Iris filifolia 'Florentina' 
Iris florentina is the white flowered variant of Iris germanica now classified as Iris germanica nothovar. florentina. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions almost worldwide. It is also grown to produce orris-root, a scented substance used in perfumes, soaps, tooth cleanser, clothes washing powder. Medicinally it was also used as an expectorant and decongestant. It is made from the rhizomes of Iris florentina, Iris germanica and Iris pallida.
It is a rhizomatous perennial, from southern Europe, mainly Italy (including the city of Florence), and France. It has a thick, violet scented rhizome, sword-like, green or grey-green leaves, that are semi-evergreen, a tall branched stem, many flowers that are white and tinged, or flushed with blue, or pale blue, or lavender in spring or summer. It also has a white and yellow beard.
Iris florentina has a thick, or stout rhizome, Which is short, fleshy, horizontal, and has a strong, violet scent. The rhizomes spread across the surface of the soil, to form clumps of plants. This habit can often create a dense network of fibrous roots, that can crowd out other plants.
It has basal (rising up from the rhizome), ensiform (sword-shaped), light green, pale green, or grey-green leaves. They are semi-evergreen, or evergreen (in mild winters). :24 The leaves can grow up to between 30–70 cm (12–28 in) long, and between 2.5–4 cm (1–2 in)wide. They are shorter than the stem.
It has a straight, stem or peduncle, that can grow up to between 38–100 cm (15–39 in) tall. :63 It may reach up to 75–100 cm (30–39 in) after about 3 years. Although it may reach 121 cm (48 in), (in ideal conditions). The stems have 2 – 4 branches. The branches reduce in size as you go up the stem, starting from the middle. The branches can be long, when compared to Iris albicans (another white flowered iris sometimes called Iris florentina subsp. albicans (Lange) K.Richt.),
The stem has 1–2, (scarious) membranous or sub-scarious, spathes (leaves of the flower bud). At flowering time, the spathes become brown and papery, or fully scarious. They can be up to 40–80 cm (16–31 in) long. 1.5-2 in long The lower spathes are green and leaf-like.
The stem (and the many branches) hold between 4 and 7 flowers.:121 at terminal ends. Sometimes in pairs. The fragrant flowers,:121 smell of violets, appear in spring, or early summer, or mid-summer, between late April and May, :22 or between March and May.
The large flowers, are up to 25 cm (10 in) in diameter (or across). They come in white,:142 (sometimes described as 'dead white,) or greyish white, or bluish white,:121 or very pale lavender. They are slightly tinged, or flushed with blue, or pale blue, or lavender.:22 They are especially tinted when in bud. The flowers are often confused with Iris albicans (which also has white flowers).
Like other irises, it has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as the 'standards'.:17 The deflexed, or drooping falls, are obovate, or cuneate (wedge) shaped. They are 7.6–9 cm (3–4 in) long and 3.8 cm (1 in) wide. There is some greenish-yellow veining on the haft, (section of the petal near the stem), and in the centre of the falls, there is a narrow fillet of white cilias (called a beard) with deep yellow tips, bright yellow, or orange yellow. The standards are erect, oboval, and narrower than the falls. The hafts of the standards, have a small white beard.:142
After the iris has flowered, between July and August, it produces a fusiform (spindle shaped), trigonal, or oblong seed capsule. It is longer than the seed capsule of Iris germanica. The capsule is loculicidal (has chambers), with 3 cells, that hold dark brown, or brown seeds. The seeds are normally lined up like rolls of coins.
In 2013, a study listed all the naturally occurring xanthones. It mentioned that Arisawa and Morita have isolated tetraoxygenated xanthone glycoside 2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5-methoxy-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone from Iris florentina.
In 2014, a study was carried out on the essential oil of Iris florentina. It found several compounds including decanoic acid, ethanon, α-Iron, trans-2,6-γ-Iron, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, 9,12 oktadecadienoic acid and hexanedioic acid bis ester.
