||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Flag used by Iraqi Turkmen and officially by Iraqi Turkmen Front.
|(567,000 or 9% of the total Iraqi population (According to the 1957 census- considered to be the last reliable census that permitted the minority to register)
Recent estimates vary between 600,000+ to 3,000,000+ (see demographics))
|Azerbaijani or a dialect transitional to Ottoman Turkish or Istanbul Turkish;
|Sunni Islam and Shia Islam|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Oghuz Turks (Turks)|
a The Iraqi government in its 1957 national census claimed there were 136,800 Turks in Iraq. However, the revised figure of 567,000 was issued by the Iraqi government after the 1958 revolution. The Iraqi government admitted that the minorities population was actually more than 400% from the previous year's total.
The Iraqi Turcomans (Azerbaijani: İraq Türkmanları, İraq Türkləri, Turkish: Irak Türkmenleri, Irak Türkleri) are a Turkic ethnic group and the third largest ethnic group in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds. They mainly reside in northern Iraq and share close cultural ties with Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, and other Turkic countries. Their language is closely related to Azerbaijani Turkish, a Turkic language mutually intelligible with Istanbul Turkish, spoken mainly in Azerbaijan Republic and Iranian Azerbaijan.
The Iraqi Turcomans are the descendants of various waves of Turkic migration to Mesopotamia beginning from the 7th century until Ottoman rule. The first wave of migration dates back to the 7th century, followed by migrations during the Seljuk Empire (1037–1194), the fleeing Oghuz during the Mongol destruction of the Khwarazmian dynasty (see Kara Koyunlu and Ag Qoyunlu), and the largest migration, during the Ottoman Empire. With the conquest of Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Sultan Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, a large influx of Turks settled down in the region. Thus, most of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded Turkish state. However, due to the end of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turcomans found themselves increasingly discriminated against by policies of successive regimes, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1923, 1947, 1959 and in 1979 when the Ba'th Party increasingly discriminated against the community. Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq (alongside the Arabs and Kurds) in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.
Claims of their population range between 500,000 and 3 million, regardless of this uncertainty, the Iraqi Turcomans are considered to be the third or the fourth largest ethnic group in Iraq. According to the 1957 census, which is recognized as the last reliable census, as later censuses were reflections of the Arabization policies of the Ba'ath regime, Arabs formed the largest ethnicity followed by Kurds (21%) and Iraqi Turkmen (5%).
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demography
- 4 Culture
- 5 Discrimination
- 6 Present status
- 7 Notable people
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Turkmen primarily inhabit a region stretching from northwestern Iraq to the Iraq–Iran border on the southeast, which is rich in resources.
The presence of Turkic peoples in what is today Iraq first began in the 7th century when approximately 2,000–5,000 Oghuz Turks were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad. They arrived in 674 with the Umayyud conquest of Basra. More Turkic troops settled during the 8th century, from Bukhara to Basra and also Baghdad. During the subsequent Abbassid era, thousands more Turkmen warriors were brought into Iraq; however, the number of Turkmen who had settled in Iraq were not significant, as a result, the first wave of Turkmen became assimilated into the local Arab population. However, it was the wider migration of the Oghuz Turks towards Anatolia which took place at the end of the ninth century that established a substantial Iraqi Turkmen presence. Successive waves of immigration continued under the rule of the Seljuk Turks who assumed positions of military and administrative responsibilities in the Seljuk Empire. Furthermore, with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the conquest of northern Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, resulted in the largest number of Turkish immigration into northern Iraq.
The second wave of Turkmen to descend on Iraq were the Turks of the Great Seljuq Empire. Large scale migration of the Turkmen in Iraq occurred in 1055 with the invasion of Sultan Tuğrul Bey, the second ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, who intended to repair the holy road to Mecca. For the next 150 years, the Seljuk Turks placed large Turkmen communities along the most valuable routes of northern Iraq, especially Tel Afar, Arbil, Kirkuk, and Mandali, which is now identified by the modern community as Turkmeneli.
