Irish orthography

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Irish orthography is very etymological which allows the same written form to represent all dialects of Irish and remain regular. For example, crann ("tree") is read /kɾˠan̪ˠ/ in Mayo and Ulster, /kɾˠaːn̪ˠ/ in Galway, or /kɾˠəun̪ˠ/ in Munster. A spelling reform in the mid-20th century lead to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, the modern standard written form used by the Government of Ireland, which regulates both spelling and grammar.[1] The reform removed inter-dialectal silent letters, simplified some letter sequences, and modernised archaic spellings to reflect modern pronunciation but it also removed letters pronounced in one dialect but not in another. Some words may have dialectal pronunciations not reflected by their standard spelling, they may have dialectal spellings to reflect this.

Alphabet[edit]

Gaelic type with Roman type equivalents and the additional lenited letters.

Latin script has been the writing system used to write Irish since the 5th century, when it replaced Ogham which was used to write Primitive Irish and Old Irish.[2] Prior the mid-20th century Gaelic type (cló Gaelach) was the main typeface used to write Irish, now it is usually replaced by Roman type (cló Rómhánach). The use of Ogham and Gaelic type today is restricted to decorative or self-consciously traditional contexts. The dot above a lenited letter in Gaelic type is usually replaced by a following ⟨h⟩ in Roman type (e.g. ⟨ċ⟩ → ⟨ch⟩).

Letters and letter names[edit]

The traditional Irish alphabet carved in Gaelic type on a building in Dublin, with each type of diacritic (síneadh fada and ponc séimhithe) as well as the Tironian et.

The traditional Irish alphabet (áibítir) consists of 18 letters: ⟨a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u⟩. It does not contain ⟨j, k, q, v, w, x, y, z⟩, although they are used in scientific terminology and modern loanwords/words of foreign origin. ⟨v⟩ occurs in a small number of (mainly onomatopoeic) native words (e.g. vácarnach "to quack" and vrác "caw") and colloquialisms (e.g. víog for bíog "chirp" and vís for bís "screw").[3] ⟨h⟩, when not prefixed to a word initial vowel to show aspiration or after a consonant to show lenition, primarily occurs word initially in loanwords, e.g. hata "hat". ⟨k⟩ is the only letter not listed by Ó Dónaill.

Vowels may be accented with an acute accent (⟨á, é, í, ó, ú⟩; see below).[4] Accented letters are considered variants of their unaccented equivalent so they are ignored for purposes of alphabetisation, they follow their unaccented equivalents in dictionaries (i.e. a, á…abhac, ábhacht, abhaile...).

English letter names are generally used in colloquial and formal speech but there are modern Irish letter names (based on the original Latin names), similar to other languages that use a Latin script alphabet. Tree names were historically used to name the letters. Tradition taught that they all derived from the names of Ogham letters, though it is now known that only some of the earliest were named after trees.

Letter Name

[5][6]

Name

(IPA)

Tree Name (Bríatharogam) Ogham equivalent Notes
Aa á a /aː/ ailm (pine)
Bb /bʲeː/ beith (birch)
Cc /ceː/ coll (hazel)
Dd /dʲeː/ dair (oak)
Ee é a /eː/ eadhadh (poplar)
Ff eif /ɛfʲ/ fearn (alder)
Gg /ɟeː/ gort (ivy)
Hh héis /heːʃ/ uath (hawthorn)
Ii í a /iː/ iodhadh (yew)
Jj /dʒeː/ [dʒ] is a foreign sound.
Kk /kaː/
Ll eil /ɛlʲ/ luis (rowan)
Mm eim /ɛmʲ/ muin (vine)
Nn ein /ɛnʲ/ nion (ash)
Oo ó a /oː/ onn (gorse)
Pp /pʲeː/ ifín (gooseberry or thorn) See forfeda.
peith (dwarf alder)
Qq /kuː/ ⟨Q⟩ is used to transliterate ceirt (apple).
Rr ear /aɾˠ/ ruis (elder)
Ss eas /asˠ/ sail (willow)
Tt /tʲeː/ tinne (holly)
Uu ú a /uː/ úr (heather)
Vv /vʲeː/
Ww wae /weː/
Xx eacs /ɛksˠ/
Yy /jeː/
Zz zae /zˠeː/ ⟨Z⟩ is used to transliterate straif (blackthorn); [zˠ] is a foreign sound.

Grapheme to phoneme correspondence[edit]

Example grapheme to phoneme correspondence table
Letter(s) Phoneme(s) Examples(s)
U C M
ea 2 before syllable-final ⟨nn⟩ /a/ /aː/ /əu/ crann /kɾˠaːn̪ˠ/ "tree"

Grapheme to phoneme correspondence tables on this page follow the layout shown above, on this layout ⟨U⟩ stands for Mayo and Ulster Irish, ⟨C⟩ for southern Connacht Irish and ⟨M⟩ for Munster Irish. In the consonant table, 1 and 2 stand for broad and slender, respectively, while in the vowel tables they stand for stressed and unstressed. Initially and finally mean word initial or final unless stated otherwise. The IPA transcriptions of examples on this page are in Connacht Irish.

Consonants[edit]

The consonant letters generally correspond to the consonant phonemes as shown in this table. See Irish phonology for an explanation of the symbols used and Irish initial mutations for an explanation of eclipsis and lenition. In most cases, consonants are "broad" (velarised) when beside ⟨a, á, o, ó, u, ú⟩ and "slender" (palatalised) when beside ⟨e, é, i, í⟩.