In 2015, a study was carried out on the antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of the iris.
It is sometimes known as orris root, which also comes from the rhizomes of Iris germanica and Iris pallida.
It is known in Malta as 'Fjurduliz abjad', in Danish as 'violrod', in France as 'Iris de florence', in German as 'florentinsche schwertlilie', in Spanish (and Portuguese) as 'lirio blanco' or 'lirio de Florencia'.
It was first published and described by Carl Linnaeus, in Systema Naturae Edition 10, Issue2 on page863 on 7 June 1759, as Iris florentina. It was thought to be similar to Iris germanica, but with white flowers.
This later became Iris germanica nothovar. florentina.
It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 19 October 1994, then updated on 12 September 2005, as Iris germanica L. nothovar. florentina Dykes.
Distribution and habitat
It has been naturalised in many other countries, from the Mediterranean, (including west Africa and southern Spain,:121) to India, and Iran. In Russia, it grows in the south of western Siberia. Outside of Russia, it is found in Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China.
It naturalises along roadsides, field margins, olive groves, abandoned vineyards and other cultivated sites.
All the stations in the other countries where it has become naturalized for centuries, it is gone, or they are declining. Not protected by law and not listed in the flora section of the National Red Data book (1989)
It is hardy, to between USDA Zone 3 and Zone 9, or between 5 and 8. It is also hardy to Zone H2 (in Europe), between −15 to-20oC (5 to −4oF). It has been tested for hardiness in Russia, in the botanical gardens of; Barnaul, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg and Ufa. In the winter, it requires protection from moisture (in Russia). It can be cultivated well throughout Europe and N America, except in the warm moist climates of Florida and Gulf Coast.
It prefers to grow in moist, well drained soils, in loam. It can tolerate sandy soils, or any common garden soil. It also tolerates most soil pH levels of, and will tolerate very alkali or acid soils.
It is deer and rabbit resistant, but can suffer from leaf spot, Iris borer, thrips, slug and snails. Aphids Aphis newtoni and Dysaphis tulipae can also be found on the plant.
The irises are planted shallow, leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed, to the sun. They are not mulched, as this could cause rotting to the rhizomes. They can be fertilized in early spring, and again in late summer, with a general fertilizer or bone meal. The foliage can be cut back in the autumn, after the flowers have faded.
The old woody-like centre, should be removed, along with any damaged sections. The rhizomes are then left exposed, to allow the cuts to callus, then the foliage is trimmed, (to reduce water loss). Then the new rhizome sections can be re-planted, in new situations and at a shallow depth.
Hybrids and cultivars
It has a few cultivars including; 'Alba', 'Blue Zua', 'Bluzugraf', 'Elizabeth Huntington', 'Elsie Crouch Diltz', 'Firmament', 'Florentina purpurea', 'Gambetta', 'Janet Barnes', 'New Orleans' (which has light grey flowers), 'Queen Emma', 'Silver King', and 'Zua'.
There are a few crosses: 'Altar Candles', 'Tan Crown', 'Vendor'.
Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested, it can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction.
It was noted by G.R Winter (in 1948, J Periodont 19:108) that allergic manifestations can be caused by the use of a dentifrice (teeth cleaner) containing orris root powder.
The violet scented rhizome has many uses including, a perfume, for mixing with hair powder, powder used for washing clothes, hair, and teeth, used as a fresh scent for linen, a base for dry shampoos, base for tooth powders, in face-packs, as a fixative in pot-pourri.
It was used medicinally as an expectorant (clearance of mucus from the airways) and decongestant. It was also formerly used for treating wounds and chest infections. It was also administered for the cure of dropsy. It was also used sometimes for bronchitis, coughs and sore throat, for colic and for congestion of the liver. It is rarely used medicinally nowadays. It has been chewed as a breath freshener, carved into rosary beads, and given to babies as a teething aid.
