAL, which was changed by the standard committees to RIAL SIGN.
- "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Iran devalues rial rate by more than half". Arab News. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "PressTV-Iran to switch currency from rial to toman". presstv.ir. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Iranian Rial" (in Persian). BBC News Persian. 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
- Marjorie Olster (August 23, 2013). "Sanctions Biting but Iran Not Budging". AP. Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-24.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "Iran Inflation Rate". index Mondi.
- "Publications". Washingtoninstitute.org. 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Nader Habibi (2003-07-09). "Iran's Exchange Rate Freeze: Is it Appropriate? Is it sustainable?". Retrieved 2007-06-13.
- "Migration Information Source - Iran: A Vast Diaspora Abroad and Millions of Refugees at Home". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "A Review and Analysis of Iran's Current Economic Status". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "PressTV-Iran says wary of 'Dutch Disease'". Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Iran Money, Information about Money in Iran". Nationsencyclopedia.com. 2001-01-01. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Iran's Foreign Currency Market In Turmoil". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Currency traders under investigation in Iran". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Taghavi, Roshanak; Margaret Coker (2009-08-06). "Tehran Struggles to Defend Currency". Wall Street Journal: A7.
- "Iran Investment Monthly Jan 2012.pdf" (PDF). 29 January 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Iran Investment Monthly Nov 2011.pdf" (PDF). 29 November 2011. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Spindle, Bill; Faucon, Benoît; Fassihi, Farnaz (2012-01-17). "Iran Cracks Down on Dollar Trades". The Wall Street Journal.
- Gladstone, Rick (2011-12-20). "Currency Plunge Roils Iran as Further Sanctions Loom". The New York Times.
- "Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2012. Retrieved 2016-05-23.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "The Central Bank of Iran and the Devaluing Rial". Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Iran rial hits record low despite new effort to stabilize it". Reuters. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- Global, IndraStra. "High time: Iranian Rial Plummets to 145,000+ per US Dollar". IndraStra. ISSN 2381-3652.
- "Capital Flight: $59 Billion Has Left Iran In Past Two Years". Payvand News. Radio Farda. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Annual Review 2013/14" (PDF). Central Bank of Iran. February 2015.
- "Iranian Currency Exchange Rate - Money Exchange in US, Europe & Canada - Iranian Currency Exchange Rate History, Iran Currency System, Iranian Currency History". Farsinet.com. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- CIA factbook
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2006-10-04. Archived from the original on October 4, 2006. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Iran Investment Monthly October 2012.pdf" (PDF). 6 November 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Mohammad Affianian. "Plan to Create Currency Bourse Raises Controversy". Financial Tribune Daily. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Islamic Republic of Iran: 2009 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Iran; IMF Country Report 10/74" (PDF). International Monetary. January 11, 2010. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Actually, There Is No Hyperinflation In Iran - Business Insider". Business Insider. 6 October 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- روزنامه سرمايه85/12/14: مدير كل نشر اسكناس بانك مركزي : رشد نقدينگي اسكناس درشت تر مي طلبد (in Persian). magiran.com. 2007-03-05. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Currency Reform and Redenomination of Iranian Rial - Journal of Monetary & Banking Research". jmbr.mbri.ac.ir. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "کوتاه و خواندنی" (PDF). donya-e-eqtesad.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "کوتاه و خواندنی" (PDF). donya-e-eqtesad.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Reports: Toman Iran's new currency." Press TV. September 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
- "Iran plans to lop three zeros off currency". Presstv.com. Retrieved 2016-11-04.
- "Iran to slash three zeros off currency". tehran times. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Iran Plans to Slash Four Zeros From Currency, Donya Reports - kodoom.com". News.kodoom.com. 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Nasseri, Ladane (2011-04-06). "Iran Plans to Slash Four Zeros From Currency, Donya Reports". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2011-04-10.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "حذف 4 صفر از پول کشور كليد خورد - Tabnak.IR | تابناك" (in Persian). Tabnak.IR. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Catherine Snowdon. "Iranian public votes on currency reform". Risk.net. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "PressTV-Iran to switch currency from rial to toman". presstv.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- Hosenball, Mark (June 4, 2007). "Tehran's Secret 'Department 9000'". Newsweek. Archived from the original on September 9, 2007. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "CIA covert efforts to destabilize Iran". Previous.presstv.ir. 2007-05-24. Archived from the original on 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Iran arrests a forex market manipulator". www.payvand.com. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- Iran's Currency (the Rial) is Printed in Europe. YouTube. 24 February 2013. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Image: co50Rls.jpg, (95 × 95 px)". cbi.ir. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: cr50rls.jpg, (94 × 94 px)". cbi.ir. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: co100Rls.jpg, (107 × 108 px)". cbi.ir. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: cr100Rls.jpg, (107 × 108 px)". cbi.ir. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: co250Rls.jpg, (128 × 128 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: cr250Rls.jpg, (128 × 128 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: co500Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: cr500Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: co1000Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: cr1000Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: co2000Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
- "Image: cr2000Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
- "Image: co5000Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: cr5000Rls.jpg, (127 × 127 px)". cbi.ir. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0143ao.jpg, (600 × 295 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0143ar.jpg, (600 × 292 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0144o.jpg, (600 × 289 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0144r.jpg, (600 × 288 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0145ao.jpg, (600 × 288 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0145ar.jpg, (600 × 290 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "P-150". Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "banknoten.de - Iran 5.000 Rials (152_UNC) - BANKNOTEN". www.banknoten.de. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Image: IRN0146bo.jpg, (600 × 287 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0146ar.jpg, (600 × 284 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0147ao.jpg, (600 × 285 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0147ar.jpg, (600 × 281 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "P-NEW". Archived from the original on 2015-05-14. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "P-NEW". Archived from the original on 2015-12-21. Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Image: IRN0149ao.jpg, (600 × 282 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0149ar.jpg, (600 × 281 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "عکس/ خطاط اسکناس جدید 5 هزارتومانی". Retrieved 2015-09-03.
- "Image: IRN0151o.jpg, (600 × 281 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Image: IRN0151r.jpg, (600 × 280 px)". banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "STANDARD CATALOG OF WORLD PAPERMONEY UPDATE - IRAN". NACHTHUND'S WORLD PAPER MONEY. nachthund.biz. 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-01-07.
- "5 هزار تومانی از پس فردا در دست مردم" (in Persian). baztab.info. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- اسکناس پنج هزار تومانی با آرم انرژی هسته ای. BBCPersian.com (in Persian). bbc.co.uk. 2007-03-03. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Iran dropes the US dollar as foreign banknote". RIA Novósti News Agency News. 2018-04-13.
- Erdbrink, Thomas (October 8, 2012). "Iran Places New Restrictions on Currency Trading". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "CBI". Cbi.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "IRAN - HIGH DENOMINATION CHEQUES". www.banknote.ws. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Iran issues 500,000- and 1-million rial cheques". banknotenews.com. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Iran Collection, a website about Persian banknotes and coins since Qajar era.
- Central Bank of Iran - Statistics
- Iran travel guide from Wikivoyage (information on currency exchange and credit card payment)
- Latest news about Iran currency - Financialtribune, The First Iranian English Economic Daily
- Iran's gold and currency markets Iran's gold and currency markets (PressTV 2012)
- Gold market and currency exchange in Iran - Part I Part II Part III (PressTV)
- on YouTube (PressTV)
Reason: removed from Iranian currency by National Bank
Ratio: at par
|Currency of Iran
1932 – 2020
Reason: financial reform