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|Founded||Early 19th century|
|Years active||Early 19th century – present|
|Territory||Ireland, United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand|
|Ethnicity||Primarily Irish, Irish American, Irish Canadian, Irish Australian, Irish Briton, Irish New Zealanders and Black Irish|
|Criminal activities||Racketeering, horse-race fixing, burglary, voter intimidation, illegal gambling, contract killing, rum running, bookmaking, drug trafficking, Skimming, money laundering, murder, extortion, Protection rackets, prostitution, weapons trafficking, labor racketeering, loan-sharking, truck hijacking, Police corruption, and Political corruption|
The Irish Mob is the oldest organized crime group in the United States, in existence since the early 19th century. Originating in Irish American street gangs of the 19th century—depicted in Herbert Asbury's 1928 book The Gangs of New York—the Irish Mob has appeared in most major U.S. cities, including Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, Cleveland, the Twin Cities, and New Orleans.
The Irish Mob also has a strong presence in Ireland, where unlike United States the group have been present from the 1960s and onwards. They're predominantly active in Dublin and Limerick. They often work under crime families and focus on the drug-trade.
- 1 In the United States
- 1.1 New York
- 1.2 Boston
- 1.3 Philadelphia
- 1.4 Chicago
- 1.5 Other areas in the United States
- 2 In Ireland
- 2.1 Dublin
- 2.2 Limerick
- 2.3 Northern Ireland
- 2.4 Belfast
- 3 Elsewhere in the world
- 4 Irish mob in popular culture
- 5 See also
- 6 References
In the United States
Irish-American street gangs such as the Dead Rabbits, led by future Congressman John Morrissey, and Whyos dominated New York's underworld for well over a century before facing competition from other, primarily recently arrived Italian and Jewish gangs, during the 1880s and 1890s. Although gang leaders such as Paul Kelly of the Five Points Gang would rise to prominence during the early 1900s, gangs such as the Hudson Dusters and the Gopher Gang would remain formidable rivals during the period.
In the early 1900s, with Italian criminal organisations, such as the Morello crime family, encroaching on the waterfront, various Irish gangs united to form the White Hand Gang. Although initially successful in keeping their Black_Hand_(extortion) Italian rivals at bay, a ruse of unstable leadership and infighting would be their apparent downfall. The Irish had government and the police. United against the English for centuries, they did not succeed in America only to fight and murder their own. The murders of Dinny Meehan, Bill Lovett, and Richard Lonergan were due to their lust of greed and led to the gang's apparent disappearance by 1925, and the waterfront was taken over by Italian mobsters Vincent Mangano, Albert Anastasia, and Joe Adonis. Meanwhile, the Irish reemerged in Coal Country and remained strong.
During the early years of Prohibition, "Big" Bill Dwyer emerged among many in New York's underworld as a leading bootlegger. However, following his arrest and trial for violation of the Volstead Act during 1925 and 1926, Dwyer's former partners were split between Owney "The Killer" Madden, the English-born former leader of the Gopher Gang, and Frank Costello against Jack "Legs" Diamond, "Little" Augie Pisano, Charles "Vannie" Higgins and renegade mobster Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll.
In the Irish/Italian Mob War of the 1970s, the Irish mob saw an increased threat from the Italian Mafia as the Genovese crime family sought control over the soon to be built Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. Since the convention center was located in Spillane's Hell's Kitchen neighborhood, Spillane refused to allow any involvement by the Italians. Although the Italian gangsters greatly outnumbered the members of the Irish mob, Spillane was successful in keeping control of the convention center and Hell's Kitchen. The Italians, frustrated and embarrassed by their defeat to Spillane, responded by hiring a rogue Irish-American hitman named Joseph "Mad Dog" Sullivan to assassinate Tom Devaney, Eddie "the Butcher" Cummiskey, and Tom "the Greek" Kapatos, three of Spillane's top lieutenants.
Also around this time, a power struggle emerged between Mickey Spillane and James Coonan, a younger upstart from Hell's Kitchen. In 1977 Spillane was murdered in a hail of bullets by assassins from the Genovese crime family. This prompted Coonan to form an alliance with Roy DeMeo of the Gambino crime family. The Genoveses decided that the Westies were too violent and well led to go to war with and mediated a truce via the Gambinos.
Coonan was imprisoned in 1986 under the RICO act. Featherstone became an informant after his arrest in the early 1980s.
Boston has a well-chronicled history of Irish mob activity, particularly in the heavily Irish-American neighbourhoods like Somerville, Charlestown, South Boston ("Southie"), Dorchester and Roxbury where the earliest Irish gangsters arose during Prohibition. Frank Wallace of the Gustin Gang dominated Boston's underworld until his death in 1931, when he was ambushed by Italian gangsters in the North End. Numerous gang wars between rival Irish gangs during the early and mid 20th century would contribute to their decline.
The Winter Hill Gang
The Winter Hill Gang, a loose confederation of Boston-area organized crime figures, was one of the most successful organized crime groups in American history. It controlled the Boston underworld from the early 1960s until the mid-1990s. It derives its name from the Winter Hill neighborhood of Somerville, Massachusetts, north of Boston, and was founded by first boss James "Buddy" McLean.
While Winter Hill Gang members were alleged to have been involved with most typical organized crime related activities, they are perhaps best known for fixing horse races in the northeastern United States. Twenty-one members and associates, including Howie Winter and his right-hand man and bookkeeper, Salvatore Sperlinga, were indicted by federal prosecutors in 1979. The gang was then taken over by James J. "Whitey" Bulger and hitman Stephen Flemmi. Key associates of the gang during the 1970s and 1980s were Johnny Martorano, Kevin Weeks, Kevin O'Neil and Patrick Nee.
