Since 25 January 1996, Ireland has an embassy in Tel Aviv and Israel has an embassy in Dublin. The Israeli ambassador to Ireland is Zeev Boker and the Irish ambassador to Israel is Alison Kelly. Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
|Population||4,857,000 (2018)||8,904,280 (2018)|
|Area||70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi)||20,770 km2 (8,019 sq mi)|
|Population density||69/km2 (179/sq mi)||403/km2 (1,044/sq mi)|
|Largest city||Dublin 553,165 (1,904,806 Metro)||Jerusalem 901,302 (1,253,900 Metro)|
|Largest metro area||Dublin 1,904,806||Tel Aviv-Yafo 3,854,000|
|Government||Parliamentary republic||Parliamentary republic|
|First head of state||An Craoibhín Aoibhinn||David Ben-Gurion|
|Current head of state||Michael Daniel Higgins||Benjamin Netanyahu|
|Main religions||78.3% Catholic 1.5% Muslim, 4.2% Protestant, 10.1% Non-Religious, 6.1% Other||75.4% Jews, 20.89% Muslim, 7.1% others|
|Ethnic groups||94% Irish, 1% Irish Travellers, 5% Others||75.4% Jews, 20.6% Arab, 4.1% others|
|GDP (nominal)||US$382 billion ($79,925 per capita)||US$305 billion ($38,004 per capita)|
|Military expenditures||$1.1 billion (0.3% of GDP)||$23.2 billion (7.6% of GDP)|
The commercial relationship between Israel and Ireland goes back to the early days of Israeli statehood. In 1988, Israeli exports to Ireland were valued at $23.5 million, while Irish exports to Israel were valued at $32.8 million. In 2010 Israeli imports from Ireland approached $520 Million and exports to Ireland stood at $81 Million.
Israeli exports to Ireland include machinery and electronics, rubber and plastics, chemicals, textiles, optical/medical equipment, gems, and fruit and vegetables. Irish exports to Israel include machinery and electronics, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, beverages, and optical/medical equipment. A bilateral agreement on double taxation signed in 1995 has facilitated economic cooperation.
In August 2014 controversy erupted when it became public that Ireland had approved export licences for military goods worth up to €6.4m to be shipped to Israel over the previous three years. Opposition parties complained that the types of materials sold to Israel are being kept secret from the Irish public. Whilst the Irish government refused to give exact details on the type of equipment, updated figures showed military licences totalling €126,637 had been approved in advance of the 2014 Gaza conflict. Sinn Féin’s Pádraig Mac Lochlainn and Fianna Fáil senator Averil Power demanded more transparency over the export approvals.
According to Haaretz newspaper, Ireland was the most popular destination for Israeli holidaymakers in 2000. In 2004, a peak number of Irish nationals visited Israel to attend the Ireland-Israel World Cup qualifying match.
Ireland only extended de jure recognition to Israel in 1963, and both countries established diplomatic relations in 1975, when Ireland's ambassador to Switzerland was also accredited to Israel. The Israeli embassy in Dublin did not open until 1996.
Fighting for independence
During the first 20th century both the Irish and the Jews provided each other with moral support for the war effort for independence against the British. When the Irish fighting tactics inspired the Jews in their fight in Mandatory Palestine for independence. For example, Yitzhak Shamir, inspired by the IRA fighter Michael Collins applied in the Lehi the policy that every fighter have to carry a weapon with him at all times. Shamir's underground nickname, "Michael", (pronounced [miχaˈʔel]) was based on the name of Michael Collins.
1970 to 2000
In 1978, the Irish Army contributed forces to Lebanon as part of UNIFIL, a UN peacekeeping force in Southern Lebanon, which was the scene of fierce fighting between Israeli forces and their proxy militias and Lebanese guerillas. From 1978 to 2000, Ireland contributed over 40,000 troops to UNIFIL, and was the country's largest military involvement outside its own borders. Tensions erupted between the two countries over alleged mistreatment of Irish forces by the Israel Defense Forces. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Irish authorities regularly called in the Israelis to threaten and discipline them over their treatment of Irish peacekeepers. Irish Foreign Minister Brian Lenihan said that much of his sympathy for Israel disappeared when he saw how Irish soldiers were treated. Irish forces were a major participant in the Battle of At Tiri, where UNIFIL troops withstood an attack by the South Lebanon Army, an Israeli-backed militia, after it attempted to set up a checkpoint in At Tiri. One Irish soldier was killed in the battle. Following the 2006 Lebanon War, Ireland deployed a unit of 150 troops to protect Finnish Army engineers.
