Persian Iraq, also uncommonly spelled Persian Irak (Persian: عراقِ عجم Irāq-e Ajam; Arabic: عراق العجم 'Iraq al-'Ajam or عراق عجمي 'Iraq 'Ajami), is a historical term for the western parts of Iran. From the 11th to 19th centuries, the name Iraq referred to two neighbouring regions: Arabic Iraq (ʿIrāq-i ʿArab) and Persian Iraq (ʿIrāq-i ʿAjam). Arabic Iraq corresponded with ancient Babylonia (now Iraq) and Persian Iraq corresponded with ancient Media (now western Iran). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Later, until the beginning of the 20th century, the term Iraq in Iran was used to refer to a much smaller region south of Saveh and west of Qom. This region was centered on Sultanabad, which was renamed later as Arāk.
The nisba of a person from Persian Iraq is "Iraqi", "al-Iraqi", or "Araghi".
Prominent historical figures from Persian Iraq include:
- Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi (1213–1289), Persian Sufi master, poet and writer
- Baba Shah Esfahani, also known as Baba Shah Araghi, 16th century Iranian calligrapher
- Agha Zia Addin Araghi, a 19th-century Shia jurist
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