Irinjalakuda

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Irinjalakuda
Irinjalakuda
Nickname(s): 
Varadanangalude Nadu
Irinjalakuda is located in Kerala
Irinjalakuda
Irinjalakuda
Location in Kerala, India
Irinjalakuda is located in India
Irinjalakuda
Irinjalakuda
Irinjalakuda (India)
Coordinates: 10°20′N 76°14′E / 10.33°N 76.23°E / 10.33; 76.23Coordinates: 10°20′N 76°14′E / 10.33°N 76.23°E / 10.33; 76.23
Country India
StateKerala
DistrictThrissur
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyIrinjalakuda Municipal Council
Area
 • Total33.57 km2 (12.96 sq mi)
Elevation
39 m (128 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total51,585
 • Density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialMalayalam, Hindi, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0480
Vehicle registrationKL-45
Websitewww.irinjalakudamuncipality.in
Irinjalakuda Municipality Map

Irinjalakuda is a municipal town in Thrissur district, Kerala, India. Irinjalakuda is a revenue division and the headquarters of Mukundapuram Taluk. It is known for the Koodalmanikyam Temple and the Thachudaya Kaimals [1] who had princely status until 1971.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The name Irinjalakuda has been derived from "Iru" and "Chaal", meaning two streams. According to another legend, the origin of the name Irinjalakuda came from 'Irinjalikoodal'. 'Koodal' simply means merge, merging of two rivers.So it shows that Irinjalakuda may have gradually developed, from 'Irinjalikoodal', that derived from 'Inangikoodal', means merge. At present there is no river in Irinjalakuda, only the myth of river.[3]

Irinjalakuda can be derived from 'iru njyaala koda' ( ഇരുഞാലകൊട) i.e., donation of two worlds, which is what Mahabali is said to have done in the story of the Vaamanaavataaram.

Mythological history and legends[edit]

According to Hindu mythology, Irinjalakuda was created by sage Parasurama. According to Keralolpatthi, out of the 64 gramas (villages) established in Kerala (Out of these 32 Malayala Gramas & half Thulu grama viz.Manjeswaram are in the present Kerala and 31 1/2 Thulu gramas in the coastal Karnataka.), Irinjalakuda was the head of some of them. Irinjalakuda was one of the most prominent among these Gramas (village societies). Boundaries of this grama extends up to Aloor in the east and Kakkathuruthi in the west and later extended to Koodapuzha in the east. Like the other Gramas this 'Grama' also followed Sankara Smruthi(a modified form of the 'Chathurvarnia' system of society with some Kerala model variations which lay upon caste system based on the 'Manusmruthi').[3][4][5]

Another legend suggests that the origin of the name Irinjalakuda were heard, "Irunnu Salayil Koodai", and "Virinja Alu Kuda". There is a huge Banyan tree still standing in the centre of the Irinjalakuda spreading the branches to the sky like an umbrella.

The Thachudaya Kaimal is a spiritual dignitary of Kerala Hindus and the temporal ruler of the Koodalmanikyam Temple and its Estates. The line goes back into antiquity and is mentioned in the Skanda Purana. The Arms of the Kaimal and that of the temple bear the insignia of a coiled conch-shell with the words 'Manikkam Keralar'.[6] With the 26th amendment of the Indian constitution in 1971, the Princely order in India was abolished and the Thachudaya Kaimals lost their position in the temple and its estates.[1] It is now managed by a Trust managed by the District Collector although a vestige of former power lies in his being the chief trustee of the temple.[1][2] The Devaswom was allotted land to accommodate institutions such as the Christ College, and for public use to facilitate development activities in the region. Much land that belonged to Koodalmanikyam was subjected to encroachment.[7]

History[edit]