The third wave, and largest, arose during the Ottoman Empire. By the first half of the sixteenth century the Ottomans had begun their expansion into Iraq, waging wars against their arch rival, the Persian Safavids. In 1534, under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, Mosul was sufficiently secure within the Ottoman Empire and became the chief province (eyalet) responsible for all other administrative districts in the region. The Ottomans encouraged migration from Anatolia and the settlement of immigrant Turkmen along northern Iraq, religious scholars were also brought in to preach Hanafi (Sunni) Islam. With loyal Turkmen inhabiting the area, the Ottomans were able to maintain a safe route through to the southern provinces of Mesopotamia. Following the conquest, Kirkuk came firmly under Turkish control and was referred to as "Gökyurt", it is this period in history whereby modern Iraqi Turkmen claim association with Anatolia and the Turkish state.
After defeating the Safavids on December 31, 1534, Suleiman entered Baghdad and set about reconstructing the physical infrastructure in the province and ordered the construction of a dam in Karbala and major water projects in and around the city's countryside. Once the new governor was appointed, the town was to be composed of 1,000 foot soldiers and another 1,000 cavalry. However, war broke out after 89 years of peace and the city was besieged and finally conquered by Abbas the Great in 1624. The Persians ruled the city until 1638 when a massive Ottoman force, led by Sultan Murad IV, recaptured the city. In 1639, the Treaty of Zuhab was signed that gave the Ottomans control over Iraq and ended the military conflict between the two empires. Thus, more Turks arrived with the army of Sultan Murad IV in 1638 following the capture of Baghdad whilst others came even later with other notable Ottoman figures.
Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded state; this is because, under the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen enjoyed a relatively trouble-free existence as the administrative and business classes. However, due to the demise of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen participated in elections for the Constituent Assembly; the purpose of these elections was to formalise the 1922 treaty with Britain and obtain support for the drafting of a constitution and the passing of the 1923 Electoral law. The Iraqi Turkmen made their participation in the electoral process conditional that the preservation of the Turkish character in Kirkuk's administration and the recognition of Turkish as the liwa's official language. Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq, alongside the Arabs and Kurds, in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.
The Iraqi Turkmen are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq. According to the 1957 Iraqi census, which is considered to be the last reliable census in Iraq, there was 567,000 Turks out of a total population of 6.3 million, forming 9% of the total Iraqi population. However, due to the undemocratic environment, their number has always been underestimated and has long been a point of controversy. For example, in the 1957 census, the Iraqi government first claimed that there was 136,800 Turks in Iraq. However, the revised figure of 567,000 was issued after the 1958 revolution when the Iraqi government admitted that the Iraqi Turkmen population was actually more than 400% from the previous year's total. Subsequent censuses, in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1997, are all considered highly unreliable, due to suspicions of regime manipulation. The 1997 census states that there was 600,000 Iraqi Turkmen out of a total population of 22,017,983, forming 2.72% of the total Iraqi population; however, this census only allowed its citizens to indicate belonging to one of two ethnicities, Arab or Kurd, this meant that many Iraqi Turkmen identified themselves as Arabs (the Kurds not being a desirable ethnic group in Saddam Hussein's Iraq), thereby skewing the true number of Iraqi Turkmen.
Today, the figure mostly referred to by Kurdish groups, alongside some Western scholars, is that the Iraqi Turkmen make up 2–3% of the Iraqi population, or approximately 500,000–800,000; however, not all Western scholars accept this view, for example, in 2004 Scott Taylor suggested that the Iraqi Turkmen accounted for 2,080,000 of Iraq's 25 million inhabitants whilst Patrick Clawson has stated that the Iraqi Turkmen make up about 9% of the total population. Furthermore, international organizations such as the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization has stated that the Iraqi Turkmen community is 3 million or 13% of the Iraqi population. Iraqi Turkmen claim that their total population is over 3 million. They mainly live in an area called Turkmeneli, which stretches from the northwest to the east at the middle of Iraq. They consider their capital city to be Kirkuk.
Areas of settlement
The Iraqi Turkmen community stretches from Talafar in the northwest to Badra and al-Aziziyya in the al-Kut province in mid-eastern Iraq. Their strongest presence is in northern Iraq, near Kirkuk, Mosul and Arbil. The 1957 census determined that those who declared their mother tongue as "Turkish" made up close to 40% of the population in the City of Kirkuk, which made up the majority of the population. Hence, Kirkuk is regarded as the heart of the Iraqi Turkmen community. The second-largest Iraqi Turkmen city is Tel Afar where they make up 95% of the inhabitants. According to the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, at least 180,000 Iraqi Turkmen currently live in the city of Kirkuk; there is also at least 250,000 living in Arbil, 300,000 in Baghdad, 500,000 living in Mosul, and 227,000 in the Talafar district. The community also constitute a considerable part of the population of Badra in al-Kut province. However, the once mainly Turkoman cities of the Diyala Province and Kifri have been heavily Kurdified and Arabified.