The present Winter Hill Gang operates in secrecy and often avoids drawing public attention and scrutiny. With the activation of RICO law, the Winter Hill Gang's ranks were quickly thinned with federal indictments against key players like George Hogan and Scott "Smiley" McDermott. The Winter Hill Gang quickly disbanded in the early 2000s after many of the federal indictments failed to stick due to a lack of evidence and cooperating witnesses, making room for younger predecessors like Tommy "Two Guns" Attardo, Sean "Irish Car Bomb" McKenna, and Mickey "Mean Machine" Murphy to join the ranks.
Irish-American organized crime outfits are still active and construct the backbone of organized crime in South Boston and the greater Boston area.
Irish Mob War
The Irish Mob War is the name given to conflicts throughout the 1960s between the two dominant Irish-American organized crime gangs in Massachusetts: the Charlestown Mob in Boston, led by brothers Bernard and Edward "Punchy" McLaughlin, and the Winter Hill Gang of Somerville (just north of Boston) headed by James "Buddy" McLean. It is widely believed that the war began when George McLaughlin tried to pick up the girlfriend of Winter Hill associate Alex "Bobo" Petricone, also known as actor Alex Rocco. McLaughlin was then beaten and hospitalized by two other Winter Hill members. Afterward, Bernie McLaughlin went to Buddy McLean for an explanation. When McLean refused to give up his associates, Bernie swore revenge but was soon killed by McLean in Charlestown City Square.
The war resulted in the eradication of the Charlestown Mob with its leaders, Bernie and Edward McLaughlin, and Stevie and Connie Hughes all having been killed. George McLaughlin, the one who started the war, was the only one who survived by being sent to prison. McLean was also killed, by Charlestown's Hughes brothers, and leadership of The Winter Hill Gang was taken by his right-hand man, Howie Winter. The remnants of the Charlestown Mob were then absorbed into the Winter Hill Gang, who were then able to become the dominant non-mafia gang in the New England area.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, another mob war was taking place in South Boston between two other Irish-American gangs: the Killeen Gang, which controlled bookmaking and loansharking, and the Mullen Gang, which was made up of thieves. In 1972, mob boss, Donald Killeen, was murdered and the remaining members of both organizations were absorbed into the Winter Hill Gang. One of Donald Killeen's key enforcers was Whitey Bulger.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the FBI's Boston office was largely infiltrated through corrupt federal agent John J. Connolly, by which Whitey Bulger was able to use his status as a government informant against his rivals (the extent of which would not be revealed until the mid to late 1990s). This scandal was the basis for the book Black Mass and served as an inspiration for the fictional film The Departed.
The prominent Irish street gang pre-twentieth century were the Schuylkill Rangers headed by Jimmy Haggerty, whose boyhood home was located on Arch Street in the area between Eighteenth and Nineteenth Street known as "McAran's Garden".
After numerous arrests for theft and similar offenses, Haggerty and Schuylkill Ranger Hugh Murphy were convicted of the robbery of a Ninth Street store and sentenced to ten years imprisonment on December 12, 1865. He was pardoned by Governor Andrew G. Curtin eight months later, in part to Haggerty's political connections and his promise to leave the country upon his release, and lived in Canada for a brief time before returning to the city to resume his criminal career. Haggerty remained a major underworld figure in Philadelphia until January 1869 when he was arrested on several counts of assault with intent to kill; during his arrest, he shot the arresting police officer. He was caught trying to escape from prison but was later released on bail and fled the city. Staying in New York for a brief time, he returned to Philadelphia in April to surrender himself to authorities after the wounded police officer had received "hush money". He won both court cases against him, but was ordered at the second trial to return to the Eastern State Penitentiary by the District Attorney for violating the terms of his release. While his lawyers argued the ruling, Haggerty escaped from the courthouse during a recess in what was suspected to have been planned.
Post-World War II and the K&A Gang
In the years following World War II, the K&A Gang was the dominant Irish gang in the city's underworld. A multi-generational organised crime group made up of predominantly Irish and Irish American gangsters, the gang originated from a youth street gang based around the intersections of Kensington and Allegheny, which grew in power as local hoods and blue collar Irish Americans seeking extra income joined its ranks. In time, the group expanded and grew more organised, establishing lucrative markets in gambling, loan sharking, and burglary.
The gang moved into the methamphetamine trade in the late 1980s and expanded into the Fishtown and Port Richmond neighbourhoods. John Berkery, a member of the K&A burglary crew, became leader of the gang, and was influential in expanding the drug trade. In 1987, Scarfo crime family soldier Raymond Martorano, Berkery, and dozens of others, were indicted for their involvement in a large methamphetamine ring.
Philadelphia Badlands and recent activity
The Philadelphia Badlands is an Irish American section of North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States that in the 1980s and '90s became known for an abundance of open-air recreational drug markets and drug-related violence. The Badlands are now known to be the current turf for the K&A Gang, who may be responsible for the nickname of this neighborhood, due to their drug related ties.
The successors of Michael Cassius McDonald's criminal empire of the previous century, the Irish-American criminal organizations in Chicago were at their peak during Prohibition, specializing in bootlegging and highjacking. However, they would soon be rivaled by Italian mobsters, particularly Al Capone and the Chicago Outfit.