Letter(s) Phoneme(s) Example(s)
U C M
b 1 /bˠ/ bain /bˠanʲ/ "take" (imper.), scuab /sˠkuəbˠ/ "broom"
2 /bʲ/ béal /bʲeːl̪ˠ/ "mouth", cnáib /kn̪ˠaːbʲ/ "hemp"
bh 1 /w/ bhain /wanʲ/ "took", ábhar /ˈaːwəɾˠ/ "material", dubhaigh /ˈd̪ˠʊwiː/ "blacken" (imper.), taobh /t̪ˠiːw/ "side", dubh /d̪ˠʊw/ "black"
2 /vʲ/ bhéal /vʲeːl̪ˠ/ "mouth" (lenited), cuibhreann /ˈkɪvʲɾʲən̪ˠ/ "common table", aibhneacha /ˈavʲnʲəxə/ "rivers", sibh /ʃɪvʲ/ "you" (pl.)
See below for ⟨(e)abh, (e)obh, (i)ubh⟩
bhf
(eclipsis of ⟨f⟩)
1 /w/ bhfuinneog /ˈwɪnʲoːɡ/ "window" (eclipsed)
2 /vʲ/ bhfíon /vʲiːn̪ˠ/ "wine" (eclipsed)
bp
(eclipsis of ⟨p⟩)
1 /bˠ/ bpoll /bˠoːl̪ˠ/ "hole" (eclipsed)
2 /bʲ/ bpríosún /ˈbʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ/ "prison" (eclipsed)
c 1 /k/ cáis /kaːʃ/ "cheese", mac /mˠak/ "son"
2 /c/ ceist /cɛʃtʲ/ "question", mic /mʲɪc/ "sons"
ch 1 /x/ cháis /xaːʃ/ "cheese" (lenited), taoiseach /ˈt̪ˠiːʃəx/ "chieftain, Prime Minister of Ireland"
2 before ⟨t⟩ boichte /bˠɔxtʲə/ "poorer"
usually /ç/ cheist /çɛʃtʲ/ "question" (lenited), deich /dʲɛç/ "ten", oíche /ˈiːçə/ "night"
d 1 /d̪ˠ/ dorn /d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ/ "fist", nead /nʲad̪ˠ/ "nest"
2 /dʲ/ dearg /dʲaɾˠəɡ/ "red", cuid /kɪdʲ/ "part"
dh 1 initially /ɣ/ dhorn /ɣoːɾˠn̪ˠ/ "fist" (lenited)
after long vowels silent ádh /aː/ "luck"
2 usually /j/ /j/ dhearg /ˈjaɾˠəɡ/ "red" (lenited), fáidh /fˠaːj/ "prophet"
finally /ɟ/
See below for ⟨(e)adh, (a)idh, eidh, odh, oidh⟩. See Exceptions in verb forms for -⟨dh⟩ at the end of verbs.
dt 1 eclipsis of ⟨t⟩ /d̪ˠ/ dtaisce /ˈd̪ˠaʃcə/ "treasure" (eclipsed)
elsewhere /t̪ˠ/ troidte /ˈt̪ˠɾˠɛtʲə/ "fought"
2 eclipsis of ⟨t⟩ /dʲ/ dtír /dʲiːɾʲ/ "country" (eclipsed)
elsewhere /tʲ/ goidte /ˈɡɛtʲə/ "stolen"
f 1 /fˠ/ fós /fˠoːsˠ/ "still", graf /ɡɾˠafˠ/ "graph"
2 /fʲ/ fíon /fʲiːn̪ˠ/ "wine", stuif /sˠt̪ˠɪfʲ/ "stuff"
See Exceptions in verb forms for -⟨f⟩- in future and conditional personal verb endings.
fh silent fhuinneog /ˈɪnʲoːɡ/ "window" (lenited), fhíon /iːn̪ˠ/ "wine" (lenited)
g 1 /ɡ/ gasúr /ˈɡasˠuːɾˠ/ "boy", bog /bˠɔɡ/ "soft"
2 /ɟ/ geata /ˈɟat̪ˠə/ "gate", carraig /ˈkaɾˠəɟ/ "rock"
gc
(eclipsis of ⟨c⟩)
1 /ɡ/ gcáis /ɡaːʃ/ "cheese" (eclipsed)
2 /ɟ/ gceist /ɟɛʃtʲ/ "question" (eclipsed)
gh 1 initially /ɣ/ ghasúr /ˈɣasˠuːɾˠ/ "boy" (lenited)
after long vowels silent Eoghan /ˈoːən̪ˠ/ (male name)
2 usually /j/ /j/ gheata /ˈjat̪ˠə/ "gate" (lenited), dóigh /d̪ˠoːj/ "way, manner"
finally /ɟ/
See below for ⟨(e)agh, (a)igh, eigh, ogh, oigh⟩. See Exceptions in verb forms for -⟨(a)igh⟩ at the end of verbs.
h /h/ hata /ˈhat̪ˠə/ "hat", na héisc /nə heːʃc/ "the fish" (plural)
j (loan consonant) /dʒ/ jab /ˈdʒabˠ/ "job", jíp /dʒiːpʲ/ "jeep"
l 1 initially usually /l̪ˠ/ luí /l̪ˠiː/ "lying (down)"
lenited /l/
elsewhere /lˠ/ or /l̪ˠ/
2 initially usually /l̠ʲ/ leisciúil /ˈlʲɛʃcuːlʲ/ "lazy"
lenited /lʲ/
elsewhere /lʲ/ or /l̠ʲ/
ll 1 /l̪ˠ/ poll /poːl̪ˠ/ "hole"
2 /l̠ʲ/ coill /kəilʲ/ "woods"
m 1 /mˠ/ mór /mˠoːɾˠ/ "big", am /aːmˠ/ "time"
2 /mʲ/ milis /ˈmʲɪlʲəʃ/ "sweet", im /iːmʲ/ "butter"