Many Turkmen in cities captured by ISIS in 2014 moved to southern Iraq especially Karbala, Najah and Baghdad.
Most Iraqi Turkmen migrate to Turkey followed by Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. Smaller communities have been formed in Canada, the United States, Australia, Greece, and the United Kingdom.
The dialect spoken by most Iraqi Turkmen is considered either Azerbaijani or intermediate between that and Istanbul Turkish, and is close to the dialects of Diyarbakır and Urfa in south-eastern Turkey. Many Iraqi Turkmen are bilingual or trilingual, Arabic is acquired through the mass media and through education at school whilst Kurdish is acquired in their neighbourhoods and through marriage.
Istanbul Turkish has long been the prestige dialect among Iraqi Turkmen and has exerted a profound historical influence on their dialect, to the extent that Iraqi Turkmen grammar differs sharply from that of other varieties of Azeri. Under the 1925 constitution, the use of Istanbul Turkish in schools, government offices and the media was allowed. Modern Turkish influence remained strong until the Arabic language became the new official language in the 1930s, and a degree of Turkmen–Turkish diglossia is still observable. Restrictions on the Turkish language began in 1972 and intensified under Saddam Hussein's regime. Currently, Anatolian Turkish is used as the formal written language. In 1997, the Iraqi Turkoman Congress adopted a Declaration of Principles, Article Three of which states the following:
The position of the Iraqi Turkmen has changed from being administrative and business classes of the Ottoman Empire to an increasingly discriminated against minority. Since the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the Iraqi Turkmen have been victims of several massacres, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1959. Furthermore, under the Ba'th party, discrimination against the Iraqi Turkmen increased, with several leaders being executed in 1979 as well as the Iraqi Turkmen community being victims of Arabization policies by the state, and Kurdification by Kurds seeking to push them forcibly out of their homeland. Thus, they have suffered from various degrees of suppression and assimilation that ranged from political persecution and exile to terror and ethnic cleansing. Despite being recognized in the 1925 constitution as a constitutive entity, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status; hence, cultural rights were gradually taken away and activists were sent to exile.
Massacre of 4 May 1924
In 1924, the Iraqi Turkmen were seen as a disloyal remnant of the Ottoman Empire, with a neutral tie to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's new Turkish nationalist ideology emerging in the Republic of Turkey. Therefore, the Iraqi Turkmen living in the region of Kirkuk posed a threat to the stability of Iraq, particularly as they did not support the ascendancy of King Faisal I to the throne. The Iraqi Turkmen were targeted by the British in collaboration with other Iraqi elements, of these, the most willing to subjugate the Iraqi Turkmen were the Iraq Levies—troops recruited from the Assyrian community that had sought refuge in Iraq from the Hakkari region of Turkey. The spark for the conflict had been a dispute between a Levi soldier and an Iraqi Turkmen shopkeeper, which was enough for the British to allow the Levies to attack the Iraqi Turkmen, resulting in the massacre of some 200 people.
Kirkuk massacre of 1959
The Kirkuk massacre of 1959 came about due to the Iraqi government allowing the Iraqi Communist Party, which in Kirkuk was largely Kurdish, to target the Iraqi Turkmen. With the appointment of Maarouf Barzinji, a Kurd, as the mayor of Kirkuk in July 1959, tensions rose following the 14 July revolution celebrations, with animosity in the city polarizing rapidly between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmen. On 14 July 1959, fights broke out between the Iraqi Turkmen and Kurds, leaving some 20 Iraqi Turkmen dead. Furthermore, on 15 July 1959, Kurdish soldiers of the Fourth Brigade of the Iraqi army mortared Iraqi Turkmen residential areas, destroying 120 houses. Order was restored on 17 July by military units from Baghdad. The Iraqi government referred to the incident as a "massacre" and stated that between 31 and 79 Iraqi Turkmen were killed and some 130 injured.