The organisations existing before Prohibition – including the North Side Gang, which included Dion O'Banion, Bugs Moran, Hymie Weiss, and Louis Alterie; the Southside O'Donnell Brothers (led by Myles O'Donnell) with the McKenna Crime family; the Westside O'Donnell's; Ragen's Colts; the Valley Gang; Roger Touhy; Frank McErlane; James Patrick O'Leary; and Terry Druggan – all were in competition with Capone for control of the bootlegging market.
Other areas in the United States
- Providence-based bootlegger Danny Walsh, an early member of the "Seven Group", was known as one of the leading organised crime figures on the east coast until his disappearance in February 1933.
- In New Jersey, Enoch L. Johnson, aka "Nucky," was an Irish-American political boss in Atlantic City who controlled bootlegging, gambling, and prostitution. Became more widely known because of the HBO series Boardwalk Empire.
- In Cleveland mobster Danny Greene fought for control of the city's underworld against James Licavoli during the 1970s.
- John Patrick Looney controlled bootlegging and extortion in Rock Island, Illinois until his eventual arrest, after a two-year manhunt.
- The Egan's Rats ruled St. Louis's criminal operations until the early 1930s.
- Tom Dennison was the early-20th century political boss of Omaha, Nebraska. A politically savvy gambler, Dennison was in charge of the city's gambling, bootlegging, and prostitution in the 1920s.
- Recently in small towns in Oklahoma a gang by the name of Irish Mob Gang, have received attention from the media. They're known to wear Boston Celtics jerseys, green clothes and sport shamrocks. They do not associate with other white gangs such as the Aryan Brotherhood and have a presence in some prison facilities.
- George Horace "Kid" McCoy held the Jefferson County and Shelby County, Alabama underworld under his control in the 1920s and 30s until Donald "Little Man" Popwell had McCoy killed on 24 December 1938 at a Christmas Party in Bessemer, Alabama.
- In Birmingham, Alabama, Carlton C. "The General" Russell was named boss of the Celtics in Alabama by the New Orleans Commission. Not long after "The General" ordered a hit on Georgia's Celtic Boss, Roy Sirus. The murder is currently a cold case file in the Fulton County Sheriff's files. A Grand Jury failed to take action in the case (2002).
- In Savannah, Georgia, Johnny Bouhan, an attorney, held significant influence over county and city government until the late 1960s. Many of the citizens of the city called him "Boss Bouhan" because nothing happened at the city or county level without his approval. He was loosely allied with the Dixie Mafia but a falling-out after Bouhan's death led to the arson of his law firm, Bouhan, Williams, and Levy. This was widely believed to be a retaliation for the law firm filing suit against a Toombs County, Georgia judge who was a leader in the Dixie Mafia.
- The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul have also been the base for several colorful Irish-American gangsters. During Prohibition, St. Paul's underworld was ruled over by "Dapper" Danny Hogan prior to his murder in 1928. In Minneapolis, his equivalents were "Big" Ed Morgan and Thomas W. Banks.
- Small Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio towns have reported activities from a group calling themselves KOIN led by a former MMA star and Irishman
Pre-Irish Crime Families
During the 1960s there was very little crime in Dublin, with the majority of crime being petty crime, while murder and gun-related crime was extremely rare. There was a strong sense of community between families, but the church had some influence on creating the law-abiding mind state in Dublin and its relative cities. A breeding ground for criminals was at Catholic Reform School, which had harsh policies in teaching /looking after kids. Aiming to turn them away from petty crime, however some responded differently. Cahill and Dunne were noted to be at these schools.
The Introduction of the Gun Era
During the 1970s Dublin saw a radical change crime wise, in particular a big increase in gun crime. One considered influence of that caused the increase in gun-crime is the upheaval and violence in Northern Ireland. The main culprit for bringing in gun crime into Dublin was a paramilitary group called Saor Éire, which consisted of ex-IRA, anarchists and revolutionaries. Saor Éire conducted multiple robberies to fund their organisation; a well-known case is the killing of a Garda during a robbery at Allied Irish bank. One notable person who joined Saor Éire was Christy Dunne who would go on to make one of the first Irish crime families (some calling him the original Irish Godfather), with connection to Britains gun and drug trade. Soon ordinary criminals (with little political influence), would join/cooperate with the Dunnes crime family. Mainly partaking in co-operative robberies, this included Christy’s 8 brothers, and many recruits who would then pursue their own crime families such as Martin “The General” Cahill, John “The Colonel” Cunningham, George “The Penguin” Mitchel, John “Warehouse John” Gilligan. Majority of these criminals coming from the poor and uneducated industrial slums of inner-city Dublin.
Before the Antigen robbery, Christy Dunne would specialize in kidnapping, for a short while. However 1978 in an Antigen pharmaceutical factory, the Dunne's stole many pharmaceutical drugs which would go for a high price on the black market. Due to the profit the Dunne's would put their priorities in the drug-trade as their main source of income.
Overall in the 1970s we saw huge increase in armed robbery, extortion, and murder. But also the beginning of the Irish crime families and gun-crime. What also occurred during this period is the emergence of the Provisional IRA and the Official IRA, who did the bulk of bank robberies and murder. This allowed crime families to do their activities under the radar.
The Heroin Epidemic and Cahill
Whilst the Dunnes (headed now by Larry Dunne) would be the first crime family to get involved with drug-trade, Gilligan brought drug-smuggling to a whole new level. Money was earned in the millions in the 1980s through the heroin epidemic. It was considered easier money and more lucrative than bank robberies. At the start of Ireland's drug-trade Dunnes' would ship marijuana and heroin first. Giving many beginners heroin users, heroin for free, as it was considered a friendly act and looking out for them. Later on they would discover that there was a lot of money involved when it came to addiction, and would only sell it to junkies.