mb
(eclipsis of ⟨b⟩)
1 /mˠ/ mbaineann /ˈmˠanʲən̪ˠ/ "takes" (eclipsed)
2 /mʲ/ mbéal /mʲeːl̪ˠ/ "mouth" (eclipsed)
mh 1 /w/ mhór /woːɾˠ/ "big" (lenited), lámha /ˈl̪ˠaːwə/ "hands", léamh /lʲeːw/ "reading"
2 /vʲ/ mhilis /ˈvʲɪlʲəʃ/ "sweet" (lenited), uimhir /ˈɪvʲəɾʲ/ "number", nimh /nʲɪvʲ/ "poison"
See below for ⟨(e)amh, (e)omh, (i)umh⟩. See Exceptions in verb forms for -⟨(e)amh⟩ in verbal nouns.
n 1 initially usually /n̪ˠ/ naoi /n̪ˠiː/ "nine"
lenited /nˠ/
usually /nˠ/ or /n̪ˠ/
after (non ⟨s(h)⟩) initial cons. /ɾˠ/ /nˠ/ mná /mˠɾˠaː/ "women", cnaipe /ˈkɾˠapʲə/ "press"
2 initially usually /n̠ʲ/ neart /nʲaɾˠt̪ˠ/ "strength"
lenited /nʲ/
usually /nʲ/ or /n̠ʲ/
after (non ⟨s(h)⟩) initial cons. /ɾʲ/ /nʲ/ gnéas /ɟɾʲeːsˠ/ "sex", cníopaire /ˈcɾʲiːpˠəɾʲə/ "skinflint"
nc 1 /ŋk/ ancaire /ˈaŋkəɾʲə/ "anchor"
2 /ɲc/ rinc /ɾˠɪɲc/ "dance"
nd
(eclipsis of ⟨d⟩)
1 /n̪ˠ/ ndorn /n̪ˠoːɾˠnˠ/ "fist" (eclipsed)
2 /n̠ʲ/ ndearg /ˈnʲaɾˠəɡ/ "red" (eclipsed)
ng 1 eclipsis of ⟨g⟩ /ŋ/ ngasúr /ˈŋasˠuːɾˠ/ "boy" (eclipsed)
elsewhere /ŋ(g)/ long /l̪ˠuːŋɡ/ "ship", teanga /ˈtʲaŋɡə/ "tongue"
2 eclipsis of ⟨g⟩ /ɲ/ ngeata /ˈɲat̪ˠə/ "gate" (eclipsed)
elsewhere /ɲ(ɟ)/ cuing /kɪɲɟ/ "yoke", ingear /ˈɪɲɟəɾˠ/ "vertical"
nn 1 /n̪ˠ/ ceann /caːn̪ˠ/ "head"
2 /n̠ʲ/ tinneas /ˈtʲɪnʲəsˠ/ "illness"
p 1 /pˠ/ poll /pˠoːl̪ˠ/ "hole", stop /sˠt̪ˠɔpˠ/ "stop"
2 /pʲ/ príosún /ˈpʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ/ "prison", truip /t̪ˠɾˠɪpʲ/ "trip"
ph 1 /fˠ/ pholl /fˠoːl̪ˠ/ "hole" (lenited)
2 /fʲ/ phríosún /ˈfʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ/ "prison" (lenited)
r 1 /ɾˠ/ ruán /ˈɾˠuːaːn̪ˠ/ "buckwheat", cumhra /kuːɾˠə/ "fragrant", fuar /fˠuəɾˠ/ "cold"
2 initially /ɾˠiː/ "king"
before ⟨d, l, n, r, s, t, th⟩ airde /aːɾˠdʲə/ "height", duirling /ˈd̪ˠuːɾˠlʲənʲ/ "stony beach", coirnéal /ˈkoːɾˠnʲeːl̪ˠ/ "corner", cuairt /kuəɾˠtʲ/ "visit", oirthear /ˈɔɾˠhəɾˠ/ "east"
after ⟨s⟩ sreang /sˠɾˠaŋɡ/ "string"
usually /ɾʲ/ tirim /ˈtʲɪɾʲəmʲ/ "dry", fuair /fˠuəɾʲ/ "got"
rr /ɾˠ/ carr /kaːɾˠ/ "car, cart"
s 1 /sˠ/ Sasana /ˈsˠasˠən̪ˠə/ "England", tús /t̪ˠuːsˠ/ "beginning"
2 initially before ⟨f, m, p, r⟩ sféar /sˠfʲeːɾˠ/ "sphere", speal /sˠpʲal̪ˠ/ "scythe", sméar /sˠmʲeːɾˠ/ "blackberry", sreang /sˠɾˠaŋɡ/ "string"
usually /ʃ/ sean /ʃan̪ˠ/ "old", cáis /kaːʃ/ "cheese"
sh /h/ Shasana /ˈhasˠən̪ˠə/ "England" (lenited), shiúil /huːlʲ/ "walked"
t 1 /t̪ˠ/ taisce /ˈt̪ˠaʃcə/ "treasure", ceart /caɾˠt̪ˠ/ "correct"
2 /tʲ/ tír /tʲiːɾʲ/ "country", beirt /bʲɛɾˠtʲ/ "two (people)"
th usually /h/ thaisce /ˈhaʃcə/ "treasure" (lenited), theocht /hoːxt̪ˠ/ "heat" (lenited), athair /ˈahəɾʲ/ "father"
syllable-finally silent bláth /bˠl̪ˠaː/ "blossom", cith /cɪ/ "shower", cothrom /ˈkɔɾˠəmˠ/ "equal"
See Exceptions in verb forms for -⟨th⟩- in verbal adjectives.
ts
(mutation of ⟨s⟩- after an "the")
1 /t̪ˠ/ an tsolais /ən̪ˠ ˈt̪ˠɔl̪ˠəʃ/ "of the light"
2 /tʲ/ an tSín /ənʲ tʲiːnʲ/ "China"
v (loan consonant) 1 /w/ vóta /ˈwoːt̪ˠə/ "vote"
2 /vʲ/ veidhlín /ˈvʲəilʲiːnʲ/ "violin"
z (loan consonant) 1 /zˠ/ /zˠuː/ "zoo"
2 /ʒ/ Zen /ʒɛnʲ/ "Zen"