In 1978, Aer Lingus, the national airline of Ireland without prior agreement with the Irish government, secretly trained Egyptian Air Force pilots, at a time when Israel and Egypt were still in peace talks, and had yet to sign a treaty.
General events, data
On 25 January 2011, Ireland upgraded the Palestinian envoy in Ireland to that of a full embassy.
In February 2012 Nurit Tinari-Modai was appointed deputy ambassador to Ireland. She is the wife of the ambassador, however an Israeli Foreign Ministry source clarified that Ms Tinari-Modai was an "excellent, professional diplomat" who could have secured a full ambassadorship on her own merits.
In March 2013, Alan Shatter, minister of Justice, Equality and Defence said, while visiting Israel, that "Ireland is a friend of Israel. We have a government in Ireland that wants a deeper engagement. But we also have a government in Ireland that is committed to the peace process." During that trip, it was announced that Ireland and Israel would start an initiative to work closely together on reducing road deaths in both countries. The level of road deaths is higher in Israel but both countries have made huge strides in reducing fatalities in recent years.
In May 2014, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) published its ADL Global 100 survey - the largest and most extensive survey ever into global anti-Semitism. Whilst the survey revealed that Ireland is one of the least anti-Semitic countries in Europe, it also showed that 41% of people surveyed have a positive view of Israel while 28% have a negative view.
In September 2014, Irish UN peacekeepers on the Golan Heights had to intervene to rescue Filipino colleagues who were surrounded by Islamist extremists. While the Irish operation did succeed, "senior sources" confirmed to the press that Irish soldiers would "almost certainly" have been killed or taken hostage if it wasn't for the military intervention of the Israeli army, and that assistance from the Israeli army was "decisive" in the success of the rescue.
In October 2014, the Irish upper house of parliament called on the government to give formal recognition to the State of Palestine and take active steps to promote a viable two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
In November 2015 Alison Kelly (diplomat) became Ireland’s ambassador to Israel, replacing Eamonn McKee, who returned to Ireland in the summer of 2015 when he was appointed Director General of the Trade and Promotion Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Kelly presented her credentials to Israeli President Reuven Rivlin noting, ““My team and I will continue to work to strengthen and expand the cooperation between our countries, especially in the fields of technology and medical advances, among others. “ In welcoming her Rivlin said, "In many ways, Israel and Ireland are so similar. Ireland, like Israel, is a beautiful country, filled with a mix of tradition and faith. I want to express my high regard for the ongoing economic, cultural, and academic cooperation between our countries." In the same month, Zeev Boker became the Israeli ambassador to the Republic of Ireland. On November 25, 2015, he presented his credentials to the President of Ireland, Michael D. Higgins. He is Israel’s sixth Ambassador to Ireland since 1994, when Israel established its embassy in Dublin.
Ireland and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
- Many of the decade's events regarding Ireland and Israel are connected to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
On 19 January 2010, Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas military commander, was assassinated in Dubai by a team of eight suspected Mossad officers who used counterfeit European passports, including Irish passports. The Irish government responded by expelling a staff member of the Israeli Embassy in Dublin. Ireland subsequently delayed an EU–Israel agreement which would involve allowing Israel to access sensitive information on EU citizens, and demanded that Israel tighten its data protection laws.
On 5 June 2010, the humanitarian aid vessel MV Rachel Corrie sailing from Ireland (where she had been refitted) to Gaza, was intercepted and seized by the Israeli Navy. This caused political tension between Ireland and Israel.
On 25 January 2011, Ireland upgraded the Palestinian envoy in Ireland to that of a full embassy, which resulted in the Irish Ambassador to Israel being summoned. Israel announced that it "regrets" the decision and it was "not surprised" due to the Irish government's "biased policy regarding the conflict over the years".
On 4 November 2011, the Irish ship MV Saoirse travelling to Gaza was intercepted by the Israeli Navy in international waters. The Navy boarded the ship, took those aboard in custody and towed it to Ashdod. In response, Irish Tánaiste and Minister for Foreign Affairs Eamon Gilmore stated that the Irish government do "not agree with [the Gaza blockade], (...) regard it as contrary to international humanitarian law in its impact on the civilian population of Gaza, and (...) have repeatedly urged Israel to end a policy which is unjust, counter-productive and amounts to collective punishment of 1.5 million Palestinians."
