|4.6 million (Ireland)|
Unknown number of Catholics of full or partial Irish descent worldwide (notably in Canada and the Eastern and Central United States)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Republic of Ireland||3,861,335|
|United Kingdom||6,000,000-14,000,000 (25% more or 25% less ancestry)|
|Australia||2,000,000-7,000,000 (partial of self-declared)|
|English (Irish, American, British, Australian and New Zealander), Irish (primarily Ireland), Spanish (Argentine and Mexican) and French (Metropolitan French)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Irish people, Irish diaspora, Irish Travellers, Irish Americans, Irish Canadians, Irish Australians, Irish New Zealanders, Irish Britons, Irish Argentines, Irish Mexicans, Irish French|
Overview and history
Divisions between Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants played a major role in the history of Ireland from the 16th to the 20th century, especially the Home Rule Crisis and the Troubles. While religion broadly marks the delineation of these divisions, the contentions were primarily political and related to access to power. For example, while the majority of Irish Catholics saw themselves as having an identity independent of Britain and were excluded from power, a number of the instigators in rebellions against British rule were in fact Protestant Irish nationalists, although most Irish Protestants opposed separatism. In the Irish Rebellion of 1798 Catholics and Presbyterians, who were not part of the established Church of Ireland, found common cause.
Irish Catholics are found in many countries around the world, especially the Anglosphere. Emigration increased exponentially due to the Great Famine in the mid 1800s. In the United States, hostility and violence towards Irish Catholics was expressed by the Know Nothing movement of the 1850s and other 19th century anti-Catholic, anti-Irish groups. By the 20th century, Irish Catholics were well established in the United States and are now part of mainstream American society.
- Irish Americans
- Catholic Church in Ireland
- Celtic Christianity
- Cultural Catholic
- Irish migration to Britain
- Irish Newfoundlanders
- Irish Quebecers
- Penal Laws
- Saint Patrick's Day
- Ulster-Scots people
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Of the 1,495 respondents who identified themselves as "Irish," 51 percent were Protestant and 36 percent were Catholic.
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- The Irish Cultural, Political, Social, and Religious Heritages
- Ireland: The Rise of Irish Nationalism, 1801–1850
- Emigrants and Immigrants
- Communities in Conflict: American Nativists and Irish Catholics
- Irish-American Politics
- Irish America and the Course of Irish Nationalism
- From Ghetto to Suburbs: From Someplace to Noplace?