Vowels[edit]

Sequences of vowels are common in Irish spelling due to the "caol le caol agus leathan le leathan" ("slender with slender and broad with broad") rule. This rule states that the vowels on either side of any consonant must be both slender (⟨e, é, i, í⟩) or both broad (⟨a, á, o, ó, u, ú⟩), to unambiguously determine if the consonant(s) are broad or slender. An apparent exception is ⟨ae⟩, which is followed by a broad consonant despite the ⟨e⟩.

Pronunciation of vowels in Irish is mostly predictable from a few simple rules:

  • Accented vowels (⟨á, é, í, ó, ú⟩) are always long vowels and in digraphs and trigraphs containing them, surrounding unaccented vowels tend to be silent, but there are several exceptions, e.g. when preceded by two unaccented vowels.
  • Accented vowels in succession are both pronounced, e.g. séú /ˈʃeːuː/ "sixth", ríúil /ˈɾˠiːuːlʲ/ "royal, kingly, majestic", báíocht /⁠ˈbˠaːiːxt̪ˠ/ "sympathy", etc.
  • Unstressed short vowels are reduced to
  • ⟨i⟩ is silent before ⟨u, ú⟩ and after a vowel (except sometimes in ⟨ei, oi, ui⟩).
  • ⟨e⟩ is silent before a broad vowel.
  • ⟨io, oi, ui⟩ have multiple pronunciations that depend on adjacent consonants.
  • A following ⟨rd, rl, rn, rr⟩ lengthens some vowels and in Munster and Connacht a following syllable-final ⟨ll, nn⟩ or word-final ⟨m, ng⟩ may lengthen or diphthongise some vowels depending on dialect.
Letter(s) Phoneme(s) Example(s)
U C M
a 1 usually /a/ fan /fˠan̪ˠ/ "stay" (imper.)
before ⟨rd, rl, rn, rr⟩ /aː/ garda /ˈɡaːɾˠd̪ˠə/ "policeman", tarlú /ˈt̪ˠaːɾˠl̪ˠuː/ "happening", carnán /ˈkaːɾˠn̪ˠaːn̪ˠ/ "(small) heap", barr /bˠaːɾˠ/ "tip, point"
before syllable-final ⟨ll, nn⟩ and -⟨m⟩ /a/ /aː/ /əu/ mall /mˠaːl̪ˠ/ "slow, late", ann /aːn̪ˠ/ "there", am /aːmˠ/ "time"
2 /ə/ ólann /ˈoːl̪ˠən̪ˠ/ "drink" (present), mála /ˈmˠaːl̪ˠə/ "bag"
á, ái /aː/ bán /bˠaːn̪ˠ/ "white", dáil /d̪ˠaːlʲ/ "assembly", gabháil /ˈɡawaːlʲ/ "taking"
ae, aei /eː/ Gaelach /ˈɡeːl̪ˠəx/ "Gaelic", Gaeilge /ˈɡeːlʲɟə/ "Irish (language)"
ai 1 usually /a/ baile /ˈbˠalʲə/ "home"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn, rr⟩ /aː/ airne /aːɾˠnʲə/ "sloe", airde /aːɾˠdʲə/ "height"
before syllable-final ⟨ll, nn⟩ /a/ /aː/ /əi/ caillte /ˈkaːlʲtʲə/ "lost, ruined", crainn /kɾˠaːnʲ/ "trees"
2 /ə/ eolais /ˈoːl̪ˠəʃ/ "knowledge" (genitive)
, aío /iː/ maígh /mˠiːj/ "claim" (imper.), gutaí /ˈɡʊt̪ˠiː/ "vowels", naíonán /ˈn̪ˠiːn̪ˠaːn̪ˠ/ "infant", beannaíonn /ˈbʲan̪ˠiːn̪ˠ/ "blesses"
ao usually /iː/ /eː/ saol /sˠiːlˠ/ "life"
aoi /iː/ gaois /ɡiːʃ/ "shrewdness", naoi /ˈn̪ˠiː/ "nine"
aoú /iː.uː/ /eː.uː/ naoú /ˈn̪ˠiːuː/ "ninth"
e, ei 1 usually /ɛ/ te /tʲɛ/ "hot", ceist /cɛʃtʲ/ "question"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn⟩ /eː/ eirleach /ˈeːɾˠlʲəx/ "destruction", ceirnín /ˈceːɾˠnʲiːnʲ/ "record album", ceird /ceːɾˠdʲ/ "trade, craft"
before ⟨m, mh, n⟩ /ɪ/ creimeadh /ˈcɾʲɪmʲə/ "corrosion, erosion", sceimhle /ˈʃcɪvʲlʲə/ "erroded", seinm /ˈʃɪnʲəmʲ/ "playing"
before syllable-final ⟨nn⟩ and -⟨m⟩ /ɪ/ /iː/ /əi/ greim /ɟɾʲiːmʲ/ "grip"
2 /ə/ míle /ˈmʲiːlʲə/ "thousand"
é, éa, éi /eː/ /ʃeː/ "he", déanamh /ˈdʲeːn̪ˠəw/ "doing", buidéal /ˈbˠɪdʲeːl̪ˠ/ "bottle", scéimh /ʃceːvʲ/ "beauty", páipéir /ˈpˠaːpʲeːɾʲ/ "papers
ea, eai 1 usually /a/ bean /bʲan̪ˠ/ "woman", veain /vʲanʲ/ "van"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn, rr⟩ /aː/ ceardaí /caːɾˠd̪ˠiː/ "craftsman", bearna /ˈbʲaːɾˠn̪ˠə/ "gap", fearr /fʲaːɾˠ/ "better"
before syllable-final ⟨ll, nn⟩ /a/ /aː/ /əu/ feall /fʲaːl̪ˠ/ "treachery", feanntach /ˈfʲaːn̪ˠt̪ˠəx/ "severe"
2 /ə/ seisean /ˈʃɛʃən̪ˠ/ "he" (emphatic)
, eái /aː/ Seán /ʃaːn̪ˠ/ "John", caisleán /ˈkaʃlʲaːn̪ˠ/ "castle", meáin /mʲaːnʲ/"middles", caisleáin /ˈkaʃlʲaːnʲ/ "castles"
eo, eoi usually /oː/ ceol /coːl̪ˠ/ "music", dreoilín /ˈdʲɾʲoːlʲiːnʲ/ "wren"
in four words /ɔ/ anseo /ənʲˈʃɔ/ "here", deoch /dʲɔx/ "drink", eochair /ˈɔxəɾʲ/ "key", seo /ˈʃɔ/"this"
i 1 usually /ɪ/ pic /pʲɪc/ "pitch", ifreann /ˈɪfʲɾʲən̪ˠ/ "hell"
before syllable-final ⟨ll, nn⟩ and -⟨m⟩ /ɪ/ /iː/ cill /ciːlʲ/ "church", cinnte /ˈciːnʲtʲə/ "sure", im /iːmʲ/ "butter"
2 usually /ə/ faoistin /ˈfˠiːʃtʲənʲ/ "confession"
finally /ɪ/ aici /ˈɛcɪ/ "at her"
í, ío /iː/ gnímh /ɟnʲiːvʲ/ "act, deed" (gen.), cailín /ˈkalʲiːnʲ/ 'girl', síol /ʃiːl̪ˠ/ "seed"
ia, iai /iə/ Diarmaid /dʲiərmədʲ/ "Dermot", bliain /bʲlʲiənʲ/ "year"
, iái /iː.aː/ bián /ˈbʲiːaːn̪ˠ/ "size", liáin /ˈlʲiːaːnʲ/ "trowel" (gen.)
io before ⟨d, n, r, s, t, th⟩ /ɪ/ fios /fʲɪsˠ/ "knowledge", bior /bʲɪɾˠ/ "spit, spike", cion /cɪn̪ˠ/ "affection", giota /ˈɟɪt̪ˠə/ "bit, piece", giodam /ˈɟɪd̪ˠəmˠ/"restlessness", friotháil /ˈfʲɾʲɪhaːlʲ/ "attention"
before ⟨b, c, g, m, ng, p⟩ /ɪ/ /ʊ/ siopa /ˈʃʊpˠə/ "shop", liom /lʲʊmˠ/ "with me", tiocfaidh /ˈtʲʊkiː/ "will come", Siobhán /ˈʃʊwaːn̪ˠ/ "Joan", briogáid /ˈbʲɾʲʊɡaːdʲ/ "brigade", tiomáin /ˈtʲʊmaːnʲ/ "drive" (imper.), ionga /ˈʊŋɡə/ "(finger)nail"
before syllable-final ⟨nn⟩ /ʊ/ /uː/ fionn /fʲʊn̪ˠ/ "light-haired"
, iói /iː.oː/ sióg /ˈʃiːoːɡ/ "fairy", pióg /ˈpʲiːoːɡ/ "pie", grióir /ˈɟɾʲiːoːɾʲ/ "weakling"
iu /ʊ/ fliuch /fʲlʲʊx/ "wet"
, iúi /uː/ siúl /ʃuːl̪ˠ/ "walk", bailiú /ˈbˠalʲuː/ "gathering", ciúin /cuːnʲ/ "quiet", inniúil /ˈɪnʲuːlʲ/ "able, fit"
o 1 usually /ɔ/ post /pˠɔsˠt̪ˠ/ "post"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn⟩ /oː/ bord /bˠoːɾˠd̪ˠ/ "table", orlach /ˈoːɾˠl̪ˠəx/ "inch"
before ⟨n, m⟩ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ conradh /ˈkʊn̪ˠɾˠə/ "agreement", cromóg /ˈkɾˠʊmˠoːɡ/ "hooked nose"
before syllable-final ⟨nn⟩ and -⟨m, ng⟩ /uː/ /əu/ fonn /fˠuːn̪ˠ/ "desire, inclination"

trom /t̪ˠɾˠuːmˠ/ "heavy", long /l̪ˠuːŋɡ/ "ship"