In 1980, Saddam Hussein's government adopted a policy of assimilation of its minorities. Due to government relocation programs, thousands of Iraqi Turkmen were relocated from their traditional homelands in northern Iraq and replaced by Arabs, in an effort to Arabize the region. Furthermore, Iraqi Turkmen villages and towns were destroyed to make way for Arab migrants, who were promised free land and financial incentives. For example, the Ba'th regime recognised that the city of Kirkuk was historically an Iraqi Turkmen city and remained firmly in its cultural orientation. Thus, the first wave of Arabization saw Arab families move from the centre and south of Iraq into Kirkuk to work in the expanding oil industry. Although the Iraqi Turkmen were not actively forced out, new Arab quarters were established in the city and the overall demographic balance of the city changed as the Arab migrations continued.
Several presidential decrees and directives from state security and intelligence organizations indicate that the Iraqi Turkmen were a particular focus of attention during the assimilation process during the Ba'th regime. For example, the Iraqi Military Intelligence issued directive 1559 on 6 May 1980 ordering the deportation of Iraqi Turkmen officials from Kirkuk, issuing the following instructions: "identify the places where Turkmen officials are working in governmental offices [in order] to deport them to other governorates in order to disperse them and prevent them from concentrating in this governorate [Kirkuk]". In addition, on 30 October 1981, the Revolution's Command Council issued decree 1391, which authorized the deportation of Iraqi Turkmen from Kiruk with paragraph 13 noting that "this directive is specially aimed at Turkmen and Kurdish officials and workers who are living in Kirkuk".
As primary victims of these Arabization policies, the Iraqi Turkmen suffered from land expropriation and job discrimination, and therefore would register themselves as "Arabs" in order to avoid discrimination. Thus, ethnic cleansing was an element of the Ba'thist policy aimed at reducing the influence of the Iraqi Turkmen in northern Iraq's Kirkuk. Those Iraqi Turkmen who remained in cities such as Kirkuk were subject to continued assimilation policies; school names, neighbourhoods, villages, streets, markets and even mosques with names of Turkic origin were changed to names that emanated from the Ba'th Party or from Arab heroes. Moreover, many Iraqi Turkmen villages and neighbourhoods in Kirkuk were simply demolished, particularly in the 1990s.
The formation of the Kurdistan Region in 1991 created high animosity between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmen, resulting in some Iraqi Turkmen being victims of Kurdification. The Kurds claimed de facto sovereignty over land still believed by Iraqi Turkmen to be rightfully theirs. For the Iraqi Turkmen, their identity is deeply inculcated as the rightful inheritors of the region as a legacy of the Ottoman Empire. Thus, the Kurdistan Region and Iraqi government has constituted a threat to the survival of the Iraqi Turkmen through strategies aimed at eradicating or assimilating them. The largest concentration of Iraqi Turkmen tended to be in the de facto capital of Erbil, a city which they had assumed prominent administrative and economic positions. Thus, they increasingly came into dispute and often conflict with the ruling powers of the city, which after 1996 was the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Massoud Barzani.
In the 1990s, tension between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmen inflamed as the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan were institutionalized as the political hegemons of the region and, from the perspective of the Iraqi Turkmen, sought to marginalize them from the positions of authority and to subsume their culture with an all-pervading Kurdistani identity. With the support of Ankara, a new political front of Turkmen parties, the Iraqi Turkmen Front, was formed on 24 April 1995. The relationship between the Iraqi Turkmen Front and the Kurdistan Democratic Party was tense and deteriorated as the decade went on. Iraqi Turkmen associated with the Iraqi Turkmen Front complained about harassment by Kurdish security forces. In March 2000, the Human Rights Watch reported that the Kurdistan Democratic Party's security attacked the offices of the Iraqi Turkmen Front in Erbil, killing two guards, following a lengthy period of disputes between the two parties. In 2002, the Kurdistan Democratic Party created an Iraqi Turkmen political organization, the Turkmen National Association, that supported the further institutionalization of the Kurdistan Region. This was viewed by pro-ITF Iraqi Turkmen as a deliberate attempt to "buy off" Iraqi Turkmen opposition and break their bonds with Ankara. Promoted by the KDP as the "true voice" of the Iraqi Turkmen, the Turkmen National Association has a pro-Kurdistani stance and has effectively weakened the ITF as the sole representative voice of the Iraqi Turkmen.