The heroin crisis destroyed communities of working class inner-city neighborhoods, which were once considered to be considerably safe. With addiction, HIV and crime in order to fund a habit, being common problems in these communities, many would die or not be able to return/assimilate to society. Despite this many citizens protested and took their own actions against the epidemic, most notable was Concerned Parents Against Drugs. Some of these vigilantes took extreme actions such as murdering or blowing an apartment of a believed drug-dealer.
Often Larry Dunne could not meet the demand of heroin, so many others got involved, but Larry was still considered the main source. One was Tony “King Scum” Felloni, once in the prostitution business, he would move into the drug-trade. Overall there was mutual respect, and practically no conflict between crime families and drug king-pins, around the 1980s.
In 1983 Larry would finally be arrested and not be able to post bail when drugs were found in his mansion. This led Larry to leaving the country. But was caught in 1985 at Portugal. With the Criminal Justice Act in place, it would make life harder for drug -traffickers and stop the laid-back bail laws (often abused to Dunne Family). As a result, circa mid-1980s majority of the Dunnes were in prison or fled.
However, with the end of the Dunne family, many saw it as an opportunity to join the drug-trade and be number one (it was estimated to be roughly 40 groups). The person to replace the Dunnes, in being the next drug-kingpin was John “Warehouse John” Gilligan, once a small-time crook, he would form a mob of 6, during his sentence in Portlaoise Prison. Gilligan’s small mob would consist of Bryan Meehan, Peter “Fatso” Mitchel and Paul “Hippo” Ward. Gilligan started off selling cannabis as it was less of a priority for the guard and the buyers had more money. Later however Gilligan's membership would grow to a much larger number, but with that came lack of loyalty. Whilst the drug-trade was booming, there still was a crime boss pulling off major heists, that being Martin Cahill
When looking at the story for Martin Cahill, one must look back to 1969, Martin "The General" Cahill rose from a burglar to Mob crime boss, during the violence movement in Northern Ireland. Cahill grew to prominence in the media for several massive crimes. He took part in lesser burglaries as well as money van robberies. His gang found media attention after the robbery of a jewelers in which the take was over 2.5 million euros. Cahill was involved in the art heist of Russborough House. In 1993, Cahill’s gang attempted to kidnap the CEO of a bank and his family to be held for ransom. The plan ultimately failed and all members of the gang were arrested. On May 21, 1994, after being released on bail, Martin Cahill was assassinated while driving to a local video store to return a DVD. The Provisional IRA released statements claiming responsibility for the assassination only hours after the murder took place. The IRA claimed he was working with the Ulster Volunteer Force. His actions would be recaptured in the movie The General. Which was released in 1998.
Still with such a big drug-market in Ireland. The Gardai’s focus was still paramilitary groups (with the odd taskforce combatting drugs). However this changed after the murder of a reporter.
The assassination of Veronica Guerin, and The Westies
Another major event involving the Irish Mob in Ireland was the assassination of Veronica Guerin. Guerin was a reporter that put a lot of pressure on the Dublin drug trade, through articles, around 1990. She reported on multiple members of the Irish mob such as John Traynor, Gerry Hutch and John Gilligan. This led to Guerin surviving multiple murder attempts. Finally at the outskirts of Dublin on the N7 dual carriageway, she was killed by Brian Meehan, Peter Mitchell, Seamus Ward and Charles Bowden, all members of Gilligan's crime syndicate. As a result of her assassination the Criminal Assets Bureau was formed in Ireland.
With 400 subsequent arrests, this led to the end of Gilligan's mob. But once again this led to factions, hoping to replace the leader. This included George “The Penguin” Mitchell, Christy Kinahan and John Cunningham, often dealing with their finance overseas, in order to avoid the Criminal Assets Bureau. These events would later be depicted in the 2003 Irish film Veronica Guerin.
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Current day gang leaders are considered paranoid, and have no sense of family and respect (therefore often willing to kill their friends/associates). These people aren’t considered businessmen but more thugs. Also the further you go up the chain the less involvement being in the presence of drugs and the more organised you get. Many of Dublin’s gangsters stash money in forests due to the Criminal Assets Bureau. Many of Dublin’s Irish Mob higher-ups have fled to Spain, due to the harsher laws combatting crime families. One of the more notable is Christy Kinahan and his mob.
Within the South inner-city of Dublin between 2000-2008, a gang of teenagers/adults in their early 20s split into two factions (led by Freddie Thompson and the other Brian Rattigan). This led to a gang war with 16 people dead as a result. This gang came from Crumlin and Drimnagh. And developed a connection with Martin "Marlo" Hyland, a powerful crime boss from North Dublin. When suspicion of a member of the original gang (involving both factions), being considered a rat after an arrest, it led to the split between gang members. One being. Between 2001 and 2002, two murders occurred. Furthermore, Brian Ratigan was sentenced to jail, after shooting a police van, however he still controlled his gang whilst in prison. In 2005 one saw the peak of the murder-to-day ratio, with three people killed in two days. Plus a murder earlier that year. Three were murdered the following year, two in. 8 October 2007 and 3 in the next two years.
Pre-Irish Crime Families
Much like Dublin, Limerick through the 60s had little crime. Despite there being large numbers of overcrowded neighborhoods suffering from poverty/unemployment. Due to this (in the late 60s) many were forced to move Southill, which saw an increase in antisocial behavior. However no organised crime was present. But there were very disorganized gangs of youths often doing vandalism.