2 /ə/ mo /mˠə/ "my", cothrom /ˈkɔɾˠəmˠ/ "equal"
ó, ói /oː/ póg /pˠoːɡ/ "kiss", armónach /ˈaɾˠəmˠoːn̪əx/ "harmonic", móin /mˠoːnʲ/"sod, turf", bádóir /ˈbˠaːd̪ˠoːrʲ/ "boatman"
oi 1 usually /ɛ/ scoil /sˠkɛlʲ/ "school", troid /t̪ˠɾˠɛdʲ/ "fight" (imper.), toitín /ˈt̪ˠɛtʲiːnʲ/"cigarette", oibre /ˈɛbʲɾʲə/ "work" (gen.), thoir /hɛɾʲ/ "in the east", cloiche/ˈkl̪ˠɛçə/ "stone" (gen.)
before ⟨cht, rs, rt, rth, s⟩ /ɔ/ cois /kɔʃ/ "foot" (dat.), cloisfidh /ˈkl̪ˠɔʃiː/ "will hear", boicht /bˠɔxtʲ/"poor" (gen. sg. masc.), doirse /ˈd̪ɔɾˠʃə/ "doors", goirt /ɡɔɾˠtʲ/ "salty", oirthear /ˈɔɾˠhəɾˠ/ "east"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn⟩ /oː/ coirnéal /ˈkoːɾˠnʲeːl̪ˠ/ "corner", oird /oːɾˠdʲ/ "sledgehammers"
next to ⟨n, m, mh⟩ /ɪ/ anois /əˈn̪ˠɪʃ/ "now", gloine /ˈɡl̪ˠɪnʲə/ "glass", cnoic /kn̪ˠɪc/ "hills", roimh /ɾˠɪvʲ/ "before", coimeád /ˈkɪmʲaːd̪ˠ/ "keep" (imper.), loinge /ˈl̪ˠɪɲɟə/ "ship" (gen.)
before syllable-final ⟨nn⟩ and -⟨m⟩ /ɪ/ /iː/ foinn /fˠiːnʲ/ "wish" (gen.), droim /d̪ˠɾˠiːmʲ/ "back"
before syllable-final ⟨ll⟩ /əi/ /iː/ goill /gəilʲ/ "grieve, hurt", coillte /ˈkəilʲtʲə/ "forests"
2 /ə/ éadroime /eːdrəmʲə/ "lightness"
, oío /iː/ croíleacán /ˈkɾˠiːlʲəkaːn̪ˠ/ "core", croíonna /ˈkɾˠiːn̪ˠə/ "hearts"
u 1 usually /ʊ/ dubh /d̪ˠʊw/ "black"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn⟩ /uː/ burla /ˈbˠuːɾˠl̪ˠə/ "bundle", murnán /ˈmˠuːɾˠn̪ˠaːn̪ˠ/ "ankle"
in English loanwords /ɔ/ or /ʊ/ bus /bˠɔsˠ/, club /kl̪ˠɔbˠ/
2 usually /ə/ agus /ˈaɡəsˠ/ "and"
finally /ʊ/ orthu /ˈɔɾˠhʊ/ "on them"
ú, úi /uː/ tús /t̪ˠuːsˠ/ "beginning", súil /suːlʲ/ "eye", cosúil /ˈkɔsˠuːlʲ/ "like, resembling"
ua, uai /uə/ fuar /fˠuəɾˠ/ "cold", fuair /fˠuəɾʲ/ "got"
, uái /uː.aː/ ruán /ˈɾˠuːaːn̪ˠ/ "buckwheat", duán /ˈd̪ˠuːaːn̪ˠ/ "kidney, fishhook", fuáil /ˈfˠuːaːlʲ/ "sewing, stitching"
ui 1 usually /ɪ/ duine /ˈd̪ˠɪnʲə/ "person"
before ⟨rd, rl, rn⟩ /ɪ/ /uː/ duirling /ˈd̪ˠuːɾˠlʲənʲ/ "stony beach", tuirne /ˈt̪ˠuːɾˠnʲə/ "spinning wheel"
before syllable-final ⟨ll, nn⟩ and -⟨m⟩ /iː/ tuillteanach /ˈt̪ˠiːlʲtʲən̪ˠəx/ "deserving", puinn /pˠiːnʲ/ "much", suim /sˠiːmʲ/ "interest"
2 /ə/ aguisín /ˈaɡəʃiːnʲ/ "addition"
, uío /iː/ buígh /bˠiːj/ "turn yellow" (imper.), buíon /bˠiːn̪ˠ/ "band, troop"
, uói /uː.oː/ cruóg /ˈkɾˠuːoːɡ/ "urgent need", luóige /ˈl̪ˠuːoːɟə/ "pollock" (gen.)

Followed by ⟨bh, dh, gh, mh⟩[edit]

When followed by ⟨bh, dh, gh, mh⟩, a stressed vowel usually forms a diphthong or lengthens. For ⟨(e)adh, (e)amh, (a)idh, (a)igh, (a)íodh, eodh, eoidh, ódh, óidh⟩, see also Exceptions in verb forms.