On 16 November 2011, unnamed sources from the Israeli Foreign Ministry claimed that "Ireland (is the) most hostile country in Europe" and was "pushing all of Europe's countries to a radical and uncompromising approach". The unnamed official made an accusation that "the Irish government is feeding its people with anti-Israel hatred" and that "what we are seeing here is clear anti-Semitism." The subsequent survey by the Anti-Defamation League of worldwide anti-Semitism proved that the unnamed source was incorrect, since Ireland was found to have less anti-Semitism than the average of European countries and a more favourable view of Israel. Additionally, an official from the Irish Foreign Affairs Department countered that "the Government is critical of Israeli policies in the occupied Palestinian territories. It is not hostile to Israel and it is clearly wrong to suggest as much," he said. "The notion that this Government is or would be trying to stoke up anti-Israeli feeling is untrue. We are not hostile to Israel. We are critical of policies, particularly in the occupied Palestinian territories. These are not the same things". Israel’s ambassador to Ireland was reported as distancing himself from claims of Irish anti-Semitism.
In December 2012 the IsraelinIreland posted on the Embassy's Facebook page a comment that was viewed as racist and slanderous to Palestinians: "A thought for Christmas. … If Jesus and mother Mary were alive today, they would, as Jews without security, probably end up being lynched in Bethlehem by hostile Palestinians. Just a thought ...". The post resulted in protests, and the Embassy removed the statement issuing an apology, and posted the following statement: "To whom it may concern: An image of Jesus and Mary with a derogatory comment about Palestinians was posted without the consent of the administrator of the Facebook page. We have removed the post in question immediately. Apologies to anyone who may have been offended. Merry Christmas!"
In early 2012 the Irish Palestine Solidarity Campaign organised a "cultural boycott" of Israel, as a result of which Irish music group Dervish (band) cancelled a proposed tour of Israel, citing "an 'avalanche of negativity' and 'venom' directed towards them." This online campaign was officially condemned by Irish Justice Minister Alan Shatter and Irish Tánaiste and Minister for Foreign Affairs Eamon Gilmore.
In June 2012, Israel's Channel 10 published an e-mail in which Nurit Tinari-Modai, deputy ambassador to Ireland, proposed harassing expatriate Israelis who criticized Israeli policies, posting photos of them and publishing disinformation that would embarrass them. She claimed that they were critical of Israel because of their sexual identity. The Foreign Ministry quickly distanced itself from her letter, disavowing her approaches to handling critics. Her recommendation included the following: "You have to try and hit their soft underbellies, to publish their photographs, maybe that will cause embarrassment from their friends in Israel and their family, hoping that local activists would understand that they may actually be working on behalf of Mossad."
In September 2013 Israeli soldiers clashed with Palestinians, EU diplomats (including an Irish diplomat) and foreign activists at the site of a West Bank village demolished by the Israel Defense Forces. The diplomats were manhandled with no regard for their diplomatic immunity.
On 31 July 2014 on the 23rd day of the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, Ireland's Foreign Minister Charlie Flanagan said he shared "the horror and revulsion of senators and very many of our citizens at the horrendous scenes we have witnessed since the start of the Israeli military operation." The Irish government, he said, condemned "both the unacceptably high civilian casualty rate resulting from disproportionate military action on Israel's part as well as the firing of rockets by Hamas and other militants into Israel." The Israeli embassy in Dublin came under criticism twice in the month of July 2014, first for posts likening Free Palestine activists to Hitler, and second for posting doctored images of iconic European art in ways that imply Islam is taking over Europe (see Islam in Europe and Islamophobic incidents). The image of the Irish Molly Malone statue was doctored by the Israeli Embassy to show her covered with a Muslim veil along with the words, "Israel now, Dublin next." Following criticism that the anti-Muslim posting promoted hatred and were offensive, they were taken down. The embassy claims it meant no offence.