The First Crime Family
Mike Kelly, along with his brother Anthony Kelly, would initially look for many ways, such as robberies, to earn a quick buck. Mike would frequently get into fights at pubs (which would later get out of hand, after someone was killed). During the pub-fighting days (which he was known for) he would also take-up armed robbery and other serious crimes. Later Kelly and associates would set up protection rackets. Which would also combat the antisocial behavior, by using harsh and violent action towards the vandals/perpetrators. And every day Mike Kelly collected a pound from each house, supplying a form of protection. The main purpose for earning money was to fund his drinking problem.
He is now a reformed criminal, Kelly lives as a member of the community of Southill.
During the 1990s Keane's were considered the most powerful crime family in Limerick. The Keane's turf was mainly Saint Mary's Park. They had a neighborhood allies being the Collopys (including Brian Collopy and Phillip Collopy). They'd also hire a violent hitman named Eddie Ryan, to be an enforcer. In the late nineties the drug-trade would have two major mobs. These being The Keane-Collopy (led by Christy Keane and younger violent brother Kieran Keane) and The Ryans (led by Eddie Ryan). There was a dispute between these two factions, and at one stage Eddie Ryan tried to kill Christy Keane, but his gun jammed. With motivations of revenge the Keanes executed Ryan. This would be considered a catalyst in the Limerick Feud. This led to war between the Ryans and Keanes. And eventually McCarthy-Dundon.
Another crime family would appear on the sideline, after Wayne Dundon came back from Hackney, England (as he was deported back to his home country). Wayne would form the McCarthy-Dundon gang which involved his brothers; John Dundon, Ger Dundon and Dessie Dundon. Along with their cousins the McCarthy family. At first they would pose as allies to both The Ryans and Keane-Collopy. But in the background, schemed their own plans to defeat the two gangs. Eventually they would make their move and kill Kearan Keane (one of the bosses of the Keane-Collopy) in 2003. This would result in the demise of the Keane-Collopy's reign. And to be replaced by McCarthy-Dundon. However many murders between the factions would occur, roughly 20 killed and 100 arrested (in relation to the feud).
In 2008 Limerick was the murder capital of Europe. However this is not the case anymore.
Today organized crime is the main focus by police in Limerick. And the amount of arrests have significantly increased, and the number of crimes have significantly decreased. Gang warfare still occurs, but not as prevalent. Turf wars over council housing/working class estates, are particularly common in Southill (McCarthy-Dundon turf) and Moyross (Keane-Collopy turf). Also executions/intimidation of civilians that get in the way of the crime organisations, have decreased. However the example of Ryan Collins, is still not forgotten.
Many Limerick crime families, higher-ups are said to operate on a global scale. On the other hand, of the few gang gang-killings related to the Limerick Feud are done by those who are in their teenage years. These teenagers also partake in drug-related crimes (such as drug-dealing for McCarthy-Dundon and Keane-Collopy crime families).
Another faction starting up (not involved in the Limerick Feud) in Rathkeale, is Rathkeale Rovers, who are part of the local Ratkeale traveller community with strong ties to another faction by the name of EXCAM which, other than it being known as an underground munitions dealer very little is known about them. Code of silence is strong in the traveler community. Whilst the majority of Rathkeale Travelers earn their money legitimately. There is a group of cons, often called the Rathkeale Rovers. Rathkeale Rovers would use threatening actions to force people to sell their houses in Rathkeale, and then buy it themselves. Furthermore, when they were travelling abroad (to places such as Australia, Norway, France and Italy) they would often scam people, either through supplying reasonably expensive labor, with end-result been poorly done (such as bitumen having holes after a couple of weeks after it was placed) or selling counterfeit products (such as faulty generators, described to be top of the range). The Rathkeale Rovers, would often call themselves employees of fake Irish company and use fake names. The earning would then be laundered and finally make its way back to Rathkeale. Causing it to be considered the laundering capitol of Ireland. Also to note Rathkeale Rovers are said to be the cause of many planning violations.
- A trend of street gangs arose during the social unrest of the mid-20th century. The gangs were composed of poor Catholic teens. These “hoods” are known for stealing cars as well as small-time criminal behavior. Their trouble with authority extends to the IRA who act violently towards them.
- In recent years, both paramilitary groups and crime families have unified together, to set up the ever-growing business of fuel laundering. Criminal groups sell untaxed, illegal fuel in "pop-up petrol stations". The most common fuel that is sold is red diesel (primarily used for agricultural machinery), although there have been cases where aviation fuel has been sold. Due to red diesel's distinctive red dye, before selling it the criminals use chemicals to get rid of the dye, therefore making it more acceptable to customers and more difficult for law enforcement to detect. In 2010 there were roughly 197 pop-up petrol stations, often selling petrol for half the price of legal gas-stations. Some of these petrol stations were shut down by the police. In 2011, the BBC's "Panorama" reported Irish fuel launderers have spread their practice over to Great Britain.
- The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a Protestant pro British paramilitary group that began in 1966 as a rebirth of an earlier group of the same name. The UVF fought a campaign against the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as well as Catholic civilians for over 30 years. The UVF has acted in many armed robberies as well as art heists. The group operated black taxi services as well as extortion. The gang was responsible for several terrorist attacks throughout the 1970s. The UVF declared a ceasefire in 1974 and ceased official campaign in 2007.