In 1762 Maharaja Kingdom of Cochin formed Mukundapuram taluk by adding Mapranam nadu and parts of Nandilathu nadu to Mukundapuram nadu(Muriyanadu). In the last decade of the 18th Century the last Naduvazhi Nambiar of Mukundapuram nadu(Murija nadu) died and Sakthan Thampuran confiscated all the powers and properties of Mukundapuram Nambiar and Mapranam Nambiar. Sakthan Thampuran divided old Mukundapuram Taluk into six Proverties viz.1) Thazhekkad 2) Areepalam, 3)Mukundapuram (Nadavarambu) 4) Mapranam 5)Palathungal (Nandikkara) 6)Pudukkad for administrative and revenue purposes. Five more proverties were added to Mukundapuram Taluk afterwards: Kodassery (Chalakudy), Thirumukkulam (Kuzhur)), Koratty(Adur), Pathinettarayalam (Edavilangu) and Malayattur. Tipu Sultan's Army was based at Thazhekkad Proverty of Mukundapuram Taluk on 24 December 1789 to attack the Nedumkotta which is situated in the middle of Kochi Kingdom and was known as Travancore lines and attacked KonurKottavathil in January 1790.

When new Chalakudy taluk was formed in 2013 by bifurcating Mukundapuram taluk it lost more than 50% of its territory.

Culture[edit]

Irinjalakuda has a rich cultural history associated with the UNESCO- recognised classical dance form Koodiyattam. Natanakairali - Research Training and Performing Centre for Traditional Arts, Irinjalakuda, is a prominent institution that imparts training on this ancient art form. Government-aided Unnayi Warrier Smaraka Kalanilayam near Koodalmanikyam temple trains artistes on Kathakali. The town also has other institutions that give training on classical dance forms and theatre arts. Walden Pond House is another cultural space in the town where artists and movie makers gather for workshops and movie shoots.

Entertainment[edit]

There are a number of good cinema halls in the town. JK Cinemas with two screens (Located in Kizhuthani), Chembakassery Movies with three screens and MAS Movies with two screens are the major theatres in the town. Besides this, the town often hosts various cultural programmes organised by socio-cultural organisations.

Population[edit]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[8] Irinjalakuda had a population of 51,585. Males constitute 48% of the population and females 52%. Irinjalakuda has an average literacy rate of 96% which is much higher than the national average of 74.65%. While male literacy stands at 97.12%, female literacy is 94.56%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Religion[edit]

Its St. Thomas Cathedral is the episcopal see of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Eparchy of Irinjalakuda (Chaldean = Syro-Oriental Rite).

Before the arrival of Tipu Sulthan to Mukundapuram Taluk in December 1789 the headquarters of Padruado Archbishops of Cranganore (Kodungallur) of Nazranis (Padruado faction of Syro Malabar Catholic Church ) was at Pookkatt(Aripalam) .(See Varthamanapusthakam of Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar, Gobernador and ArchaDeacon of late eighteenth century). Sakthan Thampuran brought four Christian families for improving commerce and trade to the place known as ‘Chanthappura’. When they struck gold in this field, more of this community migrated from Kombara chantha and settled in the area and now it became one of the strongholds of this community. Besides Hindu and Christian communities this area consists of Muslims.[3][4] Karukulangara Narasimhaswamy Temple, Irinjalakuda, north west side, about 1.5 km from the Irinjalakuda municipal bus stand, a famous and oldest temple of Irinjalakuda

Celebrities[edit]

The famous actor Tovino Thomas was born here.Tovino Thomas is an Indian film actor best known for his work in Malayalam films, he has also acted in a few Tamil films. He made his debut acting in 2012 with the Malayalam film Prabhuvinte Makkal. Tovino is recognized for the wide range of characters he has portrayed which includes protagonists, strong crucial characters and negative roles. He won the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Ennu Ninte Moideen (2015). He also won the Kerala Film Critics Association Award (Best Second Actor) for his performance in Mayaanadhi (2017).

A prominent Kerala mathematician-astronomer Madhava (Mādhava) who founded the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was from(Irinjalappilly, Aloor) Sangamagrama (Saṅgamagrāma), a town in medieval Kerala believed to be the town of Irinjalakuda. Nagapattinam Chandrashekhara Vasanthakokilam a carnatic singer and actress, was born as Kamakshi in Irinjalakkuda, Cochin State of British India, the present Kerala

Chimmini Wildlife Sanctuary
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Governance[edit]

Irinjalakuda Court Complex

Irinjalakuda is governed by Irinjalakuda Municipality. The municipality was formed on 8 February 1936 with an area of 11.24 square kilometres. K.I. Varunny was the first municipal chairman and the municipality was divided into 22 electoral wards. Now, the Municipality has 41 wards. [9] Irinjalakuda is the headquarters of the Mukundapuram Taluk and is a Grade-I municipality.[5]