Letters Phoneme(s) Example(s)
U C M
(e)abh, (e)abha, (e)abhai /oː/ or /əu/ /əu/ Feabhra /ˈfʲəuɾˠə/ "February", leabhair /lʲəuɾʲ/ "books", sabhall /ˈsˠəul̪ˠ/ "barn"
(e)adh, (e)adha, (e)adhai, (e)agh, (e)agha, (e)aghai 1 /eː/ or /əi/ /əi/ meadhg /mʲəiɡ/ "whey", adharc /əiɾˠk/ "horn", adhairt /əiɾˠtʲ/ "pillow", saghsanna /ˈsˠəisˠən̪ˠə/ "sorts, kinds", deagha /d̪ˠəi/ "century", aghaidh /əij/ "face"
2 /uː/ /ə/ margadh /ˈmˠaɾˠəɡə/ "market", briseadh /ˈbʲɾʲɪʃə/ "breaking"
aidh, aidhe, aigh, aighe, aighea 1 /əi/ aidhleann /əilʲən̪ˠ/ "rack", aidhe /əi/ "aye!", aighneas /əinʲəsˠ/ "argument, discussion", aighe /əi/ "cow, ox" (gen. ), caighean /kəin̪ˠ/ "cage"
2 /iː/ /ə/ /əɟ/ tuillidh /ˈt̪ˠɪlʲiː/ "addition" (gen.), cleachtaidh /ˈclʲaxt̪ˠiː/ "practice" (gen.), coiligh /ˈkɛlʲiː/ "rooster" (gen.), bacaigh /ˈbˠakiː/ "beggar" (gen.)
(e)amh, (e)amha, (e)amhai 1 /əu/ ramhraigh /ˈɾˠəuɾˠiː/ "fattened", amhantar /ˈəun̪ˠt̪ˠəɾˠ/ "venture", Samhain /sˠəunʲ/ "November"
2 /uː/ /ə(w)/ /əw/ acadamh /ˈakəd̪ˠəw/ "academy", creideamh /ˈcɾʲɛdʲəw/ "belief, religion"
eidh, eidhea, eidhi /eː/ /əi/ feidhm /fʲəimʲ/ "function", eidheann /əin̪ˠ/ "ivy", meidhir /mʲəiɾʲ/ "mirth"
eigh, eighea, eighi feighlí /ˈfʲəilʲiː/ "overseer", leigheas /lʲəisˠ/ "healing", feighil /fʲəilʲ/ "vigilance"
oidh, oidhea, oidhi /əi/ oidhre /əiɾʲə/ "heir", oidheanna /əin̪ˠə/ "tragedies"
oigh, oighea, oighi oighreach /əiɾʲəx/ "glacial", oigheann /əin̪ˠ/ "oven", loighic /l̪ˠəic/ "logic"
(e)obh, (e)obha, (e)obhai /oː/ /əu/ lobhra /l̪ˠəuɾˠə/ "leprosy", lobhar /l̪ˠəuɾˠ/ "leper", lobhair /l̪ˠəuɾʲ/ "lepers"
(e)odh, (e)odha, (e)odhai bodhrán /bˠəuɾˠaːn̪ˠ/ "dun coloured animal", bodhar /bˠəuɾˠ/ "deaf", bodhair /bˠəuɾʲ/ "deaf people"
(e)ogh, (e)ogha, (e)oghai doghra /ˈd̪ˠəuɾˠə/ "misery", bogha /bˠəu/ "bow", broghais /bˠɾˠəuʃ/ "afterbirth (of animal)"
(e)omh, (e)omha, (e)omhai /oː/ Domhnach /ˈd̪ˠoːn̪ˠəx/ "Sunday", comhar /koːɾˠ/ "partnership", domhain /d̪ˠoːnʲ/ "deep"
(i)ubh /uː/ /ʊ(w)/ /ʊw/ dubh /d̪ˠʊw/ "black", tiubh /tʲʊw/ "dense"
(i)umh, (i)umha, (i)umhai /uː/ cumhra /kuːɾˠə/ "fragrant", Mumhan /ˈmˠuːn̪ˠ/ "Munster" (gen.), ciumhais /cuːʃ/ "edge"

Epenthesis[edit]

After a short vowel, an unwritten epenthetic /ə/ gets inserted between ⟨l, n, r⟩ + ⟨b, bh, d, ch, g, mh⟩ (as well as ⟨f, p⟩, when derived from devoiced ⟨b, bh, mh⟩), when within a morpheme boundary, e.g. gorm /ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ/ "blue", dearg /ˈdʲaɾˠəɡ/ "red", dorcha /ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə/ "dark", ainm /ˈanʲəmʲ/ "name", deilgneach /ˈdʲɛlʲəɟnʲəx/ "prickly, thorny"’ leanbh /ˈlʲan̪ˠəw/ "child", airgead /ˈaɾʲəɟəd̪ˠ/ "silver, money". The main exception to this is ⟨ng⟩ which is mainly used for /ŋ/ or /ɲ/.

Epenthesis does not occur after long vowels and diphthongs, e.g. téarma /tʲeːɾˠmˠə/ "term" or dualgas /ˈd̪ˠuəl̪ˠɡəsˠ/ "duty", or across morpheme boundaries (i.e. after prefixes and in compound words), e.g. garmhac /ˈɡaɾˠwak/ "grandson" (from gar- "close, near" + mac "son"), an-chiúin /ˈan̪ˠçuːnʲ/ "very quiet" (from an- "very" + ciúin "quiet"), carrbhealach /ˈkaːɾˠvʲal̪ˠəx/ "carriageway, roadway" (from carr "car" + bealach "way, road").

In Munster, epenthesis also occurs across morpheme boundaries, when ⟨l, n, r⟩ follow ⟨b, bh, d, ch, g, mh⟩ (after any vowel) or ⟨th⟩ (after short vowels), and when ⟨n⟩ follows ⟨c, g, m, r⟩.

Exceptions in verb forms[edit]

In verb forms, some letters and letter combinations are pronounced differently from elsewhere.