Elsewhere in the world
- The Shiners were gangs of Irish immigrants that formed in the early days of Bytown, later Ottawa, mainly active during the 1830s-1840s, and famously known for their involvement in the Shiners' War.
- The West End Gang, a primarily Irish criminal enterprise, is one of the three organisations that makes up Montreal's "Consortium," making it one of the most influential criminal organisations in the country.
- In Australia, Melbourne has a long history of Irish organised crime stemming from the poor Irish Catholic working classes. Many Melbourne trade unions have been infiltrated or brought under the mob's control. Originating from waterfront workers in the Melbourne docklands after World War II, they controlled a large part of the drug trade until the old Painters and Dockers Union was disbanded in 1984. Since the late 1990s, the Moran family is one of the more powerful Irish crime families in Melbourne and allegedly played a significant role in the 1998–2006 Melbourne gangland killings.
- The Clerkenwell crime syndicate, most often known as the Adams Family or the A-team by the British press, is alleged to be one of the most powerful criminal organisations in the United Kingdom.
- The Noonan family is a criminal group in Manchester headed by Dominic Noonan.
- The Healey family, East London & Sligo, Ireland, are a very powerful organised Irish crime family operating in the UK.
Irish mob in popular culture
Irish mobsters appeared as characters in the early "gangster" films of the 1930s and film noir of the 1940s. These roles are often identified with actors such as James Cagney, Pat O'Brien, Frank McHugh, Ralph Bellamy, Spencer Tracy, Lynne Overman, and Frank Morgan (although Bellamy and Overman were not of Irish descent), as well as stars including Humphrey Bogart and Edward G. Robinson.
- Underworld (1927), Prohibition gangster Bull Weed (George Bancroft) befriends a down and out former district attorney "Rolls Royce" Wensel (Clive Brook). However, as he is helped back on his feet, the two begin fighting over the gun moll known as Feathers McCoy (Evelyn Brent).
- The Racket (1928), Chicago police Captain James McQuigg (Thomas Meighan) matches wits with bootlegger Nick Scarsi (Louis Wolheim), their rivalry threatens to uncover the secret mastermind behind "The Organization," the criminal syndicate running Chicago.
- The Public Enemy (1931), played by James Cagney in his film debut, Tom Powers is a Prohibition bootlegger whose older brother Michael (Donald Cook) attempts to reform the gangster while he fights his way to the top of the underworld.
- Scarface (1932), Tony Camonte (a fictional version of Al Capone) fights several Irish gangs in Chicago. One of the gang leaders is played by Boris Karloff.
- Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), after former mob boss Rocky Sullivan (James Cagney) returns to Hell's Kitchen, former childhood friend, Father Jerry Connolly (Pat O'Brien) tries to save him from himself.
- On the Waterfront (1954), after witnessing the murder of a fellow longshoreman, Terry Malloy (Marlon Brando) must choose sides between his brother Charlie (Rod Steiger) and mobbed up union boss Johnny Friendly (Lee J. Cobb) against crusading priest Father Barry (Karl Malden) and Edie Doyle (Eva Marie Saint).
- The St. Valentine's Day Massacre (1967), Roger Corman's retelling of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre stars Jason Robards as Al Capone, Ralph Meeker as Bugs Moran, and appearances by George Segal and Jack Nicholson.
- Prime Cut (1972), Nick Devlin (Lee Marvin), an enforcer for the Chicago Irish mob, is sent to Kansas to collect a debt from Mary Ann (Gene Hackman) the owner of a slaughterhouse.
- The Sting (1973), grifters Henry Gondorff (Paul Newman) and Johnny Hooker (Robert Redford) attempt to swindle Irish mob boss Doyle Lonnegan (Robert Shaw).
- The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973), Eddie Coyle (Robert Mitchum) is a gunrunner for the Boston Irish mob. Facing harsh prison time, he becomes an informant for the ATF. When the mob finds out he is an informant, they send his friend Dillon (Peter Boyle) to kill him.
- Miller's Crossing (1990), Irish gangster Tom Reagan (Gabriel Byrne) tries to prevent a gang war between Irish boss Liam "Leo" O'Bannion (Albert Finney) and Italian boss Johnny Casper (Jon Polito).
- State of Grace (1990), undercover officer Terry Noonan (Sean Penn) returns to Hell's Kitchen to infiltrate The Westies which include childhood friend Jackie Flannery (Gary Oldman) and neighbourhood boss Frankie Flannery (Ed Harris).
- Last Man Standing (1996), gunman John Smith (Bruce Willis) becomes involved in a gang war between Irish gangster Doyle (David Patrick Kelly) and Italian mobster Fredo Strozzi (Ned Eisenberg) in the small town of Jericho, Texas.
- Sleepers (1996)
- I Went Down 1997
- The General (1998), Real-life story of Irishman, Martin Cahill (Brendan Gleeson) who rose from petty criminal to lead of one of Dublin's most powerful crime gangs before being murdered in 1994.
- Monument Ave. (1998), in Charlestown, Massachusetts, a charismatic mob enforcer (Denis Leary) must decide whether to abide by the neighbourhood code of silence when his boss (Colm Meaney) begins murdering members of his family.
- Southie (1998), Film about Danny Quinn (Donnie Wahlberg) who returns to South Boston and gets stuck between his friends, who are supported by one Irish gang, and his family, who are members of another.
- Ordinary Decent Criminal 2000
- Hardball (2001), Keanu Reeves plays a man in-debt to violent Irish-American bookies in a Chicago enclave.