Irinjalakuda Revenue Division was formed in May 2018. It is headed by a Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO). The office is situated at Mini Civil Station Annexe building. There is a court complex inside the Civil Station that houses Sub Court, Additional Sub Court, Munsif Courts and Motor Accidents Claims Tribunal (MACT)/ Additional District and Sessions Court. Irinjalakuda also has a family court. A new judicial complex is under construction near the civil station to house all judicial offices in the town. There is a special sub jail in Irinjalakuda. Irinjalakuda judicial first class magistrate court is functioning at old court complex in Kacheri Valappu. Irinjalakuda Land Tribunal started functioning from December 2019. The MLA of the Irinjalakuda legislative constituency is Prof. K.U Arunan. Irinjalakuda assembly constituency was a part of Mukundapuram (Lok Sabha constituency) till 2009 Lonappan Nambadan was the last Loksabha MP of Mukundapuram. From 2009, Irinjalakuda is now a part of Thrissur (Lok Sabha constituency). The MP of Thrissur Lok Sabha constituency is T.N.Prathapan.

The Chairperson of Irinjalakuda Municipality is Smt.Nimya Shiju.

Irinjalakuda Municipal Office

Other prominent government offices in Irinjalakuda include District Education Office, Rural District Treasury, KSEB Circle office, Excise Circle office, Postal Division office, Water Authority PH Division, GST assistant commissioner's office, Factories and Boilers office, etc.

As part of shifting the Thrissur Rural police headquarters to Irinjalakuda, a command and control centre, rural district women police station and police dog squad have been set up in Irinjalakuda

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Irinjalakuda is located on State Highway 22 (Kerala), which links to major national highways NH 47 and NH 66 in the State. Two main roads State Highway 22 (Kerala) (Kodungallur-Shornur) Road and State Highway 61 (Kerala) (Potta-Moonupeedika) criss-crosses Irinjalakuda town. KSRTC bus station is situated behind the Koodalmanikyam temple.

[10] KSRTC operates services to Trivandrum, Eranakulam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Palakkad and Mananthavady.

There is a private bus station in Irinjalakuda which serves local and inter-district travellers.

Railways[edit]

The nearest railway station is the Irinjalakuda Railway Station which is about 8 km east of the town at Kallettumkara. Irinjalakuda Railway Station is managed by the Southern Railway of Indian Railways. Many express trains stop at this station. Thrissur Railway Station is the nearest major railhead with stop for all trains, which is just 22 km from Irinjalakuda.[10] Irinjalakuda Sorting (Railway Mail Services) also functions at Kallettumkara in the premises of post office.

Nearest Airport[edit]

The nearest airport is the Cochin International Airport at Nedumbassery, which is 38 km away. The airport is well connected to all major airports in India and also connected to many foreign cities. Direct flights are available to Chennai, New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolkata.[10]

Healthcare[edit]

Irinjalakuda Co-operative Hospital

Irinjalakuda has several hospitals and health clinics, including Ayurvedha, Eyecare are situated in the heart of Irinjalakuda.

Educational Organizations[edit]

Christ College

Between the 14th and 16th Century, it was a center of learning. Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics which was believed to be founded here, made major contributions in Algebra, Arithmetic, Astronomy, Calculus, Geometry, Infinite Series and Linguistics.

Arts & Science Colleges

STATE

CBSE

Notable residents[edit]

Irinjalakuda has been the home of many notable people, including

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://www.godubai.com/gulftoday/articlearc.asp?aid=113418&section=asia
  2. ^ a b http://clr.kerala.gov.in/pdf/actsrules/KOODALMANICKAM_DEVASWOM_ACT.pdf
  3. ^ a b c "The Legend". Koodalmanikyam Temple. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  4. ^ a b "A Short History". AEO Irinjalakuda. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Irinjalakuda". Janasevana Kendram. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  6. ^ Who's Who in Madras 1934
  7. ^ Girish Menon (5 April 2010). "Recovery of temple lands bogged down". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  8. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  9. ^ "History". Irinjalakuda Municipality. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  10. ^ a b c "How to reach". Koodalmanikyam Temple. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2010.

External links[edit]