Letter(s) Phoneme(s) Example(s)
U C M
-(e)adh preterite /uː/ /əw/ /əg/ moladh é /ˈmˠɔl̪ˠəw eː/ "he was praised"
elsewhere usually /əx/ mholadh mé /ˈwɔl̪ˠəx mʲeː/ "I used to praise"
before ⟨s⟩ initial pronouns /ətʲ/ /əx/ mholadh sé /ˈwɔl̪ˠətʲ ʃeː/ "he used to praise"
-ea- in forms of "be" /ɛ/ bheadh sé /ˈvʲɛtʲ ʃeː/ "he would be"
-eo, ó- verb endings /oːx/ /oː/ bheannóinn /ˈvʲan̪ˠoːnʲ/ "I would bless"
-eodh, ódh usually /oːxuː/ /oːx/ bheannódh mé /ˈvʲan̪ˠoːx mʲeː/ "I would bless"
before ⟨s⟩ initial pronouns /oːxətʲ/ /oːtʲ/ /oːx/ bheannódh sibh /ˈvʲan̪ˠoːtʲ ʃɪvʲ/ "you (pl.) would bless",
-eoidh, óidh usually /oːxiː/ /oː(j)/ /oːɟ/ beannóidh /ˈbʲan̪ˠoː/ "will bless"
before ⟨s⟩ initial pronouns /oːxə/
-f- personal verb endings after ⟨b, bh, d, c, ch, g, mh, p, s, t⟩ silent, devoices preceding ⟨b, bh, d, g, mh⟩ dhófadh /ˈɣoːhəx/ "would burn, déarfaidh /ˈdʲeːɾˠhiː/ "will say", brisfidh /ˈbʲɾʲɪʃiː/ "will break", accept", scuabfadh /ˈsˠkuəpəx/
-(a)im /əmˠ/ /əmʲ/ molaim /ˈmˠɔl̪ˠəmʲ/ "I praise"
-(a)idh before pronouns /ə/ molfaidh mé /ˈmˠɔl̪ˠhə mʲeː/ "I will praise"
-(a)igh bheannaigh mé /ˈvʲan̪ˠə mʲeː/ "I blessed"
-(a)íodh preterite /iːw/ /iːg/ osclaíodh /ˈɔsˠkl̪ˠiːw/ "one opened"
elsewhere usually /iːw/ /iːx/ osclaíodh Siobhán /ˈɔsˠkl̪ˠiːx ˈʃʊwaːn̪ˠ/ "let Siobhán open"
before ⟨s⟩ initial pronouns /iːtʲ/ /iːx/ osclaíodh sí /ˈɔsˠkl̪ˠiːtʲ ʃiː/ "let her open"
-th- b verbal adjective endings after ⟨b, c, f, g, p⟩, silent, devoices preceding ⟨b, g⟩ coinnithe /ˈkɪnʲɪhə/ "kept", foghlamtha /ˈfˠoːl̪ˠəmˠhə/ "learned", ruaigthe /ˈɾˠuəcə/ "chased", scuabtha /ˈsˠkuəpˠə/ "swept"

Diacritics[edit]

An Irish road sign with a dotless ı in Comhaırle, obaır, maoınıú, Roınn, Oıdhreachta and Oıleán.

An Caighdeán Oifigiúil currently uses one diacritic, the acute accent, though traditionally a second was used, the overdot. If diacritics are unavailable, e.g. on a computer using ASCII, the overdot is replaced by a following ⟨h⟩, e.g. Ḃí séBhí sé "He/It was" and there is no standard for replacing an acute accent.

The acute accent (⟨◌́⟩; agúid or (síneadh) fada "long (sign)")a is used to indicate a long vowel, as in bád /bˠaːd̪ˠ/ "boat". However, there are other conventions to indicate a long vowel, such as:

  • A following ⟨rd, rl, rn, rr⟩, e.g. ard /aːɾˠd̪ˠ/ "high", eirleach /ˈeːɾˠlʲəx/ "destruction", dorn /d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ/ "fist", and, in Connacht, a word-final ⟨m⟩, e.g. am /aːmˠ/ "time".
  • The digraphs ⟨ae, ao, eo⟩, e.g. aerach /ˈeːɾˠəx/ "gay", maol /mˠiːl̪ˠ/ "bare", ceol /coːl̪ˠ/ "music".
  • The tri/tetragraphs ⟨omh(a), umh(a)⟩, e.g. comharsa /ˈkoːɾˠsˠə/ "neighbour", Mumhain /mˠuːnʲ/ "Munster".
  • ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ before ⟨á⟩ or ⟨ó⟩, e.g. fiáin "wild", ruóg /ˈɾˠuːoːɡ/ "twine".

The overdot (⟨◌̇⟩; ponc séimhithe "dot of lenition", buailte "struck", or séimhiú "lenition") was traditionally used to indicate lenition, though An Caighdeán uses a following ⟨h⟩ for this purpose. In Old Irish, it was only used for ⟨ḟ, ṡ⟩, while the following ⟨h⟩ was used for ⟨ch, ph, th⟩ and the lenition of other letters was not indicated. Later the two methods were used in parallel to represent the lenition of any consonant and competed with each other until the standard practice became to use the overdot in Gaelic type and the following ⟨h⟩ in Roman type. Thus ⟨ḃ, ċ, ḋ, ḟ, ġ, ṁ, ṗ, ṡ, ṫ⟩ are equivalent to ⟨bh, ch, dh, fh, gh, mh, ph, sh, th⟩.

Lowercase ⟨i⟩ has no tittle in Gaelic type, and road signs in the Republic of Ireland. However, as printed and electronic material like books, newspapers and web pages use Roman type almost invariably, the tittle is generally shown. Irish does not graphemically distinguish dotted i and dotless ı, i.e. they are not different letters as they are in, e.g. Turkish and Azeri.

Punctuation[edit]

Íoc ⁊ Taispeáin ("Pay & Display") sign in Dublin with the Tironian et for agus "and".

Irish punctuation is similar to English. An apparent exception is the Tironian et (⟨⁊⟩; agus) which abbreviates the word agus "and", like the ampersand (⟨&⟩) abbreviates "and" in English. It is generally substituted by a seven (⟨7⟩) in texts.

A hyphen (fleiscín) is used in Irish after ⟨t, n⟩ when prefixed to a masculine vowel-initial word as an initial mutation, e.g. an t-arán "the bread", a n-iníon "their daughter". However, it is omitted when the vowel is capitalised, e.g. an tAlbanach "the Scotsman", Ár nAthair "Our Father". No hyphen is used when ⟨h⟩ is prefixed to a vowel-initial word, e.g. a hiníon "her daughter".

A hyphen is also used in compound words under certain circumstances:

  • between two vowels, e.g. mí-ádh "misfortune"
  • between two similar consonants, e.g. droch-chaint "bad language", grod-díol "prompt payment"
  • in a three-part compound, e.g. buan-chomhchoiste "permanent joint committee"
  • after the prefixes do-, fo-, so- before a word beginning with ⟨bha, bhla, bhra, dha, gha, ghla, ghra, mha⟩, e.g. do-bhlasta "bad tasting", fo-ghlac "subsume", so-mharfacht "mortality"
  • in capitalised titles, e.g. An Príomh-Bhreitheamh "the Chief Justice"
  • after an- "very" and dea- "good", e.g. an-mhór "very big", dea-mhéin "goodwill"

An apostrophe (uaschamóg) is used to indicate an omitted vowel in the following cases:

  • the prepositions de "from" and do "to" both become d' before a vowel or ⟨fh⟩ + vowel, as in Thit sí d'each "She fell from a horse" and Tabhair d'fhear an tí é "Give it to the landlord"
  • the possessive pronouns mo "my" and do "your (singular)" become m' and d' before a vowel or ⟨fh⟩ + vowel, as in m'óige "my youth", d'fhiacail "your tooth"
  • the preverbal particle do becomes d' before a vowel or ⟨fh⟩ + vowel, as in d'ardaigh mé "I raised", d'fhanfadh sé "he would wait"
  • the copular particle ba becomes b' before a vowel or ⟨fh⟩ + vowel, as in B'ait liom é sin "I found that odd" and b'fhéidir "maybe". However, ba is used before the pronouns é, í, iad, as in Ba iad na ginearáil a choinnigh an chumhacht "It was the generals who kept the power"

Capitalisation[edit]

Bilingual sign in Ireland. The eclipsis of ⟨P⟩ to ⟨bP⟩ uses lowercase in an otherwise all-caps text.