Although some have been able to preserve their language, the Iraqi Turkmen today are being rapidly assimilated into the general population and are no longer tribally organized.
Iraqi Turkmen have also emerged as a key political force in the controversy over the future status of northern Iraq and the Kurdish Autonomous Region. The government of Turkey has helped fund such political organizations as the Iraqi Turkmen Front, which opposes Iraqi federalism and in particular the proposed annexation of Kirkuk to the Kurdistan Regional Government.
Tensions between the two groups over Kirkuk, however, have slowly died out and on January 30, 2006, the President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, said that the "Kurds are working on a plan to give Iraqi Turkmen autonomy in areas where they are a majority in the new constitution they're drafting for the Kurdistan Region of Iraq." However, it never happened and the policies of Kurdification by KDP and PUK after 2003 (with non-Kurds being pressed to move) have prompted serious inter-ethnic problems.
Between ten and twelve Turkmen individuals were elected to the transitional National Assembly of Iraq in January 2005, including five on the United Iraqi Alliance list, three from the Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF), and either two or four from the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan.
In the December 2005 elections, between five and seven Turkmen candidates were elected to the Council of Representatives. This included one candidate from the ITF (its leader Sadettin Ergec), two or four from the United Iraqi Alliance, one from the Iraqi Accord Front and one from the Kurdistani Alliance.
- Farah Zeynep Abdullah, Turkish actress
- Jafar al-Askari, former Prime Minister of Iraq (1923–24 and 1926–27)
- Abbas al-Bayati, politician
- Yasin al-Hashimi, former Prime Minister of Iraq (1924–25 and 1935–36)
- Abd al-Muhsin as-Sa'dun, former Prime Minister of Iraq (1922–23, 1925–26, 1928–29 and 1929)
- Nuri al-Said, former Prime Minister of Iraq (1930–32, 1938–40, 1941–44, 1946–47, 1949, 1950–52, 1954–57 and 1958)
- Selim Bayraktar, Turkish actor
- Hijri Dede, poet
- İhsan Doğramacı, founder of Bilkent University and Hacettepe University
- Mehmet Ali Erbil, Turkish comedian, actor and talk show host
- Sinan Erbil singer
- Sadettin Ergeç, politician
- Amine Gülşe, Turkish model and actress
- İsmet Hürmüzlü, Turkish actor
- Jasim Mohammed Jaafar, Minister for Youth & Sports
- Gökhan Kırdar, Turkish musician
- Lütfi Kırdar, Turkish politician
- Nemir Kirdar, businessman
- Rena Kirdar, author and socialite
- Üner Kırdar, Turkish diplomat and senior United Nations official
- Reha Muhtar, Turkish television personality
- Talib Mushtaq, poet and diplomat
- Salih Neftçi, Turkish economist
- Rashad Mandan Omar, Minister of Science and Technology (2003)
- Hikmat Sulayman, former Prime Minister of Iraq (1936–37)
- Mehmet Türkmehmet, football player
- Younis Mahmoud, football player
- Ali Saip Ursavaş, Turkish politician
- Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire
- Minority politics in Iraq
- Demographics of Iraq
- Iraqi Turkmen Front
- Iraq–Turkey relations
- 2009 Taza bombing
- Knights 2004, 262.
- Taylor 2004, 28. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Taylor_2004_loc.3D28" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Güçlü 2007, 79.
- Betts 2013, 86.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2011, 58
- İrak Türkmen Türkçesi, sayfa 329. // İrak Türkmen Türkçesi. Ataturk Kültür, Dil ve Tarih Yuksek Kurumu, Türk Dil Kurumu yayınları: 664. Hazırlayan: Prof. Dr. Hidayet Kemal Bayatlı. Ankara: Bizim Büro Basımevi, 1996, XX+410 sayfa. ISBN 9789751608338
“ Irak Türkmenlerinin konuştukları ağız, Türkçenin Azeri ağzı (Doğu Oğuzca) sahası içine girmektedir. Azeri sahası dil coğrafyası bakımından: Doğu Anadolu, Güney Kafkasya, Kafkas Azerbaycan'ı, İran Azerbaycan'ı, Kerkük (lrak) ve Suriye Türkleri bölgelerini kapsar. ”
- Ethnologue: Languages of the World Azerbaijani, South . 2,000,000 in Iraq (1982) . Language use:They speak South Azerbaijani at home .