- Made (2001), the Westies are featured, by name, in this film about two Los Angeles transplants dabbling in the criminal underworld of New York City.
- Gangs of New York (2002), starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Daniel Day-Lewis, this movie showcases the criminal underworld of the Five Points neighbourhood in Manhattan, in the 1860s.
- Ash Wednesday (2002), Edward Burns wrote, directed, and starred in this movie about Irish gangsters in Hell's Kitchen.
- Road to Perdition (2002), based on the graphic novel by Max Allan Collins, Michael Sullivan (Tom Hanks) finds himself on the run from former boss John Rooney (Paul Newman) after his son witnesses a gangland slaying.
- Death to Smoochy (2002), the Irish mob is painted as being in control of a children's TV network and eventually builds an alliance with a formerly idealistic performer (Edward Norton).
- Dirty Deeds (2002), set in 1969, Irish-Australian gangsters, led by Barry Ryan, who run slot machines in Sydney, find themselves pitted against rival Sydney gangsters and the Mafia for control of underworld gambling.
- Veronica Guerin (2003), Based on a true story, where a reporter, Veronica, challenges the Irish Mob in Dublin.
- A History of Violence (2005), film featuring Irish-American gangsters from Philadelphia.
- The Departed (2006), film about two moles, one a cop in Boston's Irish mob, the other a mobster in the Massachusetts State Police.
- You Kill Me (2007), crime comedy film involving an upstart Irish mob threatening the snow-plowing business of family associated with the Polish mob in Buffalo, New York
- What Doesn't Kill You (2008), based on the life of director Brian Goodman, featuring two childhood friends who join a South Boston Irish-American gang.
- Perrier's Bounty (2009), a black comedy crime thriller involving the Dublin Irish mob, featuring Cillian Murphy and Brendan Gleeson.
- The Town (2010), a crime drama involving a gang of Irish-American bank robbers in Charlestown, Boston.
- Kill the Irishman (2011), set in Cleveland during the 1970s, is a biographical film of Danny Greene, an Irish-American mob boss and FBI informant, who warred for several years against Cleveland crime family boss James T. Licavoli (Paul Sorvino).
- Killing Them Softly (2012), based on the George V. Higgins book Cogan's Trade, about Irish-American gangsters plotting to rob a high-stakes card game run by the Boston Mafia.
- The Equalizer (2014), Irish Mob are one of the suspects for a killing that occurred to some Russian gangsters. They are then visited by someone from the Bratva.
- Whitey: United States of America v. James J. Bulger (2014), A documentary looking at James 'Whitey' Bulger, and how he not only terrorized South Boston but also made it on FBI's top ten most wanted list.
- Rage (2014), Irish crime families go to war with the Russian Bratva, as a result of the protagonists actions.
- Black Mass (2015), a film based on the true story of Whitey Bulger whom lead the Winter Hill Gang which was based in South Boston.
- Run All Night (2015), is about an Irish American mobster Jimmy Conlon Liam Neeson and his fight to protect his son from his former boss Shawn Maguire Ed Harris.
- Oz (1997), the Bridge Street Gang led by Ryan O'Reily is featured prominently as one of the criminal organisations wielding influence in the fictional Oswald State Correctional Facility.
- Criminal Minds
Character "Ian Doyle" was referenced throughout seasons 5-6 of the show. He was portraying a member of the Boston Irish Mob during that current time period.
- Brotherhood (2006), set in Providence, Rhode Island and revolving around the alliance between two Irish-American brothers. Michael Caffee, played by Jason Isaacs, is an aspiring mob boss and Tommy Cafee is one of the state's most powerful politicians. It developed a cult following during its three seasons on Showtime.
- Paddy Whacked: The Irish Mob (2006), a documentary tracing the rise and fall of the Irish mob, including an alleged involvement in the John F. Kennedy assassination.
- The Black Donnellys (2007), a cancelled crime drama on NBC that follows four young Irish brothers in New York's Hell's Kitchen and their involvement in organised crime.
- Underbelly (2008), Australian drama series based on the Melbourne gangland killings. It stars Gerard Kennedy as Graham Kinniburgh and Kevin Harrington as Lewis Moran.
- Boardwalk Empire (2010), an HBO series set in Prohibition-era Atlantic City and featuring gangsters of various ethnicities, including Irish-American gangsters.
- Madso's War (2010), a television film about Mike "Madso" Madden (Matthew Marsden) who is drawn into the underworld when a power vacuum opens following the departure of a mob boss, inspired by Whitey Bulger.
- Love/Hate (2010), Series depicts Dublin's underworld.
- The Chicago Code (2011), set in Chicago, undercover police investigate corruption involving the Irish Mob.
- Archer (2011), In the episode Placebo Effect, Archer not only battles cancer, but also the Irish Mob.
- Outlaw Empires (2012) Episode 3 of season 1 looks at the Boston Irish mob.
- Copper (2012)
- Castle, The Westies were referenced in two episodes as well as a syndicate of the Irish Mob operating on Stanton Island.
- Peaky Blinders (2013) The Peaky Blinders gang of Birmingham develop a connection with what appears to be crime family of Irish Travelers.
- Gotham (TV series), The Irish mob operates as a subdivision of Don Carmine Falcone's Cosa Nostra crime family, led by mobsters Bannion and Connor.
- Public Morals (2015), Irish Gangster series set in the 60's in Downtown NYC featuring Edward Burns.As Irish Mobsters try and take control of the city and take out their rival gangs.
- Daredevil (TV series) (Season 2, 2016), the Irish Mob (called Kitchen Irish) operates in Hell's Kitchen, New York. The gang is taken out very quickly by The Punisher.