Iris florentina is considered one of the irises (with Iris pseudacorus) that inspired the fleur-de-lys (or fleur-de-luce) of heraldry, which was the symbol of the city of Florence for centuries, and is on the coat of arms of the city.
A legend of the city, tells that on St. Reparata's Day in the year 405, the Goths had the city of Florence under siege, and the city defences were failing. Suddenly, St. Reparata appeared in the midst of the fighting, holding a blood-red banner emblazoned with a white iris. This changed the battle and lifted the spirits of the Florentines, which led them to be victorious. In gratitude (to St Reparata), the city adopted the symbol for its coat of arms, from the 11th Century onwards. After the battle, in which the Guelfs (or Guelphs,) routed the Ghibellines in the late thirteenth century, which ended in 1250. or 1267. The colours were then reversed, and the red lily (or red giglio,) on a field of white, which became the symbol of Florence.
During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, ‘Iris green' (or 'Verdelis' and 'Vert d'iris'), was a rare, paint pigment colour used by manuscript illuminators and painters. It was made from the juice of the fresh flowers of Iris florentine and/or Iris germanica. The bluish or purplish petal juice was steeped (soaked) in boiling water, then combined and thickened with alum. It then produces a clear green paint. It was used in the 14th and 15th centuries. It can not be distinguished from 'sap green' (or 'verte de vessie' or 'verde di vesica') a paint juice derived from Buckthorn berries.
On the triptych painting, "Adorazione dei Pastori" by painter Hugo van der Goes (in 1475 or 1476), it has images of Iris florentina and Iris pallida.:20 It is in the Botticelli room of the Uffizi Gallery.
- "Iris Florentina". www.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Ruth D. WrenschThe Essence of Herbs, p. 213, at Google Books
- Neil Fletcher Mediterranean Wildflowers, p. 52, at Google Books
- "Iris florentina" (PDF). centerchem.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Richard Lynch and Henry Ewbank The Book of the Iris (1904), p. 148, at Google Books
- McVicar, Jekka (2006) . Jekka's Complete Herb Book (Revised ed.). Bookmark Ltd. ISBN 1845093704.
- "Florentine Iris". herbs2000.com. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- John Sims Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Or, Flower-garden, Volume 18 (1803), p. 95, at Google Books
- Christopher Brickell (Editor)RHS Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers (5th Edition, 2010), p. 611, at Google Books
- "Chapitre I Les Iris Rhizomateux (partie 1)". irisbotanique.over-blog.com. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- "Iris germanica Florentina". davisla.wordpress.com. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Iris florentina". shootgardening.co.uk. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- John LustThe Herb Book: The Most Complete Catalog of Herbs Ever Published (2009), p. 292, at Google Books
- Caledonian Horticultural Society, EdinburghCaledonian Horticultural Society, Edinburgh, p. 245, at Google Books
- Stefan Buczacki The Herb Bible: The definitive guide to choosing and growing herbs, p. 223, at Google Books
- "Iris florentina". perennials.com. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Bearded Irises (IRIS) Sem. Kasatikovye". flower.onego.ru. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Walter Stager Tall Bearded Iris (Fleur-de-Lis): What, When, Where, and How to Plant and subsequent plant (1917) at Google Books
- Cassidy, George E.; Linnegar, Sidney (1987). Growing Irises (Revised ed.). Bromley: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-88192-089-4.
- William Robinson Hardy Flowers (1878), p. 149, at Google Books
- "Iris". rslandscapedesign.blogspot.co.uk. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Stebbings, Geoff (1997). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Irises. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. p. 22. ISBN 0715305395.
- Mathew, Brian (1981). The Iris.
- British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 33, at Google Books
- James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification (2011) , p. 340, at Google Books
- The Dispensatory of the United States of America (1865), p. 486, at Google Books
- "Iris florentina". maltawildplants.com. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Austin, Claire (2005). Irises; A Garden Encyclopedia. Timber Press. ISBN 0881927309.