- Hendrik Boeschoten. 1998. "The Speakers of Turkic Languages," The Turkic Languages, ed. Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (Routledge), pp. 1-15, see pg. 5
- Bulut 2000, 161.
- Jawhar 2010, 314.
- Jenkins 2008, 6.
- Kocak, Ali (8 May 2007). "The Reality of the Turkmen Population in Iraq". Turkish Weekly. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- Al-Hirmizi 2003, 124.
- Al-Shawi 2006, 47.
- Blanchard et al. 2009, 15.
- Sadik 2009, 13.
- BBC (June 18, 2004). "Who's who in Iraq: Turkmen". Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- Taylor 2004, 31.
- Stansfield 2007, 70
- International Crisis Group 2008, 16.
- Library of Congress, Iraq: Other Minorities, Library of Congress Country Studies, retrieved 2011-11-24
- Stansfield 2007, 72.
- Lukitz 2006, 151.
- Park 2005, 37.
- Phillips 2006, 112.
- Dabrowska & Hann 2008, 172.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 43.
- Gunter 2004, 131.
- Stansfield 2007, 71.
- Barry Rubin (17 March 2015). The Middle East: A Guide to Politics, Economics, Society and Culture. Routledge. pp. 528–529. ISBN 978-1-317-45578-3.
- "Fuzuli, Mehmed bin Süleyman" in Encyclopædia Britannica
- Peter Rollberg. The modern encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet literature (including Non-Russian and Emigre literatures) / Edited by Harry B. Weber. — Academic International Press, 1987. — Volume 8. — Page 76.
- Taylor 2004, 30.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 15.
- Stansfield 2007, 70.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 16.
- Fattah & Caso 2009, 115.
- Fattah & Caso 2009, 116.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 17.
- Fattah & Caso 2009, 117.
- Fattah & Caso 2009, 118.
- Fattah & Caso 2009, 120.
- Talabany 2007, 75.
- Lukitz 1995, 41.
- Al-Hurmezi, Ahmed (9 December 2010), The Human Rights Situation of the Turkmen Community in Iraq, Middle East Online, retrieved 2011-10-31
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. "Iraqi Turkmen: The Human Rights Situation and Crisis in Kerkuk" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-31.
- Chapter 11. A War Within a War, page 112. // Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco. Author: David L. Phillips. Reprinted edition. Hardcover first published in 2005 by Westview Press. New York: Basic Books, 2014, 304 pages. ISBN 9780786736201
“ Behind the Arabs and the Kurds, Turkmen are the third-largest ethnic group in Iraq. The ITF claim Turkmen represent 12 percent of Iraq's population. In response, the Kurds point to the 1997 census which showed that there were only 600,000 Turkmen. ”
- Graham-Brown 1999, 161.
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. "Iraqi Turkmen". Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. "The Turkmen of Iraq: Underestimated, Marginalized and exposed to assimilation Terminology". Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- Park 2005, 32.
- Kibaroğlu, Kibaroğlu & Halman 2009, 165.
- O'Leary 2009, 152.
- Hashim 2005, 370.
- article on condition of Turkmen of Iraq
- Sirkeci 2005, 20.
- Wanche, Sophia I. (2004), An Assessment of the Iraqi Communityin Greece (PDF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, p. 3
- International Organization for Migration (2007), Iraq Mapping Exercise (PDF), International Organization for Migration, p. 5
- Ethnologue: Languages of the World Azerbaijani, South. 600,000 in Iraq (1982). Language use: They speak South Azerbaijani at home.
- David Dalby. 1999/2000. The Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities (Observatoire Linguistique), see pg. 346
Hendrik Boeschoten. 1998. "The Speakers of Turkic Languages," The Turkic Languages, ed. Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (Routledge), pp. 1-15, see pg. 5
- Johanson 2001, 16.
- Johanson 2001, 16.