On 22 October 2014, the Seanad (Irish upper house of parliament) passed a motion calling on the government to give formal recognition to the State of Palestine and take active steps to promote a viable two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The move follows similar initiatives in other European states, including Sweden and the United Kingdom. While Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and most Israelis are opposed to the establishment of a Palestinian state within the pre-1967 borders, in December 2014 a petition was sent by over 800 Israelis asking Ireland to offer Palestine this recognition. The petition was sent to Ireland's Lower House ahead of a recognition vote already approved in the Upper House. Signatories to the letter included three well-known authors, Amos Oz and A.B. Yehoshua, both Israel Prize winners, and David Grossman, as well as former Foreign Ministry director-general Alon Liel. Subsequently, the Irish government announced that it would accept a motion proposing the recognition of Palestine, with 1967 borders and with East Jerusalem as the capital, as specified in U.N. resolutions. According to the Jerusalem Post, European countries have become frustrated with Israel, since peace talks have collapsed and Israel is still building settlements in territory the Palestinians claim as theirs. Ireland will not be alone in recognising Palestine; Sweden became the largest Western European country to offer Palestine recognition, and parliaments in Spain, Britain and France have backed resolutions in favour of recognition. However, the Spanish and British governments, are at this time, refusing to recognise a Palestinian state.
In January 2018, Senator Frances Black proposed a Private Member's Bill in the Irish Seanad which would have criminalised the purchase of goods and services from Israeli settlements in the "occupied Palestinian Territories". The Control of Economic Activities (Occupied Territories) Bill 2018  was opposed by the Government and voting on the Bill has been postponed.
On 9 April 2018 Dublin City Council became the first European capital to vote in favour of resolutions endorsing the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement against Israel and calling for the expulsion of the Israeli Ambassador to Ireland. The City Council boycott motion included a specific call to boycott products and services from Hewlett Packard. On 10 April, the Lord Mayor of Dublin Mícheál Mac Donncha travelled to Ramallah to attend a Palestinian Authority conference on the status of Jerusalem, avoiding an Israeli government ban due to confusion arising from the spelling of his name in Irish on his passport. The PA conference featured a hommage to a former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husseini who is alleged to have been a Nazi collaborator during World War II. In response, the Israeli government summoned the Irish Ambassador to formally demand an explanation for the boycott motions of Dublin City Council and the Lord Mayor's attendance at the anti-Israel conference.
- Affairs, Department of Foreign. "Ambassador Alison Kelly - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade".
- "Summary of Israel's Foreign Trade by Country 2010' State of Israel Central Bureau of Statistics" http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2011n/16_11_011e.pdf
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Ireland-Israel trade relations
- "Connolly, Shaun 'State approved €6.4m in Israel arms exports' (Aug 27, 2014) Irish Examiner" http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/state-approved-euro64m-in-israel-arms-exports-283664.html
- Keogh, Dermot (5 March 1998). Jews in Twentieth-Century Ireland. Cork University Press – via Amazon.
- Eliash, Shulamit (5 April 2007). The Harp and the Shield of David: Ireland, Zionism and the State of Israel. Routledge – via Google Books.
- "Palestine - Irish Aid - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". www.irishaid.gov.ie.
- Shulamit Eliash, The Harp and the Shield of David: Ireland, Zionism and the State of Israel, Routledge, 2007.
- "Irish Attitudes Toward Israel - Interview with Rory Miller".
- "150 Irish troops to join UN interim force in Lebanon". The Irish Times. 9 September 2006. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
- "Aer Lingus secretly trained Egyptian Air Force". 31 December 2009.
- "Wikileaks: Ireland prevented US arms transfers to Israel".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Weiss, Mark; Fitzgerald, Mary (26 January 2011). "Israel summons Ambassador over Palestinian envoy upgrade". The Irish Times.
- Marcus, Dych (1 March 2012). "Why, Mr Ambassador, you're spoiling me". JEWISH CHRONICLE ONLINE. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Irish minister to 'Post': Ireland not hostile".
- "Ireland, Israel to partner on road safety". Jerusalem Post. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Minister Shatter launches IRIS, the Joint Ireland Israel Programme on Road Safety". Irish Government News Service. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "ADL Global 100: An Index of Anti-Semitism - Ireland". Anti-Defamation League. 13 May 2014.
- "Foreign Affairs Minister: 'I don't want Irish troops sucked into Syrian civil war'". Irish Independent. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Israeli Defense Force rescues Irish troops from Islamist extremists". Irish Central. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Irish parliament calls on government to recognize Palestine". Times of Israel.
- Rank and File: President Rivlin Receives Diplomatic Credentials of Five New Ambassadors Haaretz, 6 Nov 2015
- President Rivlin receives diplomatic credentials of new ambassadors to Israel The World of Diplomacy in Israel, accessed January 18, 2016
- "'Hit squad' used fake Irish passports". Irish Independent. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
- "Irish to expel Israeli diplomat over Hamas killing". BBC News. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
- "Ireland delays EU deal with Israel on data transfers". BBC News. 3 September 2010.
