1932 Irish general election

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1932 Irish general election

← Sep 1927 16 February 1932 1933 →

152 of 153 seats in Dáil Éireann
77 seats needed for a majority
Turnout76.5% Increase 7.5pp
  First party Second party
 
Éamon de Valera.jpg
William Thomas Cosgrave.jpg
Leader Éamon de Valera W. T. Cosgrave
Party Fianna Fáil Cumann na nGaedheal
Leader since 26 March 1926 April 1923
Leader's seat Clare Cork Borough
Last election 57 seats, 35.2% 61 seats, 38.6%
Seats before 57 65
Seats won 72 57
Seat change Increase15 Decrease8
Popular vote 566,498 449,506
Percentage 44.5% 35.2%
Swing Increase9.3% Decrease3.4%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Tom J. O'Connell, circa 1930s.jpg
Leader Thomas O'Connell
Party Labour Farmers' Party
Leader since 1927
Leader's seat Mayo South
(defeated)
Last election 13 seats, 9.1% 6.4%
Seats before 12 3
Seats won 7 0
Seat change Decrease5 Decrease 3
Popular vote 98,286 22,899
Percentage 7.7% 1.8%
Swing Decrease1.4% Decrease 4.6%

Irish general election 1932.png
Percentage of seats gained by each of the three biggest parties, and number of seats gained by smaller parties and independents.

President of the Executive Council before election

W. T. Cosgrave
Cumann na nGaedheal

Elected President of the Executive Council

Éamon de Valera
Fianna Fáil

The 1932 Irish general election was held on Tuesday, 16 February 1932, just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 29 January. It was the first election held in the Irish Free State since the Statute of Westminster a year earlier removed the United Kingdom parliament's authority to legislate for the Dominions, including the Irish Free State.

The general election took place in 30 parliamentary constituencies throughout the Irish Free State for 153 seats in Dáil Éireann. The newly elected 153 members of the 7th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 9 March 1932 and the new President of the Executive Council and Executive Council of the Irish Free State were appointed by Governor-General James McNeill on the nomination of the Dáil.

The 1932 general election resulted in the first change of government in the Irish Free State. Cumann na nGaedheal, which had been the governing party since 1922, was defeated by Fianna Fáil, which became the largest party in the chamber and formed a government with the support of the Labour Party. Fianna Fáil would be the largest party in Dáil Éireann at every general election thereafter until 2011.

Campaign[edit]

The election campaign between the two ideologically opposed parties was reasonably peaceful. However, during the campaign the government prosecuted de Valera's newly established newspaper, The Irish Press. The editor was also brought before a military tribunal. This was seen by many as a major blunder and a serious infringement on the belief of freedom of speech. The "red scare" tactics also seemed to backfire on the government.

Two days before the election, Patrick Reynolds, a Cumann na nGaedheal TD was assassinated in Ballinamore. A garda detective was murdered in the same incident. The poll in Leitrim–Sligo was postponed and Reynolds' widow Mary was elected to succeed him.[1]

Cumann na nGaedheal[edit]

Posters used by Cumann na nGaedheal during the election

Cumann na nGaedheal fought the general election on its record of providing ten years of stable government. The party brought stability following the chaos of the Irish Civil War, and provided honest government. However, by 1932 this provision of solid government was wearing thin, particularly since the party had no solution to the collapse in trade which followed the depression of the early 1930s. Instead of offering new policies the party believed that its record in government would be enough to retain power. Cumann na nGaedheal also played the "red card" tactic, describing Fianna Fáil as communists and likening Éamon de Valera to Joseph Stalin.