- Abdul Hameed, Bakier (March 18, 2008). "Iraqi Turkmen Announce Formation of New Jihadi Group". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
- Türkmeneli İşbirliği ve Kültür Vakfı. "Declaration of Principles of the (Iraqi?) Turkman Congress". Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- Nissman, David (5 March 1999), "The Iraqi Turkomans: Who They Are and What They Want", Iraq Report (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty) 2 (9)
- Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Factbook: Iraq". Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 62.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 63.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 64.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 34.
- Ghanim 2011, 38.
- Entessar 2010, 79.
- Jenkins 2008, 15.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 65.
- International Crisis Group 2006, 5.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 66.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 67.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 68.
- Anderson & Stansfield 2009, 69.
- Helen Chapin Metz and the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Iraq: A Country Study, p. 86.
- Kurds Accused Of Rigging Kirkuk Vote, Al Jazeera
- Cevik, Ilnur (2006-01-30). "Talabani: Autonomy for Turkmen in Kurdistan". Kurdistan Weekly. Retrieved 2006-05-20.
- Stansfield 2007, 71.
- Interesting Outcomes in Iraqi Election, Zaman Daily Newspaper
- The New Iraq, The Middle East and Turkey: A Turkish View, Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research, 2006-04-01, accessed on 2007-09-06
- Turkmen Win Only One Seat in Kerkuk, Iraqi Turkmen Front
- Milliyet (August 16, 2013). "Engin Akyürek'in yeni sinema filmi, "Bir Eylül Meselesi".". Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Nakash 2011, 87.
- Today's Zaman (August 16, 2010). "Davutoğlu meets Iraq's Turkmen politicians, urges unity". Retrieved 2014-06-16. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "TodaysZaman" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Batuman, Elift (Feb 17, 2014). "Letter From Istanbul: Ottomania A his TV show reimagines Turkey's imperial past". The New Yorker.
- Bilkent News, Elift (Feb 26, 2010). "Bilkent Mourns the Loss of its founder, Prof. Ihsan Dogramaci" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Milliyet. "Türkmenler, Irak'ta eğitim düzeyleriyle öne çıkıyor...". Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Milliyet (February 22, 2012). ""Yerine Sevemem" ölümsüz aşk hikayeleri projesi!". Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Kirdar 2012, 4.
- Kirdar 2012, 3.
- Wien 2014, 30.
- Milliyet. "Salih Neftçi". Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- BBC (June 1,v2004). "Interim Iraqi government". Retrieved 2014-06-16. Check date values in:
- Wien 2014, 10.
- Greenwell, Megan (July 30, 2007). "Jubilant Iraqis Savor Their Soccer Triumph". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Al-Hirmizi, Ershad (2003), The Turkmen And Iraqi Homeland (PDF), Kerkuk Vakfi
- Al-Shawi, Ibrahim (2006), A Glimpse of Iraq, Lulu, ISBN 1-4116-9518-6
- Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-4176-2
- Barkey, Henri J. (2005), Turkey and Iraq: The Perils (and Prospects) of Proximity (PDF), Washington: United States Institute of Peace
- Betts, Robert Brenton (2013), The Sunni-Shi'a Divide: Islam's Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences, Potomac books, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 1612345220
- Blanchard, Christopher; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Jeremy, Sharp (2009), Iraq: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy, Congressional Research Service, ISBN 1-4379-2028-4
- Bulut, Christiane (2000), "Optative constructions in Iraqi Turkmen", in Göksel, Aslı; Kerslake, Celia (eds.), Studies on Turkish and Turkic Languages, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-04293-1.