- Thomas Gaskell Tuti (Editor)Flora Europaea, Volume 5, p. 89, at Google Books
- Tsukida, Kiyoshi; Saiki, Kayoko; Ito, Masayoshi (September 1973). "New isoflavone glycosides from Iris florentina". Phytochemistry. 12 (9): 2318–2319. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(73)85153-2. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Negi, J. S.; Bisht, V. K.; Singh, P.; Rawat, M. S. M.; Joshi, G. P. (4 April 2013). "Naturally Occurring Xanthones: Chemistry and Biology". Journal of Applied Chemistry. doi:10.1155/2013/621459. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Kara, Nimet; Baydar, Hasan (2014). "Scent Components In Essential Oil, Resinoids And Absolute Of Iris (Iris florentina L.)". Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 29 (1). doi:10.7161/anajas.2014.29.1.70. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Ullaha, Farhat; Ayaza, Muhammad; Sadiqa, Abdul; Hussaina, Abid; Ahmada, Sajjad; Imrana, Muhammad; Zeba, Anwar (21 April 2015). "Phenolic, flavonoid contents, anticholinesterase and antioxidant evaluation of Iris germanica var; florentina". Natural Product Research. doi:10.1080/14786419.2015.1057585. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Twardovska, M.O.; Andreev, I.O.; Kunakh, V.A. "Karyotypes of species of the genus Iris from the flora of Ukraine". Vascular Plants: Taxonomy, Geography and Floristics. doi:10.15407/ukrbotj71.05.581. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Jennifer HelveyIrises: Vincent Van Gogh in the Garden, p. 29, at Google Books
- John H. Wiersema and Blanca LeónWorld Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, Second Edition, p. 370, at Google Books
- D. Gledhill The Names of Plants, p. 176, at Google Books
- Sand, Austin W.W. (July 1926). Cornell Memoir, 100 Study of Pogoniris Varieties.
- Bob, Pries (12 December 2014). "(SPEC) Iris florentina L". wiki.irises.org (American Iris Society). Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Iridaceae Iris florentina L". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Iris florentina". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Iridaceae Iris officinalis Salisb". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Iris germanica var. florentina". eol.org. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Annals of Horticulture and Year book of Information on Practical Gardening for 1847". forgottenbooks.com. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Plant Hardiness". theseedsite.co. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- William Robinson The Wild Garden: Expanded Edition, p. 267, at Google Books
- R. L. Blackman, Victor F. Eastop Aphids on the World's Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, p. 553, at Google Books
- David G Spoerke and Susan C. SmolinskeToxicity of Houseplants, p. 236, at Google Books
- D. Jesse Wagstaff International Poisonous Plants Checklist: An Evidence-Based Reference, p. 207, at Google Books
- O'Sullivan, Joanne (21 April 2011). "Consider the iris, A look at Florence's best-known symbol". theflorentine.net. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- John Stephenson and James Morss ChurchillMedical Botany, Or, Illustrations and Descriptions of the medicinal, Volume 1 (1831), p. 217, at Google Books
- Patrick Bowe and Michael D. DeHart Gardens and Plants of the Getty Villa, p. 154, at Google Books
- Hogerbrugge, Liesbeth (16 August 2013). "The history of the Giglio of Florence". intoflorence.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Detterer, Gabriele (14 April 2002). "As the Irises in the field". nzz.ch. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "The Florentine Iris, History of a symbol". florencewithguide.com. 25 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Daniel V. Thompson The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting (2012), p. 171, at Google Books
- "Report of the 1st International Symposium on Iris – Florence". historiciris.blogspot.co.uk. 14 May 1963. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Sir Joseph Paxton (Editor)Paxton's Magazine of Botany, and Register of Flowering Plants, Volume 1 , p. 83, at Google Books
- Bailey, L. H. 1957. Manual of cultivated plants, revised ed. 271. ["of questionable application"].
- Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
- Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
- Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. [doubtedly the basionym of I. ×germanica var. florentina].
- Data related to Iris florentina at Wikispecies
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iris florentina.|