Fianna Fáil[edit]

In comparison to Cumann na nGaedheal, Fianna Fáil had an elaborate election programme, designed to appeal to a wide section of the electorate. It played down its republicanism to avoid alarm, but provided very popular social and economic policies. The party promised to free IRA prisoners, abolish the Oath of allegiance and reduce the powers of the Governor-General and the Senate. It also promised the introduction of protectionist policies, industrial development, self-sufficiency and improvements in housing and social security benefits.[2][3]

Result[edit]

Election to the 7th Dáil – 16 February 1932[4][5][6]
Irish general election 1932.svg
Party Leader Seats ± % of
seats
First pref.
votes
% FPv ±%
Fianna Fáil Éamon de Valera 72 +15 47.1 566,498 44.5 +9.3
Cumann na nGaedheal W. T. Cosgrave 57 −4 37.3 449,506 35.3 −3.4
Labour Thomas J. O'Connell 7 −6 4.6 98,286 7.7 −1.4
Farmers' Party 3 −3 1.9 22,899 1.8 −4.6
Irish Worker League James Larkin 0 0 0 3,860 0.3 –0.8
Revolutionary Workers' Groups 0 New 0 1,087 0.1
Independent N/A 14 +2 9.1 131,890 10.4 +2.5
Spoilt votes 20,804
Total 153 0 100 1,294,830 100
Electorate/Turnout 1,695,175 76.5%

Voting summary[edit]

First preference vote
Fianna Fáil
44.47%
Cumann na nGaedheal
35.28%
Labour
7.71%
Farmers'
1.80%
Others
0.40%
Independent
10.35%

Seats summary[edit]

Assembly seats
Fianna Fáil
47.06%
Cumann na nGaedheal
37.25%
Labour
7.71%
Farmers'
1.96%
Others
0.40%
Independent
9.15%

Government formation[edit]

Fianna Fáil was five seats short of an overall majority, but it still looked like the only party capable of forming a government. Discussions got underway immediately after the election and an agreement was reached in which the Labour Party would support Fianna Fáil. The party now had the necessary votes to form a minority government. After the results were announced, newly elected Fianna Fáil TD Seán Moylan proclaimed that the election was a victory of "the owners of the donkey and cart over the pony and trap class".[7]

On 9 March 1932 the first change of government in the Irish Free State took place. Many in the country and abroad wondered if the true test of democracy would be passed, whether it would be possible for the men who won a civil war only ten years before to hand over power to their opponents. Similar to when the party first entered the Dáil in 1927, a number of Fianna Fáil TDs had guns in their pockets. However, the feared coup d'état did not take place. W. T. Cosgrave was determined to adhere to the principles of democracy that he had practised while in government. Likewise, the army, Garda Síochána and the civil service all accepted the change of government, despite the fact that they would now be taking orders from men who had been their enemies less than ten years previously. After a brief and uneventful meeting in the Dáil chamber, Éamon de Valera was appointed President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State by the Governor-General, James McNeill, who had come to Leinster House to make the appointment rather than require de Valera travel to the Viceregal Lodge, formerly a symbol of British rule. He formed the 6th Executive Council of the Irish Free State. Fianna Fáil, a party led by many of the men most closely identified with opposing the existence of the state ten years earlier, were now the party of government. The 1932 general election was the beginning of a sixteen-year period in government for Fianna Fáil.

First time TDs[edit]

Outgoing TDs[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Former TD was 'synonymous with Fine Gael in Leitrim'". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  2. ^ Bew, Paul; Hazelkorn, Ellen; Patterson, Henry (1989). The Dynamics of Irish Politics. London: Lawrence & Wishart. p. 42.
  3. ^ Peter Mair and Liam Weeks, "The Party System," in Politics in the Republic of Ireland, ed. John Coakley and Michael Gallagher, 4th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 140
  4. ^ "7th Dáil 1932 General Election". ElectionsIreland.org. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009.
  5. ^ "Dáil elections since 1918". ARK Northern Ireland. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  6. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, pp1009-1017 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  7. ^ Diarmaid Ferriter (28 January 2022). "Diarmaid Ferriter: Fianna Fáil now bereft of its catch-all credentials". The Irish Times. Retrieved 29 January 2022.