Capitalisation rules are similar to English. However, a prefixed letter remains in lowercase when the base initial is capitalised (an tSín "China"). For text written in all caps, the prefixed letter is kept in lowercase, or small caps (STAIR NA HÉIREANN "THE HISTORY OF IRELAND").[7] An initial capital is used for:[8]

  • Start of sentences
  • Names of people, places (except the words an, na, de),[9] languages ,and adjectives of people and places (Micheál Ó Murchú "Michael Murphy"; Máire Mhac an tSaoi "Mary McEntee"; de Búrca "Burke"; Sliabh na mBan "Slievenamon"; Fraincis "French"; bia Iodálach "Italian food")
  • Names of months, weeks and feast-days (Meán Fómhair "September"; an Luan "Monday"; Oíche Nollag "Christmas Eve")
  • "day" (Dé Luain "on Monday")
  • Definite titles[10]

Abbreviations[edit]

Most Irish abbreviations in are straightforward, e.g. leathanachlch. ("page → p.") and mar shamplam.sh. ("exempli gratia (for example) → e.g."), but two that require explanation are: eadhon.i. ("that is → i.e.") and agus araile⁊rl./srl. ("et cetera (and so forth) → &c./etc."). Like ⟨th⟩ in English, ⟨ú⟩ follows an ordinal numeral, e.g. Is é Lá Fheile Phádraig an 17ú lá den Márta "St. Patrick’s day is the 17th [day] of March".

Spelling reform[edit]

The literary Classical Irish which survived till the 17th century was archaic; the first attempt at simplification was not until 1639.[11] The spelling represented a dialect continuum including distinctions lost in all surviving dialects by the Gaelic revival of the late 19th century.

The idea of a spelling reform, linked to the use of Roman or Gaelic type, was controversial in the early decades of the 20th century.[12] The Irish Texts Society's 1904 Irish-English dictionary by Patrick S. Dinneen used traditional spellings.[12] After the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, all Acts of the Oireachtas were translated into Irish, initially using Dinneen's spellings, with a list of simplifications accumulating over the years.[12] When Éamon de Valera became President of the Executive Council after the 1932 election, policy reverted to older spellings, which were used in the enrolled text of the 1937 Constitution.[12] In 1941, de Valera decided to publish a "popular edition" of the Constitution with simplified spelling and established a committee of experts, which failed to agree on recommendations.[12][13] Instead, the Oireachtas' own translation service prepared a booklet, Litriú na Gaeilge: Lámhleabhar an Chaighdeáin Oifigiúil, published in 1945.[13]

Some pre-reform spellings criticised by T. F. O'Rahilly and their modern forms include:[12] beirbhiughadhbeiriú, imthightheimithe, faghbháilfáil, urradhasurrús, filidheachtfilíocht.

The booklet was expanded in 1947,[14] and republished as An Caighdeán Oifigiúil "The Official Standard" in 1958, combined with the standard grammar of 1953.[15] It attracted initial criticism as unhistorical and artificial; some spellings fail to represent the pronunciation of some dialects, while others preserve letters unpronounced in any dialect.[15] Its status was reinforced by use in the civil service and as a guide for Tomás de Bhaldraithe's 1959 English–Irish dictionary and Niall Ó Dónaill's 1977 Irish–English dictionary.[15] A review of the written standard, including spelling, was announced in 2010, aiming to improve "simplicity, internal consistency, and logic".[16] The result was the 2017 update of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil.[17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • ^a Vowels with an acute accent are read as [á/é/í/ó/ú] fada "long [á/é/í/ó/ú]".
  • ^b -⟨th⟩- is ⟨t⟩ after ⟨d, gh, l, n, s, t, th⟩ (⟨gh, th⟩ are deleted before it is added). It is ⟨f⟩ after ⟨bh, mh⟩ which are deleted before it is added.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oireachtas, Houses of the (2 February 2018). "Publications by the Houses of the Oireachtas – Houses of the Oireachtas". www.oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  2. ^ "Celtic languages - Irish | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  3. ^ Ó Dónaill, Niall (2007). Tomás De Bhaldraithe (ed.). Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla. An Gúm. ISBN 978-1-85791-038-4. OCLC 670042711.
  4. ^ Learn Irish Rosetta Stone. Retrieved: 2020-06-21.
  5. ^ Graiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostaí. An Gúm. 22 September 1999. ISBN 9781857913279.
  6. ^ "Irish Orthography". www.nualeargais.ie. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  7. ^ Graiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostaí, §3.2
  8. ^ Graiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostaí, §3.1
  9. ^ Graiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostaí, §§ 3.1, 7.6, 10.2-10.3
  10. ^ Graiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostaí, §§ 3.1, 3.4
  11. ^ Crowley, Tony (2005). "Encoding Ireland: Dictionaries and Politics in Irish History". Éire-Ireland. 40 (3): 119–139. doi:10.1353/eir.2005.0017. ISSN 1550-5162. S2CID 154134330.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Ó Cearúil, Micheál; Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1999). "Script and Spelling". Bunreacht na hÉireann: a study of the Irish text (PDF). Dublin: Stationery Office. pp. 27–41. ISBN 0-7076-6400-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011.
  13. ^ a b Dáil debates Vol.99 No.17 p.3 7 March 1946
  14. ^ Litriú na Gaeilge – Lámhleabhar An Chaighdeáin Oifigiúil (in Ga). Dublin: Stationery Office / Oifig an tSoláthair. 1947. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  15. ^ a b c Ó Laoire, Muiris (1997). "The Standardization of Irish Spelling: an Overview". Journal of the Spelling Society. 22 (2): 19–23. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  16. ^ Central Translation Unit. "The Scope of the Process". Review of Caighdeán Oifigiúil na Gaeilge. Department of Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  17. ^ "Rannóg an Aistriúcháin > An Caighdeán Oifigiúil". In September 2014, members of the public and other interested parties were asked to make submissions regarding An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. An Advisory Committee was also established, which worked tirelessly for a year and a half to identify issues and to make recommendations. The result of this work is the new edition of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, published by the Houses of the Oireachtas Service in 2017.

Bibliography[edit]