- Laub, Karin (5 June 2010). "Israel remains defiant, seizes Gaza-bound aid ship". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Taoiseach warns Israel of 'serious consequences'". Irish Times. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- Myers, Kevin (20 August 2010). "Kevin Myers: Cead mile failte to Hell, Mr Israeli ambassador". Irish Independent.
- Medzini, Ronen (25 January 2011). "Ireland becomes first EU member to take such measure; Israel says move detrimental to peace process". Ynet News. Yedioth Internet.
- "Column: The Irish ship to Gaza wasn't carrying aid – it was making a point". The Journal. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Irish activists to be deported from Israel after MV Saoirse detained". Irish Independent. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "The ADL GLOBAL 100: An Index of Anti-Semitism".
- http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4149059,00.html. Missing or empty
- Minihan, Mary; Weiss, Mark (17 November 2011). "Ireland rejects claim of hostility towards Israel". The Irish Times.
- Robert Tait (18 December 2012). "Israel investigates embassy 'Christmas message'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Leon Watson (18 December 2012). "Israeli embassy says sorry after Facebook post claiming Mary and Jesus 'would be lynched in Bethlehem by hostile Palestinians' if alive today". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "Israeli Embassy: 'If alive today, Jesus and Mary would be lynched by hostile Palestinians'". Russia Today. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Raphael Ahren (17 December 2012). "Israeli Embassy's 'lynching Jesus' Facebook post sparks Irish ire". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "Dr Deane and The Boys have gone too far this time". Irish Independent.
- http://www.merrionstreet.ie/index.php/2012/05/shatter-press-release-shatter-critical-of-cyber-bullying/ Shatter critical of cyber-bullying
- Gilmore slams 'unacceptable efforts to harass' artists from performing in Israel The Journal.
- Round, Simon "Israeli envoy: activists have 'sexual identity problems" (June 14, 2012) The Jewish Chronicle http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/68791/israeli-envoy-activists-have-sexual-identity-problems
- "Israel's Irish embassy: UN would have made Hitler happy". Times of Israel.
- Silver, Jonny "Israel's Ireland embassy: Hitler would have liked the UN" (Aug. 6, 2013) Haaretz http://www.haaretz.com/news/national/.premium-1.540074
- Cohen, Gil (20 September 2013). "European diplomats: Israeli army manhandled us, seized Palestinian aid". Haaretz. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Ireland horrified and revolted by death and destruction in Gaza". Irish Sun. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Israeli embassy says no offence meant over Molly Malone images". Irish Times.
- "Israeli Embassy Tweets Images of Jihadist Mona Lisa and Michelangelo's David". Newsweek. 29 July 2014.
- "Ireland's Upper House Calls On Government to Recognize Palestine".
- "Irish upper house backs Palestinian state". Haaretz.
- "Three-quarters of Israeli Jews oppose detail of Palestinian state, poll shows". The Guardian. 20 October 2014.
- "Oz, Grossman, Yehoshua call on Europe to recognise 'Palestine': Three of Israel's great authors signed a petition calling for Europe to officially recognise a Palestinian state, something so far only Sweden has done.'" (Dec. 8, 2014) The Jerusalem Post http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Oz-Grossman-Yehoshua-call-on-Europe-to-recognise-Palestine-383942[permanent dead link]
- "Irish government to accept motion to recognise Palestinian state: The motion calls on the government to 'officially recognise the State of Palestine, on the basis of the 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as the capital, as established in UN resolutions.'" (9 December 2014) The Jerusalem Post http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Irish-government-to-accept-motion-to-recognise-Palestinian-state-384171[permanent dead link]
- "The British vote to recognise Palestine won't change a complex reality". The Guardian. 13 October 2014.
- "How serious is Spain about recognising Palestine?". Al Arabiya. 19 November 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "senatorfrancesblack". senatorfrancesblack.
- "Ambassador explains Government's stand on West Bank settlements to Israelis". The Irish Times. 31 January 2018.
- "Dublin City Council vote to support economic sanctions against Israel". Irish Examiner. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Israel tries to bar Dublin mayor, but fails because it spells his name wrong". The Times of Israel. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Israel summons Irish ambassador over Dublin mayor's visit". Ynet News. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.