- Chicago 1930 (2003), One story branch of the game has the protagonist going against Irish Mobster Hank O'Neil
- Shadow Hearts: From the New World (2005), set in 1929, is a game that features a subplot about Irish gangster Roy McManus (Jamie McGonnigal), whose intentions were to take over Chicago's criminal syndicate from Al Capone and to kidnap her little sister, Edna Capone.
- The Darkness (2007), Irish mobster Tommy Sullivan makes an appearance at the start of the game. He is to be assassinated by the protagonist Jackie.
- Grand Theft Auto IV (2008), protagonist Niko Bellic associates himself with the McReary crime family, an Irish Mob from Liberty City, a fictional version of real-life New York City.
- Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony, The Irish Mob make a crossover appearance from Grand Theft Auto IV. The heist in Grand Theft Auto IV is seen through Luis' eyes. Plus a mini-story on a kidnapping involving Irish Goons.
- Grand Theft Auto V (2013), one of the members of the McReary crime family, Packie McReary, reappears in Los Santos which he can be saved from a robbery. He can be recruited as an experienced gunman for heists.
- Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars (2009), The Irish mob makes a return in Chinatown Wars (which is set in the same Liberty City in Grand Theft Auto IV). They officially go by the name Irish-American Killers. They don't make any major appearances. They appear in one mission, and you can deal drugs with them, in their turf Steinway.
- Mafia II (2010), set in the early 1950s, protagonist Vito Scaletta frequently gets into conflict with the O'Neill Gang, a group of Irish criminals operating on the fictional city of Empire Bay.
- Watch Dogs (2013), The Chicago South Club, run by Dermot "Lucky" Quinn, are a continuation of the former North Side Gang and are the main antagonists of the game.
- Omerta – City of Gangsters (2013), Within this Tactical RPG, the Irish Mob is one of the three rival factions.
- Fallout 4 (2015), Holotapes scattered around the world, reveal the actions of Irish Mobster, Eddie Winter.
- Steve Sailer (6 November 2006). "Good Will Killing: The Departed". The American Conservative. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- "The Haggerty Homicide.; Formal Investigation by Coroner Herrman Evidence by the Eye-Witnesses to the Affray No Verdict Rendered Reddy Admitted to Bail Departure of the Remains for Philadelphia". New York Times. 28 Jan 1871
- Brendan McGarvey (18 December 2002). "Pole-Vaulting – Another group of Eastern-European gunsels makes its mark". Philadelphia City Paper. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Josepha Daugen (4 August 1987). "Tough Sentence To Be Sought For Berkery". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Lori Fullbright, "Link Between Irish Mob Gang, Recent Owasso Drug Bust, Police Say" News on 6, 2015
- Tylery Boydston, "3 Irish Mob Members Arrested" ABC7 News, 2016
- Williams, Paul. “Bad Fellas Episode One”, RTÉ, Dublin, 25 October 2010. retrieved 27 May 2015
- National Geographic Channel UK, “Britain’s Underworld: Dublin Gangland, National Geographic Channel, 28 February 2011, retrieved 28 May 2015
- Williams, Paul. “Bad Fellas Episode Two”, RTÉ, Dublin, 25 October 2010. retrieved 27 May 2015
- Paul Williams, "Badfellas", "Penguin", 2011
- Mick McCaffrey, "Cocaine Wars", Summersdale, 2010
- Tom Brady, "How old feud between friends became bloodbath", Independent, 2009
- Irish Examiner, "Hunt for assassins as feud claims two lives", Irish Examiner, 2007
- Henry McDonald, "Russians kill Dublin drug lord in Spain" The Observer, 2008
- Henry McDonald,"Gangland murders provoke outrage" The Guardian, 2009
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- Lee, Joe. “The Hard Man”, Pyramid Production, Dublin, 1995. retrieved 29 May 2015
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- Sheridan, Anne. “Limerick has lost its ‘Stab City’ claim to infamy”, Limerick Leader, Limerick, 9 April 2013. retrieved 29 May 2015
- Connolly, Paul. “The Town The Travellers Took Over”, Channel 5, 1 July 2013. retrieved 31 May 2015
- Panorama, "The Great Fuel Robbery", BBC, 2011
- Panorama, "Fuel thieves cashing in on 'perfect commodity'", BBC, 2011
- Carr, Howie. The Brothers Bulger: How They Terrorized and Corrupted Boston for a Quarter Century, Grand Central Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-0-446-61888-5.
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- Downey, Patrick. Gangster City: The History of the New York Underworld, 1900–1935. Barricade Books, 2004. ISBN 1-56980-267-X
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- Flemmi, Joe. The General.
- Hornblum, Allen. Confessions of a Second Story Man: Junior Kripplebauer and the K&A Gang.
- Jacobs, James B., Coleen Friel and Robert Radick. Gotham Unbound: How New York City Was Liberated from the Grip of Organized Crime. New York: NYU Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8147-4247-5
- Lehr, Dick and O'Neill, Gerard. Black Mass.
- McCain, Joe. Legends of Winter Hill (2005).
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- Porrello, Rick. To Kill the Irishman: The War that Crippled the Mafia. Novelty, Ohio: Next Hat Press, 2004. ISBN 0-9662508-9-3
- Shea, John "Red". Rat Bastards.
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- Teresa, Vincent with Thomas C. Renner. My Life in the Mafia. Doubleday and Company Inc., 1973. ISBN 1-56849-377-0
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