- Dabrowska, Karen; Hann, Geoff (2008), Iraq Then and Now: A Guide to the Country and Its People, Bradt Travel Guides, ISBN 1-84162-243-5
- Entessar, Nader (2010), Kurdish Politics in the Middle East, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7391-4039-6
- Fattah, Hala; Caso, Frank (2009), "Turkish Tribal Migrations and the Early Ottoman State", A Brief History of Iraq, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0-8160-5767-2
- Ghanim, David (2011), Iraq's Dysfunctional Democracy, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-313-39801-1
- Graham-Brown, Sarah (1999), Sanctioning Saddam: The Politics of Intervention in Iraq, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-473-2
- Güçlü, Yücel (2007), Who Owns Kirkuk? The Turkoman Case (PDF), Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2007, pp. 79–86
- Gunter, Michael M. (2004), "The Kurds in Iraq" (PDF), Middle East Policy 11 (1): 106–131, doi:10.1111/j.1061-1924.2004.00145.x
- Hashim, Ahmed (2005), Insurgency and counter-insurgency in Iraq, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-4452-7
- Hassig, Susan M.; Al Adely, Laith Muhmood (2003), Cultures of the World: Iraq, Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 0-7614-1668-4
- Heacock, Ashley (2010), Conflict in Kirkuk: Understanding Ethnicity (PDF), The George Washington University
- International Crisis Group (2006), Iraq and the Kurds: The Brewing Battle Over Kirkuk (PDF), Middle East Report N°56 – 18 July 2006: International Crisis Group
- International Crisis Group (2008), Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?, Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008: International Crisis Group
- Jawhar, Raber Tal'at (2010), "The Iraqi Turkmen Front", in Catusse, Myriam; Karam, Karam (eds.), Returning to Political Parties?, The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, pp. 313–328, ISBN 1-886604-75-4.
- Jenkins, Gareth (2008), Turkey and Northern Iraq: An Overview (PDF), The Jamestown Foundation
- Johanson, Lars (2001), Discoveries on the Turkic Linguistic Map (PDF), Stockholm: Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul
- Johanson, Lars (2009), "Turkmen", in Brown, Keith; Sarah, Ogilvie (eds.), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-087774-5.
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), "A Language in Search of a Nation: Turkish in the Nation-State", Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-13322-4
- Kibaroğlu, Mustafa; Kibaroğlu, Ayșegül; Halman, Talât Sait (2009), Global security watch Turkey: A reference handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-34560-0
- Kirdar, Nemir (2012), In Pursuit of Fulfilment: Principle Passion Resolve, Hachette, ISBN 0297869515
- Knights, Michael (2004), Operation Iraqi Freedom And The New Iraq: Insights And Forecasts, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, ISBN 0944029930
- Letayf, Patricia (2011), "An Ethnic Tug-of-War? The Struggle Over the Status of Kirkuk" (PDF), Insights (New Initiative for Middle East Peace): 65–86
- Lukitz, Liora (1995), Iraq: The Search for National Identity, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-4550-8
- Lukitz, Liora (2006), A quest in the Middle East: Gertrude Bell and the making of modern Iraq, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-415-8
- Mufti, Hania; Bouckaert, Peter (2004), Claims in Conflict: Reversing Ethnic Cleansing in Northern Iraq (PDF), Human Rights Watch
- Nakash, Yitzhak (2011), Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, Princeton University Press, ISBN 1400841461
- Nissen, Hans J.; Heine, Peter (2009), From Mesopotamia to Iraq: A Concise History, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-58664-2
- O'Leary, Brendan (2009), How to get out of Iraq with integrity, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-4201-7
- Oğuzlu, H.Tarık (2004), "Endangered Community:The Turkoman Identity in Iraq" (PDF), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 24 (2): 309–325, doi:10.1080/1360200042000296681
- Özkan, Nevzat (2009), "Irak Türk Edebî Dilinin Tarihî Gelişimini" (PDF), Journal of Turkish Studies 4 (8): 89–107
- Park, Bill (2005), Turkey's policy towards northern Iraq: problems and perspectives, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-38297-1
- Phillips, David L. (2006), Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-05681-4
- Ryan, J. Atticus; Mullen, Christopher A. (1998), Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization: Yearbook 1997, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, ISBN 90-411-1022-4
- Sadik, Giray (2009), American Image in Turkey: U.S. Foreign Policy Dimensions, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7391-3380-2
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim (2005), Turkmen in Iraq and International Migration of Turkmen (PDF), University of Bristol
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim (2011), Turkmen in Iraq and their Fight: A Demographic Question (PDF) (21), Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies
- Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2007), Iraq: People, History, Politics, Polity, ISBN 0-7456-3227-0
- Talabany, Nouri (2007), Who Owns Kirkuk? The Kurdish Case, Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2007, pp. 75–78
- Taylor, Scott (2004), Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq, Esprit de Corps Books, ISBN 1-895896-26-6
- Wien, Peter (2014), Iraqi Arab Nationalism: Authoritarian, Totalitarian and Pro-Fascist Inclinations, 1932–1941, Routledge, ISBN 1134204795.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iraqi Turkmen.|